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Title 29 – Labor–Volume 5

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Title 29 – Labor–Volume 5



SUBTITLE B – Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)

Part


chapter xvii – Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor

1902


Subtitle B – Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)

CHAPTER XVII – OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

PARTS 1900-1901 [RESERVED]

PART 1902 – STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS


Authority:Sec. 18, 84 Stat. 1608 (29 U.S.C. 667); Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912, Jan. 25, 2012).



Source:36 FR 20751, Oct. 29, 1971, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General

§ 1902.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) This part applies the provisions of section 18 of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (hereinafter referred to as the Act) relating to State plans for the development and enforcement of State occupational safety and health standards. The provisions of the part set forth the procedures by which the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health (hereinafter referred to as the Assistant Secretary) under a delegation of authority from the Secretary of Labor (Secretary’s Order No. 12-71, 36 FR 8754, May 12, 1971) will approve or reject State plans submitted to the Secretary. In the Act, Congress declared it to be its purpose and policy “* * * to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources” by, among other actions and programs, “* * * encouraging the State to assume the fullest responsibility for the administration and enforcement of their occupational safety and health laws. Section 18(a) of the Act is read as preventing any State agency or court from asserting jurisdiction under State law over any occupational safety or health issue with respect to which a Federal standard has been issued under section 6 of the Act. However, section 18(b) provides that any State that desires to assume responsibility for the development and enforcement therein of occupational safety and health standards relating to issues covered by corresponding standards promulgated under section 6 of the Act shall submit a plan for doing so to the Assistant Secretary.


(b) Section 18(c) of the Act sets out certain criteria that a plan which is submitted under section 18(b) of the Act must meet, either initially or upon modification, if it is to be approved. Foremost among these criteria is the requirement that the plan must provide for the development of State standards and the enforcement of such standards which are or will be at least as effective in providing safe and healthful employment and places of employment as the standards promulgated under section 6 of the Act which relate to the same issues.


(c)(1) If the Assistant Secretary approves a State plan submitted under section 18(b), he may, but is not required to, exercise his enforcement authority with respect to Federal standards corresponding to standards approved under the plan until he determines, in accordance with section 18(e) of the Act, on the basis of actual operations under the plan, that the State is applying the criteria of section 18(c) of the Act. The Assistant Secretary shall not make this determination (i) for at least 3 years after initial approval of the plan, and (ii) in the case of a developmental plan approved under § 1902.2(b), until the State has completed all the steps specified in its plan which are designed to make it at least as effective as the Federal program and the Assistant Secretary has had at least 1 year in which to evaluate the program on the basis of actual operations. After the determination that the State is applying the criteria of section 18(c) of the Act, the Assistant Secretary’s enforcement authority shall not apply with respect to any occupational safety or health issue covered by the plan. Notwithstanding plan approval and a determination under section 18(e) that the section 18(c) criteria are being followed, the Assistant Secretary shall make a continuing evaluation, as provided in section 18(f) of the Act, of the manner in which the State is carrying out the plan.


(2) Federal enforcement authority which must be retained by the Assistant Secretary until actual operations prove the State plan to be at least as effective as the Federal program, will be exercised to the degree necessary to assure occupational safety and health. Factors to be considered in determining the level of Federal effort during this period include:


(i) Whether the plan is developmental (i.e., approved under § 1902.2(b)) or complete (i.e., approved under § 1902.2 (a)).


(ii) Results of evaluations conducted by the Assistant Secretary.


(3) Whenever the Assistant Secretary determines, after giving notice and affording the State an opportunity for a hearing, that in the administration of the State plan there is a failure to comply substantially with any provision of the plan or any assurance contained therein, he shall withdraw approval of such plan in whole or in part, and upon notice the State shall cease operations under any disapproved plan or part thereof, except that it will be permitted to retain jurisdiction as to any case commenced before withdrawal of approval whenever the issues involved do not relate to the reasons for the withdrawal of the plan.


(4) A determination of approval of a State plan under section 18(e) does not affect the authority and responsibility of the Assistant Secretary to enforce Federal standards covering issues not included under the State plan.


(d) The policy of the Act is to encourage the assumption by the States of the fullest responsibility for the development and enforcement of their own occupational safety and health standards. This assumption of responsibility is considered to include State development and enforcement of standards on as many occupational safety and health issues as possible. To these ends, the Assistant Secretary intends to cooperate with the States so that they can obtain approval of plans for the development and enforcement of State standards which are or will be at least as effective as the Federal standards and enforcement.


(e) After the Assistant Secretary has approved a plan, he may approve one or more grants under section 23(g) of the Act to assist the State in administering and enforcing its program for occupational safety and health in accordance with appropriate instructions or procedures to be promulgated by the Assistant Secretary.


[36 FR 20751, Oct. 29, 1971, as amended at 61 FR 9230, Mar. 7, 1996]


§ 1902.2 General policies.

(a) Policy. The Assistant Secretary will approve a State plan which provides for an occupational safety and health program with respect to covered issues that in his judgment meets or will meet the criteria set forth in § 1902.3. Included among these criteria is the requirement that the State plan provide for the development and enforcement of standards relating to issues covered by the plan which are or will be at least as effective in providing safe and healthful employment and places of employment as standards promulgated and enforced under section 6 of the Act on the same issues. In determining whether a State plan satisfies the requirement of effectiveness, the Assistant Secretary will measure the plan against the indices of effectiveness set forth in § 1902.4.


(b) Developmental plan. A State plan for an occupational safety and health program may be approved although, upon submission it does not fully meet the criteria set forth in § 1902.3, if it includes satisfactory assurances by the State that it will take the necessary steps to bring the State program into conformity with these criteria within the 3-year period immediately following the commencement of the plan’s operation. In such case, the State plan shall include the specific actions it proposes to take and a time schedule for their accomplishment not to exceed 3 years, at the end of which the State plan will meet the criteria in § 1902.3. A developmental plan shall include the date or dates within which intermediate and final action will be accomplished. If necessary program changes require legislative action by a State, a copy of a bill or a draft of legislation that will be or has been proposed for enactment shall be submitted, accompanied by (1) a statement of the Governor’s support of the legislation and (2) a statement of legal opinion that the proposed legislation will meet the requirements of the Act and this part in a manner consistent with the State’s constitution and laws. On the basis of the State’s submission the Assistant Secretary will approve the plan if he finds that there is a reasonable expectation that the State plan will meet the criteria in § 1902.3 within the indicated 3-year period. In such case, the Assistant Secretary shall not make a determination under section 18(e) of the Act that a State is fully applying the criteria in § 1902.3 until the State has completed all the developmental steps specified in its plan which are designed to make it at least as effective as the Federal program, and the Assistant Secretary has had at least 1 year to evaluate the plan on the basis of actual operations. If at the end of 3 years from the date of commencement of the plan’s development, the State is found by the Assistant Secretary, after affording the State notice and opportunity for a hearing, not to have substantially completed the developmental steps of the plan, the Assistant Secretary shall withdraw the approval of the plan.


(c) Scope of State plan. (1) A State plan may cover any occupational safety and health issue with respect to which a Federal standard has been promulgated under section 6 of the Act. An “issue” is considered to be an industrial, occupational or hazard grouping which is at least as comprehensive as a corresponding grouping contained in (i) one or more sections in subpart B or R of part 1910 of this chapter, or (ii) one or more of the remaining subparts of part 1910. However, for cause shown the Assistant Secretary may approve a plan relating to other industrial, occupational or hazard groupings if he determines that the plan is administratively practicable and that such groupings would not conflict with the purposes of the Act.


(2) Each State plan shall describe the occupational safety and health issue or issues and the State standard or standards applicable to each such issue or issues over which it desires to assume enforcement responsibility in terms of the corresponding Federal industrial, occupational or hazard groupings and set forth the reasons, supported with appropriate data, for any variations the State proposes from the coverage of Federal standards.


(3) The State plan shall apply to all employers and employees within the affected industry, occupational or hazard grouping unless the Assistant Secretary finds that the State has shown good cause why any group or groups of employers or employees should be excluded. Any employers or employees so excluded shall be covered by applicable Federal standards and enforcement provisions in the Act.


Subpart B – Criteria for State Plans

§ 1902.3 Specific criteria.

(a) General. A State plan must meet the specific criteria set forth in this section.


(b) Designation of State agency. (1) The State plan shall designate a State agency or agencies as the agency or agencies responsible for administering the plan throughout the State.


(2) The plan shall also describe the authority and responsibilities vested in such agency or agencies. The plan shall contain assurances that any other responsibilities of the designated agency shall not detract significantly from the resources and priorities assigned to administration of the plan.


(3) A State agency or agencies must be designated with overall responsibility for administering the plan throughout the State. However, political subdivisions of the State may have the responsibility and authority for the development and enforcement of standards, provided that the State agency or agencies are given adequate authority by statute, regulation, or agreement, to insure that the commitments of the State under the plan will be fulfilled.


(c) Standards. (1) The State plan shall include or provide for the development or adoption of, and contain assurances that the State will continue to develop or adopt, standards which are or will be at least as effective as those promulgated under section 6 of the Act. Indices of the effectiveness of standards and procedures for the development or adoption of standards against which the Assistant Secretary will measure the State plan in determining whether it is approvable are set forth in § 1902.4(b).


(2) The State plan shall not include standards for products distributed or used in interstate commerce which are different from Federal standards for such products unless such standards are required by compelling local conditions and do not unduly burden interstate commerce. This provision, reflecting section 18(c)(2) of the Act, is interpreted as not being applicable to customized products or parts not normally available on the open market, or to the optional parts or additions to products which are ordinarily available with such optional parts or additions. In situations where section 18(c)(2) is considered applicable, and provision is made for the adoption of product standards, the requirements of section 18(c)(2), as they relate to undue burden on interstate commerce, shall be treated as a condition subsequent in light of the facts and circumstances which may be involved.


(d) Enforcement. (1) The State plan shall provide a program for the enforcement of the State standards which is, or will be, at least as effective as that provided in the Act, and provide assurances that the State’s enforcement program will continue to be at least as effective as the Federal program. Indices of the effectiveness of a State’s enforcement plan against which the Assistant Secretary will measure the State plan in determining whether it is approvable are set forth in § 1902.4(c).


(2) The State plan shall require employers to comply with all applicable State occupational safety and health standards covered by the plan and all applicable rules issued thereunder, and employees to comply with all standards, rules, and orders applicable to their conduct.


(e) Right of entry and inspection. The State plan shall contain adequate assurance that inspectors will have a right to enter and inspect covered workplaces which is, or will be, at least as effective as that provided in section 8 of the Act. Where such entry or inspection is refused, the State agency or agencies shall have the authority, through appropriate legal process, to compel such entry and inspection.


(f) Prohibition against advance notice. The State plan shall contain a prohibition against advance notice of inspections. Any exceptions must be expressly authorized by the head of the designated agency or agencies or his representative and such exceptions may be no broader than those authorized under the Act and the rules published in part 1903 of this chapter relating to advance notice.


(g) Legal authority. The State plan shall contain satisfactory assurances that the designated agency or agencies have, or will have, the legal authority necessary for the enforcement of its standards.


(h) Personnel. The State plan shall provide assurance that the designated agency or agencies have, or will have, a sufficient number of adequately trained and qualified personnel necessary for the enforcement of the standards. For this purpose qualified personnel means persons employed on a merit basis, including all persons engaged in the development of standards and the administration of the State plan. Conformity with the Standards for a Merit System of Personnel Administration, 45 CFR part 70, issued by the Secretary of Labor, including any amendments thereto, and any standards prescribed by the U.S. Civil Service Commission pursuant to section 208 of the Intergovernmental Personnel Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-648; 84 Stat. 1915) modifying or superseding such standards, will be deemed to meet this requirement.


(i) Resources. The State plan shall contain satisfactory assurances through the use of budget, organizational description, and any other appropriate means that the State will devote adequate funds to the administration and enforcement of the program. The Assistant Secretary will make periodic evaluations of the adequacy of the State resources devoted to the plan.


(j) Employer records and reports. The State plan shall provide assurances that employers covered by the plan will maintain records and make reports to the Assistant Secretary in the same manner and to the same extent as if the plan were not in effect.


(k) State agency reports to the Assistant Secretary. The State plan shall provide assurances that the designated agency or agencies shall make such reasonable reports to the Assistant Secretary in such form and containing such information as he may from time to time require. The agency or agencies shall establish specific goals, consistent with the goals of the Act, including measures of performance, output and results which will determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the State program, and shall make periodic reports to the Assistant Secretary on the extent to which the State, in implementation of its plan, has attained these goals. Reports will also include data and information on the implementation of the specific inspection and voluntary compliance activities included within the State plan. Further, these reports shall contain such statistical information pertaining to work-related deaths, injuries, and illnesses in employments and places of employment covered by the plan as the Assistant Secretary may from time to time require.


(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0004)

[36 FR 20751, Oct. 29, 1971, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 80 FR 49901, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.4 Indices of effectiveness.

(a) General. In order to satisfy the requirements of effectiveness under § 1902.3 (c)(1) and (d)(1), the State plan shall:


(1) Establish the same standards, procedures, criteria and rules as have been established by the Assistant Secretary under the Act, or;


(2) Establish alternative standards, procedures, criteria, and rules which will be measured against each of the indices of effectiveness in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section to determine whether the alternatives are at least as effective as the Federal program with respect to the subject of each index. For each index the State must demonstrate by the presentation of factual or other appropriate information that its plan is or will be at least as effective as the Federal program.


(b) Standards. (1) The indices for measurement of a State plan with regard to standards follow in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. The Assistant Secretary will determine whether the State plan satisfies the requirements of effectiveness with regard to each index as provided in paragraph (a) of this section.


(2) The Assistant Secretary will determine whether the State plan:


(i) Provides for State standards with respect to specific issues which are or will be at least as effective as the standards promulgated under section 6 of the Act relating to the same issues. In the case of any State standards dealing with toxic materials or harmful physical agents, they should adequately assure, to the extent feasible, that no employee will suffer material impairment of health or functional capacity even if such employee has regular exposure to the hazard dealt with by such standard for the period of his working life, by such means as, in the development and promulgation of standards, obtaining the best available evidence through research, demonstrations, experiments, and experience under this and other safety and health laws.


(ii) Provides an adequate method to assure that its standards will continue to be at least as effective as Federal standards, including Federal standards relating to issues covered by the plan, which become effective subsequent to any approval of the plan.


(iii) Provides a procedure for the development and promulgation of standards which allows for the consideration of pertinent factual information and affords interested persons, including employees, employers and the public, an opportunity to participate in such processes, by such means as establishing procedures for consideration of expert technical knowledge, and providing interested persons, including employers, employees, recognized standards-producing organizations, and the public an opportunity to submit information requesting the development or promulgation of new standards or the modification or revocation of existing standards and to participate in any hearings. This index may also be satisfied by such means as the adoption of Federal standards, in which case the procedures at the Federal level before adoption of a standard under section 6 may be considered to meet the conditions of this index.


(iv) Provides authority for the granting of variances from State standards, upon application of an employer or employers which correspond to variances authorized under the Act, and for consideration of the views of interested parties, by such means as giving affected employees notice of each application and an opportunity to request and participate in hearings or other appropriate proceedings relating to applications for variances.


(v) Provides for prompt and effective standards setting actions for the protection of employees against new and unforseen hazards, by such means as the authority to promulgate emergency temporary standards.


(vi) Provides that State standards contain appropriate provision for the furnishing to employees of information regarding hazards in the workplace, including information about suitable precautions, relevant symptoms, and emergency treatment in case of exposure, by such means as labeling, posting, and, where appropriate, medical examination at no cost to employees, with the results of such examinations being furnished only to appropriate State officials and, if the employee so requests, to his physician.


(vii) Provides that State standards, where appropriate, contain specific provision for the protection of employees from exposure to hazards, by such means as containing appropriate provision for use of suitable protective equipment and for control or technological procedures with respect to such hazards, including monitoring or measuring such exposure.


(c) Enforcement. (1) The indices for measurement of a State plan with regard to enforcement follow in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. The Assistant Secretary will determine whether the State plan satisfies the requirements of effectiveness with regard to each index as provided in paragraph (a) of this section.


(2) The Assistant Secretary will determine whether the State plan:


(i) Provides for inspection of covered workplaces in the State, including inspections in response to complaints, where there are reasonable grounds to believe a hazard exists, in order to assure, so far as possible, safe and healthful working conditions for covered employees, by such means as providing for inspections under conditions such as those provided in section 8 of the Act.


(ii) Provides an opportunity for employees and their representatives, before, during, and after inspections, to bring possible violations to the attention of the State agency with enforcement responsibility in order to aid inspections, by such means as affording a representative of the employer and a representative authorized by employees an opportunity to accompany the State representative during the physical inspection of the workplace, or where there is no authorized representative, by providing for consultation by the State representative with a reasonable number of employees.


(iii) Provides for the notification of employees, or their representatives, when the State decides not to take compliance action as a result of violations alleged by such employees or their representatives and further provides for informal review of such decisions, by such means as written notification of decisions not to take compliance action and the reasons therefor, and procedures for informal review of such decisions and written statements of the disposition of such review.


(iv) Provides that employees be informed of their protections and obligations under the Act, including the provisions of applicable standards, by such means as the posting of notices or other appropriate sources of information.


(v) Provides necessary and appropriate protection to an employee against discharge or discrimination in terms and conditions of employment because he has filed a complaint, testified, or otherwise acted to exercise rights under the Act for himself or others, by such means as providing for appropriate sanctions against the employer for such actions and by providing for the withholding, upon request, of the names of complainants from the employer.


(vi) Provides that employees have access to information on their exposure to toxic materials or harmful physical agents and receive prompt information when they have been or are being exposed to such materials or agents in concentrations or at levels in excess of those prescribed by the applicable safety and health standards, by such means as the observation by employees of the monitoring or measuring of such materials or agents, employee access to the records of such monitoring or measuring, prompt notification by an employer to any employee who has been or is being exposed to such agents or materials in excess of the applicable standards, and information to such employee of corrective action being taken.


(vii) Provides procedures for the prompt restraint or elimination of any conditions or practices in covered places of employment which could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm immediately or before the imminence of such danger can be eliminated through the enforcement procedures otherwise provided for in the plan, by such means as immediately informing employees and employers of such hazards, taking steps to obtain immediate abatement of the hazard by the employer, and where appropriate, authority to initiate necessary legal proceedings to require such abatement.


(viii) Provides adequate safeguards to protect trade secrets, by such means as limiting access to such trade secrets to authorized State officers or employees concerned with carrying out the plan and by providing for the issuance of appropriate orders to protect the confidentiality of trade secrets.


(ix) Provides that the State agency (or agencies) will have the necessary legal authority for the enforcement of standards, by such means as provisions for appropriate compulsory process to obtain necessary evidence or testimony in connection with inspection and enforcement proceedings.


(x) Provides for prompt notice to employers and employees when an alleged violation of standards has occurred, including the proposed abatement requirements, by such means as the issuance of a written citation to the employer and posting of the citation at or near the site of the violation; further provides for advising the employer of any proposed sanctions, by such means as a notice to the employer by certified mail within a reasonable time of any proposed sanctions.


(xi) Provides effective sanctions against employers who violate State standards and orders, such as those set forth in the Act, and in 29 CFR 1903.15(d).


(xii) Provides for an employer to have the right of review of violations alleged by the State, abatement periods, and proposed penalties and for employees or their representatives to have an opportunity to participate in review proceedings, by such means as providing for administrative or judicial review, with an opportunity for a full hearing on the issues.


(xiii) Provides that the State will undertake programs to encourage voluntary compliance by employers and employees by such means as conducting training and consultation with employers and employees.


(d) State and local government employee programs. (1) Each approved State plan must contain satisfactory assurances that the State will, to the extent permitted by its law, establish and maintain an effective and comprehensive occupational safety and health program applicable to all employees of public agencies of the State and its political subdivisions which program is as effective as the standards contained in an approved plan.


(2) This criterion for approved State plans is interpreted to require the following elements with regard to coverage, standards, and enforcement:


(i) Coverage. The program must cover all public employees over which the State has legislative authority under its constitution. The language in section 18(c)(6) which only requires such coverage to the extent permitted by the State’s law specifically recognizes the situation where local governments exclusively control their own employees, such as under certain home rule charters.


(ii) Standards. The program must be as effective as the standards contained in the approved plan applicable to private employers. Thus, the same criteria and indices of standards effectiveness contained in §§ 1902.3(c) and 1902.4(a) and (b) would apply to the public employee program. Where hazards are unique to public employment, all appropriate indices of effectiveness, such as those dealing with temporary emergency standards, development of standards, employee information, variances, and protective equipment, would be applicable to standards for such hazards.


(iii) Enforcement. Although section 18(c)(6) of the Act requires State public employee programs to be as effective as standards contained in the State plan, minimum enforcement elements are required to ensure an effective and comprehensive public employee program as follows:


(A) Regular inspections of workplaces, including inspections in response to valid employee complaints;


(B) A means for employees to bring possible violations to the attention of inspectors;


(C) Notification to employees, or their representatives, of decisions that no violations are found as a result of complaints by such employees or their representatives, and informal review of such decisions;


(D) A means of informing employees of their protections and obligations under the Act;


(E) Protection for employees against discharge of discrimination because of the exercise of rights under the Act;


(F) Employee access to information on their exposure to toxic materials or harmful physical agents and prompt notification to employees when they have been or are being exposed to such materials or agents at concentrations or levels above those specified by the applicable standards;


(G) Procedures for the prompt restraint or elimination of imminent danger situations;


(H) A means of promptly notifying employers and employees when an alleged violation has occurred, including the proposed abatement requirements;


(I) A means of establishing timetables for the correction of violations;


(J) A program for encouraging voluntary compliance; and


(K) Such other additional enforcement provisions under State law as may have been included in the State plan.


(3) In accordance with § 1902.3(b)(3), the State agency or agencies designated to administer the plan throughout the State must retain overall responsibility for the entire plan. Political subdivisions may have the responsibility and authority for the development and enforcement of standards: Provided, that the designated State agency or agencies have adequate authority by statute, regulation, or agreement to insure that the commitments of the State under the plan will be fulfilled.


(e) Additional indices. Upon his own motion or after consideration of data, views and arguments received in any proceeding held under subpart C of this part, the Assistant Secretary may prescribe additional indices for any State plan which shall be in furtherance of the purpose of this part, as expressed in § 1902.1.


[36 FR 20751, Oct. 29, 1971, as amended at 80 FR 49901, Aug. 18, 2015; 81 FR 43452, July 1, 2016]


§ 1902.5 Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968.

This part shall be construed in a manner consistent with the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4201-4233), and any regulations pursuant thereto.


§ 1902.6 Consultation with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

The Assistant Secretary will consult, as appropriate, with the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health with regard to plans submitted by the States under this part.


§ 1902.7 Injury and illness recording and reporting requirements.

(a) Injury and illness recording and reporting requirements promulgated by State-Plan States must be substantially identical to those in 29 CFR part 1904 on recording and reporting occupational injuries and illnesses. State-Plan States must promulgate recording and reporting requirements that are the same as the Federal requirements for determining which injuries and illnesses will be entered into the records and how they are entered. All other injury and illness recording and reporting requirements that are promulgated by State-Plan States may be more stringent than, or supplemental to, the Federal requirements, but, because of the unique nature of the national recordkeeping program, States must consult with OSHA and obtain approval of such additional or more stringent reporting and recording requirements to ensure that they will not interfere with uniform reporting objectives. State-Plan States must extend the scope of their regulation to State and local government employers.


(b) A State may not grant a variance to the injury and illness recording and reporting requirements for private sector employers. Such variances may only be granted by Federal OSHA to assure nationally consistent workplace injury and illness statistics. A State may only grant a variance to the injury and illness recording and reporting requirements for State or local government entities in that State after obtaining approval from Federal OSHA.


(c) A State must recognize any variance issued by Federal OSHA.


(d) As provided in section 18(c)(7) of the Act, State Plan States must adopt requirements identical to those in 29 CFR 1904.41 in their recordkeeping and reporting regulations as enforceable State requirements. The data collected by OSHA as authorized by § 1904.41 will be made available to the State Plan States. Nothing in any State plan shall affect the duties of employers to comply with § 1904.41.


[80 FR 49902, Aug. 18, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 29694, May 12, 2016]


§ 1902.8 Variations and variances.

(a) The power of the Secretary of Labor under section 16 of the Act to provide reasonable limitations and variations, tolerances, and exemptions to and from any or all provisions of the Act as he may find necessary and proper to avoid serious impairment of the national defense is reserved.


(b) No action by a State under a plan shall be inconsistent with action by the Secretary under this section of the Act.


(c) Where a State standard is identical to a Federal standard addressed to the same hazard, an employer or group of employers seeking a temporary or permanent variance from such standard, or portion thereof, to be applicable to employment or places of employment in more than one State, including at least one State with an approved plan, may elect to apply to the Assistant Secretary for such variance under the provisions of 29 CFR part 1905.


(d) Actions taken by the Assistant Secretary with respect to such application for a variance, such as interim orders, with respect thereto, the granting, denying, or issuing any modification or extension thereof, will be deemed prospectively an authoritative interpretation of the employer or employers’ compliance obligations with regard to the State standard, or portion thereof, identical to the Federal standard, or portion thereof, affected by the action in the employment or places of employment covered by the application.


(e) Nothing herein shall affect the option of an employer or employers seeking a temporary or permanent variance with applicability to employment or places of employment in more than one State to apply for such variance either to the Assistant Secretary or the individual State agencies involved. However, the filing with, as well as granting, denial, modification, or revocation of a variance request or interim order by, either authority (Federal or State) shall preclude any further substantive consideration of such application on the same material facts for the same employment or place of employment by the other authority.


(f) Nothing herein shall affect either Federal or State authority and obligations to cite for noncompliance with standards in employment or places of employment where no interim order, variance, or modification or extension thereof, granted under State or Federal law applies, or to cite for noncompliance with such Federal or State variance action.


[80 FR 49902, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.9 Requirements for approval of State posters.

(a)(1) In order to inform employees of their protections and obligations under applicable State law, of the issues not covered by State law, and of the continuing availability of Federal monitoring under section 18(f) of the Act, States with approved plans shall develop and require employers to post a State poster meeting the requirements set out in paragraph (a)(5) of this section.


(2) Such poster shall be substituted for the Federal poster under section 8(c)(1) of the Act and § 1903.2 of this chapter where the State attains operational status for the enforcement of State standards as defined in § 1954.3(b) of this chapter.


(3) Where a State has distributed its poster and has enabling legislation as defined in § 1954.3(b)(1) of this chapter but becomes nonoperational under the provisions of § 1954.3(f)(1) of this chapter because of failure to be at least as effective as the Federal program, the approved State poster may, at the discretion of the Assistant Secretary, continue to be substituted for the Federal poster in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.


(4) A State may, for good cause shown, request, under 29 CFR part 1953, approval of an alternative to a State poster for informing employees of their protections and obligations under the State plans, provided such alternative is consistent with the Act, § 1902.4(c)(2)(iv) and applicable State law. In order to qualify as a substitute for the Federal poster under this paragraph (a), such alternative must be shown to be at least as effective as the Federal poster requirements in informing employees of their protections and obligations and address the items listed in paragraph (a)(5) of this section.


(5) In developing the poster, the State shall address but not be limited to the following items:


(i) Responsibilities of the State, employers and employees;


(ii) The right of employees or their representatives to request workplace inspections;


(iii) The right of employees making such requests to remain anonymous;


(iv) The right of employees to participate in inspections;


(v) Provisions for prompt notice to employers and employees when alleged violations occur;


(vi) Protection for employees against discharge or discrimination for the exercise of their rights under Federal and State law;


(vii) Sanctions;


(viii) A means of obtaining further information on State law and standards and the address of the State agency;


(ix) The right to file complaints with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration about State program administration;


(x) A list of the issues as defined in § 1902.2(c) which will not be covered by State plan;


(xi) The address of the Regional Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration; and


(xii) Such additional employee protection provisions and obligations under State law as may have been included in the approved State plan.


(b) Posting of the State poster shall be recognized as compliance with the posting requirements in section 8(c)(1) of the Act and § 1903.2 of this chapter, provided that the poster has been approved in accordance with subpart B of part 1953 of this chapter. Continued Federal recognition of the State poster is also subject to pertinent findings of effectiveness with regard to the State program under 29 CFR part 1954.


[80 FR 49902, Aug. 18, 2015]


Subpart C – Procedures for Submission, Approval and Rejection of State Plans

§ 1902.10 Submission.

(a) An authorized representative of the State agency or agencies responsible for administering the plan shall submit one copy of the plan to the appropriate Assistant Regional Director of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. The State plan shall include supporting papers conforming to the requirements specified in the subpart B of this part, and the State occupational safety and health standards to be included in the plan, including a copy of any specific or enabling State laws and regulations relating to such standards. If any of the representations concerning the requirements of subpart B of this part are dependent upon any judicial or administrative interpretations of the State standards or enforcement provisions, the State shall furnish citations to any pertinent judicial decisions and the text of any pertinent administrative decisions.


(b) Upon receipt of the State plan the Assistant Regional Director shall make a preliminary examination of the plan. If his examination reveals any defect in the plan, the Assistant Regional Director shall offer assistance to the State agency and shall provide the agency an opportunity to cure such defect. After his preliminary examination, and after affording the State agency such opportunity to cure defects, the Assistant Regional Director shall submit the plan to the Assistant Secretary.


(c) Upon receipt of the plan from the Assistant Regional Director, the Assistant Secretary shall examine the plan and supporting materials. If the examination discloses no cause for rejecting the plan, the Assistant Secretary shall follow the procedure prescribed in § 1902.11. If the examination discloses cause for rejection of the plan, the Assistant Secretary shall follow the procedure prescribed in § 1902.17.


[36 FR 20751, Oct. 29, 1971, as amended at 80 FR 49903, Aug. 18, 2015]


Procedure for Proposed or Possible Approval of Plan

§ 1902.11 General notice.

(a) Upon receipt of a State plan submitted by an Assistant Regional Director under § 1902.10 whenever the Assistant Secretary proposes to approve the plan, or to give notice that such approval is an issue before him, he shall publish in the Federal Register a notice meeting the requirements of the remaining paragraphs of this section. No later than 5 days following the publication of the notice in the Federal Register, the applying State agency shall publish, or cause to be published, within the State reasonable notice containing the same information.


(b) The notice shall indicate the submission of the plan and its contents, and any proposals, subjects, or issues involved.


(c) The notice shall provide that the plan, or copies thereof, shall be available for inspection and copying at the office of the Director, Office of State Programs, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, office of the Assistant Regional Director in whose region the State is located, and an office of the State which shall be designated by the State for this purpose.


(d) The notice shall afford interested persons an opportunity to submit in writing, data, views, and arguments on the proposal, subjects, or issues involved within 30 days after publication of the notice in the Federal Register. Thereafter the written comments received or copies thereof shall be available for public inspection and copying at the office of the Director, Office of State Programs, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, office of the Assistant Regional Director in whose region the State is located, and an office of the State which shall be designated by the State for this purpose.


(e) Upon his own initiative, the Assistant Secretary may give notice of an informal or formal hearing affording an opportunity for oral comments concerning the plan.


(f) In the event no notice of hearing is provided under paragraph (e) of this section it shall be provided that any interested person may request an informal hearing concerning the proposed plan, or any part thereof, whenever particularized written objections thereto are filed within 30 days following publication of the notice in the Federal Register. If the Assistant Secretary finds that substantial objections have been filed, he shall afford a formal or informal hearing on the subjects and issues involved under § 1902.13 or § 1902.14, or shall commence a proceeding under § 1902.17.


[36 FR 20751, Oct. 29, 1971, as amended at 80 FR 49903, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.12 Opportunity for modifications and clarifications.

The Assistant Secretary may afford the State an opportunity to modify or clarify its plan on the basis of any comments received under § 1902.11 or § 1902.13, before commencing a proceeding to reject the plan. In this connection, the State may informally discuss any issues raised by such comments with the staff of the Office of Federal and State Operations. The Assistant Secretary may afford an additional opportunity for public comment, particularly when such an opportunity would not unduly delay final action on the plan and when the comments could be expected to elicit new relevant matter.


[38 FR 12605, May 14, 1973]


§ 1902.13 Informal hearing.

Any informal hearing shall be legislative in type. The procedures for informal hearings may take a variety of forms. The appropriateness of any particular form will turn largely upon the proposals, subjects, or issues involved. The rules of procedure for each hearing shall be published with the notice thereof.


§ 1902.14 Formal hearing.

Any formal hearing provided for under § 1902.11 (e) and (f) shall be commenced upon the publication of reasonable notice in the Federal Register and similar notice by the State. The hearing shall conform with the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 556 and 557. The terms for filing proposed findings and conclusions and exceptions to any tentative decision, or objections to a tentative decision, shall be set forth in the notice.


§ 1902.15 Certification of the record of a hearing.

Upon completion of any formal or informal hearing, the transcript thereof, together with written submissions, exhibits filed during the hearing, and any post-hearing presentations shall be certified by the officer presiding at the hearing to the Assistant Secretary.


§ 1902.16 Partial approval of State plans.

(a) The Assistant Secretary may partially approve a plan under this part whenever:


(1) The portion to be approved meets the requirements of this part;


(2) The plan covers more than one occupational safety and health issue; and


(3) Portions of the plan to be approved are reasonably separable from the remainder of the plan.


(b) Whenever the Assistant Secretary approves only a portion of a State plan, he may give notice to the State of an opportunity to show cause why a proceeding should not be commenced for disapproval of the remainder of the plan under subpart C of this part before commencing such a proceeding.


[80 FR 49903, Aug. 18, 2015]


Procedure for Proposed or Possible Rejection of Plan

§ 1902.17 The proceeding.

Whenever as a result of (a) an initial examination of a plan, or (b) written or oral comments concerning a plan submitted in an informal rulemaking proceeding concerning a proposed approval of a plan or any subject or issue concerning the plan, the Assistant Secretary proposes to reject a plan or rejection remains in issue for any reason, he shall follow the procedures prescribed in the remaining sections of this subpart.


§ 1902.18 Previous hearing or other opportunity for comment on plan.

(a) Whenever an informal hearing has been held under §§ 1902.11 and 1902.13, any evidence submitted in such a hearing shall be considered and may be relied upon whenever it is found that no party will be prejudiced thereby because


(1) Of a lack of an opportunity for cross-examination afforded in the informal hearing on the issues involved, or


(2) The veracity and demeanor of witnesses are not important with respect to the type of evidence involved (e.g., extensive technical or statistical data), or


(3) For any other reason.


(b) Any written comments received in response to a notice issued under § 1902.11 shall be a part of the record of the proceeding.


(c) Whenever a formal hearing has been held under § 1902.14 the Assistant Secretary shall hold no additional hearing, and shall proceed to issue a tentative decision under § 1902.21.


§ 1902.19 Notice of hearing.

(a) Whenever the Assistant Secretary has issued no previous notice concerning the plan, or only informal rule making proceedings have been conducted concerning the plan, the Assistant Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register an appropriate notice concerning the plan and provide an opportunity for formal hearing and decision on the possible rejection of the plan and on any subsidiary issues. The notice also shall set forth such rules as may be necessary so as to assure compliance with 5 U.S.C. 556 and 557 in the conduct of the proceeding. The time for filing proposed findings and conclusions and exceptions to any tentative decision shall be set forth in the notice.


(b) Not later than 5 days following the publication of the notice in the Federal Register, required by paragraph (a) of this section, the applying State agency shall publish, or cause to be published, within the State reasonable notice containing the same information.


Decisions

§ 1902.20 Decision following informal proceeding.

(a) This section deals with a situation where the Assistant Secretary has


(1) Afforded interested persons an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments concerning a proposal, subject, or issue concerning a plan; or


(2) Has in addition provided an informal hearing concerning a proposal, subject, or issue concerning a plan.


(b)(1)(i) After consideration of all relevant information which has been presented, if the Assistant Secretary approves a plan he shall issue a decision to that effect.


(ii) In the event the plan is approved under § 1902.2(b), the decision shall state that the plan does not fully meet the criteria set forth in § 1902.3, and shall summarize the schedule and any other measures for bringing the plan up to the level of such criteria.


(iii) The decision shall also reflect the Assistant Secretary’s intention as to continued Federal enforcement of Federal standards in areas covered by the plan. Provisions for continued Federal enforcement shall take into consideration:


(a) Whether the plan is approved under § 1902.2(a) or § 1902.2(b);


(b) The schedule for coming up to Federal standards in any § 1902.2(b) plan; and


(c) Any other relevant matters.


(2) After consideration of all relevant information contained in any written or oral comments received in any informal proceeding, if the Assistant Secretary proposes to disapprove a plan, or the disposition of a subject or issue permits the possible disapproval of a plan, he shall publish a notice to that effect, and commence a proceeding meeting the requirements of § 1902.19.


§ 1902.21 Tentative decision following formal proceeding.

(a) On the basis of the whole record of any hearing held under § 1902.14 or § 1902.19, the Assistant Secretary shall issue a tentative decision either approving or disapproving the plan. The tentative decision shall include a statement of the findings and conclusions and reasons or bases therefor on all material issues of fact, law, or discretion which have been presented. The tentative decision shall be published in the Federal Register.


(b) The State agency and other interested persons participating in the hearing may waive the tentative decision. In such event the Assistant Secretary shall issue a final decision under § 1902.22.


§ 1902.22 Final decision following formal proceeding.

(a) Except when interested persons participating in the hearing have waived the tentative decision under § 1902.21(b) interested persons participating in the hearing shall have an opportunity to file exceptions to a tentative decision and objections to such exceptions within periods of time to be specified in the tentative decision. An original and four copies of any exception or objections shall be filed.


(b)(1) Thereafter the Assistant Secretary shall issue a final decision ruling upon each exception and objection filed. The final decision shall be published in the Federal Register.


(2) Any final decision approving a plan shall contain the provisions prescribed in § 1902.20(b)(1)(iii) concerning Federal enforcement in areas covered by the plan.


§ 1902.23 Publication of decisions.

All decisions approving or disapproving a plan shall be published in the Federal Register.


Subpart D – Procedures for Determinations Under section 18(e) of the Act


Source:40 FR 54782, Nov. 26, 1975, unless otherwise noted.

General

§ 1902.30 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains procedures and criteria under which the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health (hereinafter referred to as the Assistant Secretary) under a delegation of authority from the Secretary of Labor (Secretary’s Order 12-71, 36 FR 8754) will make his determination on whether to grant final approval to State plans in accordance with the provisions of section 18(e) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 667) (hereinafter referred to as the Act).


§ 1902.31 Definitions.

As used in this subpart, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:


Act means the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.)


Affirmative 18(e) determination means an affirmative determination under section 18(e) of the Act that the State plan or any modification thereof, is in actual operation meeting the criteria and indices of section 18(c) of the Act and subpart B of this part so as to warrant the withdrawal of the application of discretionary Federal enforcement and standards authority from issues covered by the plan, or by any modification thereof.


Assistant Regional Director means the Assistant Regional Director for Occupational Safety and Health for the region in which a State is located.


Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.


Commencement of a case under section 18(e) of the Act means, for the purpose of retaining Federal jurisdiction despite an affirmative 18(e) determination, the issuance of a citation, and in the case of an imminent danger, the initiation of enforcement proceedings under section 13 of the Act.


Commencement of plan operations means the beginning of operations under a plan following the approval of the plan by the Assistant Secretary and in no case may be later than the effective date of the initial funding grant provided under section 23(g) of the Act.


Development step includes, but is not limited to, those items listed in the published developmental schedule, or any revisions thereof, for each plan. A developmental step also includes those items specified in the plan as approved under section 18(c) of the Act for completion by the State, as well as those items which under the approval decision were subject to evaluations and changes deemed necessary as a result thereof to make the State program at least as effective as the Federal program within the 3 years developmental period. (See 29 CFR 1953.4(a)).


Initial approval means approval of a State plan, or any modification thereof, under section 18(c) of the Act and subpart C of this part.


Person means any individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, legal representative, organized group of individuals, or any agency, authority or instrumentality of the United States or of a State.


Separable portion of a plan for purposes of an 18(e) determination generally means more than one industrial, occupational or hazard grouping as defined in § 1902.2(c)(1) which is administratively practicable and reasonably separable from the remainder of the plan. (See 29 CFR 1952.6(a).)


[40 FR 54782, Nov. 26, 1975, as amended at 67 FR 60128, Sept. 25, 2002; 80 FR 49903, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.32 General policies.

(a) Sections 18 (e) and (f) of the Act provide for the continuing evaluation and monitoring of State plans approved under section 18(c) of the Act. The Assistant Secretary’s decision whether to grant an affirmative 18(e) determination will be based, in part, on the results of these evaluations. Section 18(e) provides that a period of not less than 3 years shall have passed before the Assistant Secretary may make a determination that the State program in actual operations is applying the criteria of section 18(c) of the Act. In the case of a developmental plan, § 1902.2(b) of this part requires that the Assistant Secretary must have at least one year in which to evaluate the plan’s actual operations following the completion of all developmental steps specified in the plan. Thus, to be considered for an 18(e) determination, at least three years shall have passed following commencement of operations after the initial approval of a State’s occupational safety and health plan by the Assistant Secretary. In the case of a developmental plan, at least one year shall have passed following the completion of all developmental steps, but, in any event, at least three years must have passed following initial approval of the plan before discretionary Federal enforcement authority and standards may be withdrawn from issues covered by an approved plan.


(b) In making an 18(e) determination, the Assistant Secretary will determine if actual operations under a State’s plan, or under a separable portion of the plan, indicate that the State is applying the criteria of section 18(c) of the Act and the indices of effectiveness of subpart B of this part in a manner which renders operations under the plan “at least as effective as” operations under the Federal program in providing safe and healthful employment and places of employment within the State. In making this determination, the Assistant Secretary may consider such information which he deems appropriate for an informed decision.


(c) If the Assistant Secretary makes an affirmative 18(e) determination, the Federal enforcement provisions of sections 5(a) (2), 8 (except for the purposes of continuing evaluations under section 18(f) of the Act), 9, 10, 13 and 17 and standards promulgated under section 6 of the Act shall not apply with respect to those occupational safety and health issues covered under the plan which have been given an affirmative 18(e) determination. However, the Assistant Secretary may retain jurisdiction over proceedings commenced under sections 9, 10 and 13 of the Act before the date of his determination. In addition, the Assistant Secretary shall retain his jurisdiction under the anti-discrimination provisions of section 11(c) of the Act.


(d) If the Assistant Secretary determines that a State plan, or any portion thereof, has not met the criteria for an 18(e) determination, he shall retain his authority under the enforcement provisions of sections 5(a) (2), 8, 9, 10, 13, and 17 and his standards authority under section 6 of the Act in the issues found ineligible for an 18(e) determination. In addition, his decision may result in the commencement of proceedings for withdrawal of approval of the plan, or any separable portion thereof, under 29 CFR part 1955.


(e) Once a State’s plan, or any modification thereof, has been given an affirmative 18(e) determination, the State is required to maintain a program which will meet the requirements of section 18 (c) and will continue to be “at least as effective as” the Federal program operations in the issues covered by the determination. As the Federal program changes and thereby becomes more effective, the State is correspondingly required to adjust its program at a level which would provide a program for workplace safety and health which would be “at least as effective as” the improvements in the Federal program. A failure to comply with this requirement may result in the revocation of the affirmative 18(e) determination and the resumption of Federal enforcement and standards authority and/or in the commencement of proceedings for the withdrawal of approval of the plan, or any portion thereof, pursuant to 29 CFR part 1955.


(f) The Assistant Secretary may reconsider and, if necessary, rescind or revoke all or a separable portion of an affirmative 18(e) determination and reinstate concurrent Federal enforcement authority if he finds that a State does not maintain its commitment to provide a program for employee safety and health protection meeting the requirements of section 18(c) of the Act. This authority is designed to be used in instances where operations under a State program are found to be less effective than under the Federal program because of unusual circumstances which are temporary in nature. The Assistant Secretary may also use this procedure to reinstate Federal enforcement authority in conjunction with plan withdrawal proceedings in order to ensure that there is no serious gap in his commitment to assure safe and healthful working conditions so far as possible for every employee.


Completion of Developmental Steps – Certification

§ 1902.33 Developmental period.

Upon the commencement of plan operations after the initial approval of a State’s plan by the Assistant Secretary, a State has three years in which to complete all of the developmental steps specified in the plan as approved. Section 1953.4 of this chapter sets forth the procedures for the submission and consideration of developmental changes by OSHA. Generally, whenever a State completes a developmental step, it must submit the resulting plan change as a supplement to its plan to OSHA for approval. OSHA’s approval of such changes is then published in the Federal Register.


[80 FR 49904, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.34 Certification of completion of developmental steps.

(a) Upon the completion of all of the developmental steps in a State’s plan, which is to be accomplished not later than three years following commencement of plan operations after approval of the plan by the Assistant Secretary under section 18(c), the Assistant Regional Director shall certify, as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, that all developmental steps in the plan have been met and that the State’s program is to be evaluated on the basis of its eligibility for an 18(e) determination after at least one year of evaluations of the plan.


(b) Upon determining that a State has completed all of its developmental steps, the Assistant Regional Director shall prepare a certification which he shall promptly forward to the Assistant Secretary. The certification shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following;


(1) A list of all developmental steps or revisions thereof, plan amendments or changes which result in the completion of the steps or revisions thereof, and the dates the Assistant Secretary’s or the Assistant Regional Director’s approval of each change was published in the Federal Register;


(2) Substantive changes, if any, in the State program which were approved by the Assistant Secretary and their dates of publication in the Federal Register;


(3) Documentation that the legal basis for the applicable State merit system has been approved by the U.S. Civil Service Commission and that the actual operations of the State merit system has been found acceptable by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration with the advice of the U.S. Civil Service Commission; and


(4) A description of the issues which are covered by the State plan. Where applicable, the certification shall include a description of those separable portions of the plan which have been certified for 18(e) evaluation purposes as well as those portions of the plan which were not certified by the Assistant Regional Director.


(c) After a review of the certification and the State’s plan, if the Assistant Secretary finds that the State has completed all the developmental steps specified in the plan, he shall publish the certification in the Federal Register.


[40 FR 54782, Nov. 26, 1975, as amended at 80 FR 49904, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.35 Effect of certification.

Publication of the certification acknowledging the completion of all of the developmental steps in a State’s plan will automatically initiate the evaluation of a State’s plan for the purposes of an 18(e) determination. Evaluation for the purposes of an 18(e) determination will continue for at least one year after the publication of the certification in the Federal Register. Federal enforcement authority under sections 5(a)(2), 8, 9, 10, 11(c), 13, and 17 of the Act and Federal standards authority under section 6 of the Act will not be relinquished during the evaluation period. Evaluation conducted for 18(e) determination purposes will be based on the criteria set forth in §§ 1902.37 and 1902.38.


Basis for 18(e) Determinations

§ 1902.36 General provisions.

(a) In making his evaluation of the actual operations of a State’s plan for the purposes of an 18(e) determination, the Assistant Secretary shall consider all relevant data which will aid him in making an effective determination. In his evaluation he shall consider whether the requirements of section 18(c) of the Act and the criteria for State plans outlined in subpart B of this part as well as those in § 1902.37 are being applied in actual operations for a reasonable period of time in a manner which warrants the termination of concurrent Federal enforcement authority and standards in issues covered under the plan.


(b) The Assistant Secretary’s evaluation for an 18(e) determination will be addressed to consideration of whether the criteria and indices in § 1902.37(a) are being applied by the State in such a manner as to render its program in operation at least as effective as operations under the Federal program. In considering the question of such application, the Assistant Secretary shall also consider the factors provided under § 1902.37(b). The Assistant Secretary’s evaluation may include such other information on the application of the criteria and indices in § 1902.37 such as information developed from comments received from the public and the results of any hearings which may have been held under § 1902.40 concerning the proposed 18(e) determination.


§ 1902.37 Factors for determination.

(a) The Assistant Secretary shall determine if the State has applied and implemented all the specific criteria and indices of effectiveness of §§ 1902.3 and 1902.4 of this part.


(b) In determining whether a State has applied the criteria and indices of effectiveness in paragraph (a) of this section in actual operations, the Assistant Secretary will, among other things related to the application of the criteria and indices, consider whether:


(1) The State has a sufficient number of adequately trained and competent personnel to discharge its responsibilities under the plan.


(2) The State has adhered to the procedures which it has adopted and which have been approved either under the State plan or in State plan changes or under any other procedures for approval authorized by the Assistant Secretary.


(3) The State has timely adopted all Federal standards, and amendments thereto, for issues covered under the plan or has timely developed and promulgated standards which are at least as effective as the comparable Federal standards and amendments thereto.


(4) If the State has adopted Federal standards, the State’s interpretation and application of such standards have been consistent with the applicable Federal interpretation and application. Where the State has developed and promulgated its own standards, such standards have been interpreted and applied in a manner which is at least as effective as the interpretation and application of comparable Federal standards. This requirement acknowledges that State standards may have been approved by the Assistant Regional Director, but emphasizes the requirement that the standards are to be at least as effective as the comparable Federal standards in actual operations.


(5) If any State standard, whether it is an adopted Federal standard or a standard developed by a State, has been subject to administrative or judicial challenge, the State has taken the necessary administrative, judicial or legislative action to correct any deficiencies in its program resulting from such challenge.


(6) In granting permanent variances from a standard the State has assured that the employer provides conditions of employment which are as safe and healthful as those which would prevail if he complied with the standard.


(7) In granting temporary variances from a standard, the State has ensured that the recipient of the variance has come into compliance with the standard as early as possible.


(8) The State inspection program is being implemented in a manner which allows a sufficient allocation of resources to be directed toward target industries and target health hazards as designated by the State while providing adequate attention to all other workplaces covered under the plan, or any modification thereof.


(9) The State exercises the authority through appropriate means, to enforce its right of entry and inspection wherever such right of entry or inspection is refused.


(10) Inspections of workplaces are conducted by State inspectors in a competent manner, following approved enforcement procedures. This includes a requirement that the inspectors obtain adequate information to support any citations which may be issued.


(11) The State issues citations, proposed penalties and notices for failure to abate in a timely manner.


(12) The State proposes penalties in a manner at least as effective as under the Federal program, including the proposing of penalties for first instance violations and the consideration of factors comparable to those required to be considered under the Federal program.


(13) The State ensures the abatement of hazards for which a citation has been issued, including the issuance of notices of failure to abate and appropriate penalties.


(14) Wherever appropriate, the State agency has sought administrative and judicial review of adverse adjudications. This factor also addresses whether the State has taken the appropriate and necessary administrative, legislative or judicial action to correct any deficiencies in its enforcement program resulting from an adverse administrative or judicial determination.


(15) Insofar as it is available, analysis of the annual occupational safety and health survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as well as of other available Federal and State measurements of program impact on worker safety and health, which analysis also takes into consideration various local factors, indicates that trends in worker safety and health injury and illness rates under the State program compare favorably to those under the Federal program.


[40 FR 54782, Nov. 26, 1975; 40 FR 58143, Dec. 15, 1975]


Procedures for 18(e) Determination

§ 1902.38 Evaluation of plan following certification.

(a) Following the publication in the Federal Register under § 1902.34 of the certification acknowledging the completion of all developmental steps specified in the plan, or any portion thereof, the Assistant Secretary will evaluate and monitor the actual operations under the State plan for at least 1 year before determining whether the State is eligible for an 18(e) determination. The evaluation will assess the actual operation of the State’s fully implemented program in accordance with the criteria in § 1902.37 and take into account any information available to the Assistant Secretary affecting the State’s program.


(b) The Assistant Regional Director shall prepare a semi-annual report of his evaluation of the actual operations under the State plan or any portion thereof in narrative form. The Assistant Regional Director’s evaluation report will be transmitted to the Assistant Secretary who will then transmit the report to the State. The State shall be afforded an opportunity to respond to each evaluation report.


[40 FR 54782, Nov. 26, 1975, as amended at 42 FR 58746, Nov. 11, 1977]


§ 1902.39 Completion of evaluation.

(a) After evaluating the actual operations of the State plan, or any portion thereof, for at least 1 year following publication of the certification in the Federal Register under § 1902.34, the Assistant Secretary shall notify the State whenever he determines that the State will be eligible for an 18(e) determination. In addition, a State may request an 18(e) determination following the evaluation period noted above. In no case shall this determination of eligibility be later than 2 years following the publication of the certification of the completion of developmental steps in the Federal Register under § 1902.34. In the case of a plan which was not developmental, the determination of eligibility shall not be sooner than 3 years following the date of commencement of operations under the plan.


(b) After it has been determined that a State will be eligible for an 18(e) determination, the Assistant Regional Director shall prepare a final report of his evaluation of the actual operations under a State’s plan or portion thereof which may be subject to the 18(e) determination. The Assistant Regional Director’s report shall be transmitted to the Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary shall transmit such report to the State and the State shall have an opportunity to respond to the report.


(c) Whenever it has been determined that a State’s plan, or separable portion thereof, is eligible for an 18(e) determination, the Assistant Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register. The notice shall meet the requirements of the remaining paragraphs of this section. No later than 10 days following the publication of the notice in the Federal Register, the affected State agency shall publish, or cause to be published, within the State, reasonable notice containing the same information.


(d) The notice shall indicate that the plan, or any separable portion thereof, is in issue before the Assistant Secretary for a determination as to whether the criteria in section 18(c) of the Act are being applied in actual operation, and indicate the particular substantive issues, if any, for consideration in making such determination. Where a portion of a plan is in issue for such a determination, the notice shall specify such portions of the plan as well as those portions of the plan which are not in issue for the determination.


(e) The notice shall afford interested persons an opportunity to submit in writing, data, views, and arguments on the proposed 18(e) determination, and the affected State an opportunity to respond to such submissions.


(f) The notice shall also state that any interested person or the affected State may request an informal hearing concerning the proposed 18(e) determination whenever particularized written objections thereto are filed within 35 days following publication of the notice in the Federal Register.


(g) If the Assistant Secretary finds that substantial objections are filed which relate to the proposed 18(e) determination, the Assistant Secretary shall, and in any other case may, publish a notice of informal hearing in the Federal Register not later than 30 days after the last day for filing written views or comments. The notice shall include:


(1) A statement of the time, place and nature of the proceeding;


(2) A specification of the substantial issues which have been raised and on which an informal hearing has been requested;


(3) The requirement for the filing of an intention to appear at the hearing, together with a statement of the position to be taken with regard to the issues specified, and of the evidence to be adduced in support of the position;


(4) The designation of a presiding officer to conduct the hearing; and


(5) Any other appropriate provisions with regard to the proceeding.


(h) Not later than 10 days following the publication of the notice in the Federal Register, required by paragraph (g) of this section, the affected agency shall publish, or cause to be published, within the State reasonable notice containing the same information.



Effective Date Note:At 43 FR 11196, Mar. 17, 1978, § 1902.39(a) was suspended indefinitely, effective Jan. 20, 1978.

§ 1902.40 Informal hearing.

(a) Any hearing conducted under this section shall be legislative in type. However, fairness may require an opportunity for cross-examination on pertinent issues. The presiding officer is empowered to permit cross-examination under such circumstances. The essential intent is to provide an opportunity for participation and comment by interested persons which can be carried out expeditiously and without rigid procedures which might unduly impede or protract the 18(e) determination process.


(b) Although the hearing shall be informal and legislative in type, this section is intended to provide more than the bare essentials of informal proceedings under 5 U.S.C. 553. The additional requirements are the following:


(1) The presiding officer shall be a hearing examiner appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105.


(2) The presiding officer shall provide an opportunity for cross-examination on pertinent issues.


(3) The hearing shall be reported verbatim, and a transcript shall be available to any interested person on such terms as the presiding officer may provide.


(c) The officer presiding at a hearing shall have all the power necessary or appropriate to conduct a fair and full hearing, including the powers:


(1) To regulate the course of the proceedings;


(2) To dispose of procedural requests, objections, and comparable matters;


(3) To confine the presentation to the issues specified in the notice of hearing, or, where appropriate, to matters pertinent to the issue before the Assistant Secretary;


(4) To regulate the conduct of those present at the hearing by appropriate means;


(5) To take official notice of material facts not appearing in the evidence in the record, as long as the parties are afforded an opportunity to show evidence to the contrary;


(6) In his discretion, to keep the record open for a reasonable and specified time to receive additional written recommendations with supporting reasons and any additional data, views, and arguments from any person who has participated in the oral proceeding.


(d) Upon the completion of the oral presentations, the transcripts thereof, together with written submissions on the proceedings, exhibits filed during the hearing, and all posthearing comments, recommendations, and supporting reasons shall be certified by the officer presiding at the hearing to the Assistant Secretary.


§ 1902.41 Decision.

(a) Within a reasonable time generally within 120 days after the expiration of the period provided for the submission of written data, views, and arguments on the issues on which no hearing is held, or within a reasonable time, generally not to exceed 120 days after the certification of the record of a hearing, the Assistant Secretary shall publish his decision in the Federal Register. His decision shall state whether or not an affirmative 18(e) determination has been made for the State plan or any separable portion thereof, or whether he intends to withdraw approval of the plan or any portion thereof pursuant to part 1955 of this chapter. The action of the Assistant Secretary shall be taken after consideration of all information, including his evaluations of the actual operations of the plan, and information presented in written submissions and in any hearings held under this subpart.


(b) Any decision under this section shall incorporate a concise statement of its grounds and purpose and shall respond to any substantial issues which may have been raised in written submissions or at the hearing.


(c) All decisions concerning the Assistant Secretary’s determination under section 18(e) of the Act shall be published in the Federal Register.


[40 FR 54782, Nov. 26, 1975, as amended at 80 FR 49904, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.42 Effect of affirmative 18(e) determination.

(a) In making an affirmative 18(e) determination, the Assistant Secretary determines that a State has applied the provisions of its plan, or any modification thereof, in accordance with the criteria of section 18(c) of the Act and that the State has applied the provisions of this part in a manner which renders the actual operations of the State program “at least as effective as” operations under the Federal program.


(b) In the case of an affirmative 18(e) determination of a separable portion(s) of a plan, the Assistant Secretary determines that the State has applied the separable portion(s) of the plan in accordance with the criteria of section 18(c) of the Act in a manner comparable to Federal operations covering such portions and that the criteria of this part are being applied in a manner which renders the actual operations of such separable portion(s) of the State program “at least as effective as” operations of such portions under the Federal program.


(c) Upon making an affirmative 18(e) determination, the standards promulgated under section 6 of the Act and the enforcement provisions of section 5(a)(2), 8 (except for the purpose of continuing evaluations under section 18(f) of the Act), 9, 10, 13 and 17 of the Act shall not apply with respect to those occupational safety and health issues covered under the plan for which an affirmative 18(e) determination has been granted. The Assistant Secretary shall retain his authority under the above sections for those issues covered in the plan which have not been granted an affirmative 18(e) determination.


(d) The Assistant Secretary will retain jurisdiction under the citation and contest provisions of sections 9 and 10 of the Act and the imminent-danger provisions of section 13 where such proceedings have been commenced prior to the date of his determination.


§ 1902.43 Affirmative 18(e) decision.

(a) In publishing his affirmative 18(e) decision in the Federal Register the Assistant Secretary’s notice shall include, but shall not be limited to the following:


(1) Those issues under the plan over which the Assistant Secretary is withdrawing his standards and enforcement authority;


(2) A statement that the Assistant Secretary retains his authority under section 11(c) of the Act with regard to complaints alleging discrimination against employees because of the exercise of any right afforded to the employee by the Act;


(3) An amendment to the appropriate section of part 1952 of this chapter;


(4) A statement that the Assistant Secretary is not precluded from revoking his determination and reinstating his standards and enforcement authority under § 1902.47 et seq., if his continuing evaluations under section 18(f) of the Act show that the State has substantially failed to maintain a program which is at least as effective as operations under the Federal program, or if the State does not submit program change supplements to its plan to the Assistant Secretary as required by 29 CFR part 1953.


[40 FR 54782, Nov. 26, 1975, as amended at 80 FR 49904, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1902.44 Requirements applicable to State plans granted affirmative 18(e) determinations.

(a) A State whose plan, or modification thereof, has been granted an affirmative 18(e) determination will be required to maintain a program within the scope of such determination which will be “at least as effective as” operations under the Federal program in providing employee safety and health protection at covered workplaces within the comparable scope of the Federal program. This requirement includes submitting all required reports to the Assistant Secretary, as well as submitting supplements to the Assistant Secretary for his approval whenever there is a change in the State’s program, whenever the results of evaluations conducted under section 18(f) show that some portion of a State plan has an adverse impact on the operations of the State plan or whenever the Assistant Secretary determines that any alteration in the Federal program could have an adverse impact on the “at least as effective as” status of the State program. See part 1953 of this chapter.


(b) A substantial failure to comply with the requirements of this section may result in the revocation of the affirmative 18(e) determination and the resumption of Federal enforcement authority, and may also result in proceedings for the withdrawal of approval of the plan or any portion thereof pursuant to part 1955 of this chapter.


§ 1902.45 [Reserved]

§ 1902.46 Negative 18(e) determination.

(a) This section sets out the procedures which shall be followed whenever the Assistant Secretary determines that a State’s plan, or any separate portion thereof, has not met the criteria for an affirmative 18(e) determination.


(b) If the Assistant Secretary determines that a State plan, or a separable portion thereof, has not met the criteria of section 18(c) of the Act and that actual operations under the plan, or portion thereof, have not met the criteria for an affirmative determination set forth in § 1902.37, he shall retain his standards authority under section 6 of the Act and his enforcement authority under sections 5(a)(2), 8, 9, 10, 13, and 17 of the Act for those issues covered under the plan or such portions of the plan which were subject to his negative determination.


(c) A decision under this section may result in the commencement of proceedings for withdrawal of approval of the plan or any separable portion thereof pursuant to part 1955 of this chapter.


(d) Where the Assistant Secretary determines that operations under a State plan or any separable portion thereof have not met the criteria for an affirmative 18(e) determination, but are not of such a nature as to warrant the initiation of withdrawal proceedings, the Assistant Secretary may, at his discretion, afford the State a reasonable time to meet the criteria for an affirmative 18(e) determination after which time he may initiate proceedings for withdrawal of plan approval. This discretionary authority will be applied in the following manner:


(1) Upon determining that a State shall be subject to a final 18(e) determination, the Assistant Secretary shall notify the agency designated by the State to administer its program, within the State of his decision that the State’s program, or a separable portion thereof, shall be subject to a final 18(e) determination. The Assistant Secretary shall give the State a reasonable time, generally not less than 1 year, in which to meet the criteria for an affirmative 18(e) determination.


(2) The Assistant Secretary shall also publish a notice in the Federal Register outlining his reasons for not making an affirmative 18(e) determination at the time. The notice will also set forth the reasonable time the State was granted to meet the criteria for an affirmative 18(e) determination and set forth such conditions as the Assistant Secretary deems proper for the continuation of the State’s plan or such portions subject to this action.


(3) The State shall be afforded an opportunity to agree to the conditions of the Assistant Secretary’s decision.


(4) Upon the expiration of the time granted to a State to meet the criteria for an affirmative 18(e) determination under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, the Assistant Secretary may initiate proceedings to determine whether a State shall be granted an affirmative 18(e) determination. The procedures outlined in this subpart shall be applicable to any proceedings initiated under this paragraph.


Procedure for Reconsideration and Revocation of an Affirmative 18(e) Determination

§ 1902.47 Reconsideration of an affirmative 18(e) determination.

(a) The Assistant Secretary may at any time reconsider on his own initiative or on petition of an interested person his decision granting an affirmative 18(e) determination.


(b) Such reconsideration shall be based on results of his continuing evaluation of a State plan after it has been granted an affirmative 18(e) determination.


§ 1902.48 The proceeding.

Whenever, as a result of his reconsideration, the Assistant Secretary proposes to revoke his affirmative 18(e) determination, he shall follow the procedures in the remaining sections of this subpart.


§ 1902.49 General notice.

(a) Whenever the Assistant Secretary proposes to revoke an affirmative 18(e) determination, he shall publish a notice in the Federal Register meeting the requirements of the remaining paragraphs of this section. No later than 10 days following the publication of the notice in the Federal Register, the affected State agency shall publish, or cause to be published, reasonable notice within the State containing the same information.


(b) The notice shall indicate the reasons for the proposed action.


(c) The notice shall afford interested persons including the affected State, an opportunity to submit in writing, data, views, and arguments on the proposal within 35 days after publication of the notice in the Federal Register. The notice shall also provide that any interested person may request an informal hearing concerning the proposed revocation whenever particularized written objections thereto are filed within 35 days following publication of the notice in the Federal Register. If the Assistant Secretary finds that substantial objections have been filed, he shall afford an informal hearing on the proposed revocation under § 1902.50.


(d) The Assistant Secretary may, upon his own initiative, give notice of an informal hearing affording an opportunity for oral comments concerning the proposed revocation.


§ 1902.50 Informal hearing.

Any informal hearing shall be legislative in type. The rules of procedure for each hearing shall be those contained in § 1902.40 and will be published with the notice thereof.


§ 1902.51 Certification of the records of a hearing.

Upon completion of an informal hearing, the transcript thereof, together with written submissions, exhibits filed during the hearing, and any post-hearing presentations shall be certified by the officer presiding at the hearing to the Assistant Secretary.


§ 1902.52 Decision.

(a) After consideration of all relevant information which has been presented, the Assistant Secretary shall issue a decision on the continuation or revocation of the affirmative 18(e) determination.


(b) The decision revoking the determination shall also reflect the Assistant Secretary’s determination that concurrent Federal enforcement and standards authority will be reinstated within the State for a reasonable time until he has withdrawn his approval of the plan, or any separable portion thereof, pursuant to part 1955 of this chapter or he has determined that the State has met the criteria for an 18(e) determination pursuant to the applicable procedures of this subpart.


§ 1902.53 Publication of decisions.

All decisions on the reconsideration of an affirmative 18(e) determination shall be published in the Federal Register.


PART 1903 – INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES


Authority:Secs. 8 and 9 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 657, 658); 5 U.S.C. 553; 28 U.S.C. 2461 note (Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990), as amended by Section 701, Pub. L. 114-74; Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 1-2012 (77 FR 3912, Jan. 25, 2012).



Source:36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, unless otherwise noted.

§ 1903.1 Purpose and scope.

The Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1590 et seq., 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.) requires, in part, that every employer covered under the Act furnish to his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees. The Act also requires that employers comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under the Act, and that employees comply with standards, rules, regulations and orders issued under the Act which are applicable to their own actions and conduct. The Act authorizes the Department of Labor to conduct inspections, and to issue citations and proposed penalties for alleged violations. The Act, under section 20(b), also authorizes the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to conduct inspections and to question employers and employees in connection with research and other related activities. The Act contains provisions for adjudication of violations, periods prescribed for the abatement of violations, and proposed penalties by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, if contested by an employer or by an employee or authorized representative of employees, and for judicial review. The purpose of this part 1903 is to prescribe rules and to set forth general policies for enforcement of the inspection, citation, and proposed penalty provisions of the Act. In situations where this part 1903 sets forth general enforcement policies rather than substantive or procedural rules, such policies may be modified in specific circumstances where the Secretary or his designee determines that an alternative course of action would better serve the objectives of the Act.


§ 1903.2 Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards.

(a)(1) Each employer shall post and keep posted a notice or notices, to be furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, informing employees of the protections and obligations provided for in the Act, and that for assistance and information, including copies of the Act and of specific safety and health standards, employees should contact the employer or the nearest office of the Department of Labor. Such notice or notices shall be posted by the employer in each establishment in a conspicuous place or places where notices to employees are customarily posted. Each employer shall take steps to insure that such notices are not altered, defaced, or covered by other material.


(2) Where a State has an approved poster informing employees of their protections and obligations as defined in § 1902.9 of this chapter, such poster, when posted by employers covered by the State plan, shall constitute compliance with the posting requirements of section 8(c)(1) of the Act. Employers whose operations are not within the issues covered by the State plan must comply with paragraph (a)(1) of this section.


(3) Reproductions or facsimiles of such Federal or State posters shall constitute compliance with the posting requirements of section 8(c)(1) of the Act where such reproductions or facsimiles are at least 8
1/2 inches by 14 inches, and the printing size is at least 10 pt. Whenever the size of the poster increases, the size of the print shall also increase accordingly. The caption or heading on the poster shall be in large type, generally not less than 36 pt.


(b) Establishment means a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed. (For example: A factory, mill, store, hotel, restaurant, movie theatre, farm, ranch, bank, sales office, warehouse, or central administrative office.) Where distinctly separate activities are performed at a single physical location (such as contract construction activities from the same physical location as a lumber yard), each activity shall be treated as a separate physical establishment, and a separate notice or notices shall be posted in each such establishment, to the extent that such notices have been furnished by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. Where employers are engaged in activities which are physically dispersed, such as agriculture, construction, transportation, communications, and electric, gas and sanitary services, the notice or notices required by this section shall be posted at the location to which employees report each day. Where employees do not usually work at, or report to, a single establishment, such as longshoremen, traveling salesmen, technicians, engineers, etc., such notice or notices shall be posted at the location from which the employees operate to carry out their activities. In all cases, such notice or notices shall be posted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.


(c) Copies of the Act, all regulations published in this chapter and all applicable standards will be available at all Area Offices of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. If an employer has obtained copies of these materials, he shall make them available upon request to any employee or his authorized representative for review in the establishment where the employee is employed on the same day the request is made or at the earliest time mutually convenient to the employee or his authorized representative and the employer.


(d) Any employer failing to comply with the provisions of this section shall be subject to citation and penalty in accordance with the provisions of § 1903.15(d).


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, as amended at 39 FR 39036, Nov. 5, 1974; 80 FR 49904, Aug. 18, 2015; 81 FR 43452, July 1, 2016]


§ 1903.3 Authority for inspection.

(a) Compliance Safety and Health Officers of the Department of Labor are authorized to enter without delay and at reasonable times any factory, plant, establishment, construction site, or other area, workplace or environment where work is performed by an employee of an employer; to inspect and investigate during regular working hours and at other reasonable times, and within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, any such place of employment, and all pertinent conditions, structures, machines, apparatus, devices, equipment and materials therein; to question privately any employer, owner, operator, agent or employee; and to review records required by the Act and regulations published in this chapter, and other records which are directly related to the purpose of the inspection. Representatives of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare are authorized to make inspections and to question employers and employees in order to carry out the functions of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under the Act. Inspections conducted by Department of Labor Compliance Safety and Health Officers and representatives of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under section 8 of the Act and pursuant to this part 1903 shall not affect the authority of any State to conduct inspections in accordance with agreements and plans under section 18 of the Act.


(b) Prior to inspecting areas containing information which is classified by an agency of the United States Government in the interest of national security, Compliance Safety and Health Officers shall have obtained the appropriate security clearance.


§ 1903.4 Objection to inspection.

(a) Upon a refusal to permit the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, in exercise of his official duties, to enter without delay and at reasonable times any place of employment or any place therein, to inspect, to review records, or to question any employer, owner, operator, agent, or employee, in accordance with § 1903.3 or to permit a representative of employees to accompany the Compliance Safety and Health Officer during the physical inspection of any workplace in accordance with § 1903.8, the Safety and Health Officer shall terminate the inspection or confine the inspection to other areas, conditions, structures, machines, apparatus, devices, equipment, materials, records, or interviews concerning which no objection is raised. The Compliance Safety and Health Officer shall endeavor to ascertain the reason for such refusal, and shall immediately report the refusal and the reason therefor to the Area Director. The Area Director shall consult with the Regional Solicitor, who shall take appropriate action, including compulsory process, if necessary.


(b) Compulsory process shall be sought in advance of an attempted inspection or investigation if, in the judgment of the Area Director and the Regional Solicitor, circumstances exist which make such preinspection process desirable or necessary. Some examples of circumstances in which it may be desirable or necessary to seek compulsory process in advance of an attempt to inspect or investigate include (but are not limited to):


(1) When the employer’s past practice either implicitly or explicitly puts the Secretary on notice that a warrantless inspection will not be allowed;


(2) When an inspection is scheduled far from the local office and procuring a warrant prior to leaving to conduct the inspection would avoid, in case of refusal of entry, the expenditure of significant time and resources to return to the office, obtain a warrant and return to the worksite;


(3) When an inspection includes the use of special equipment or when the presence of an expert or experts is needed in order to properly conduct the inspection, and procuring a warrant prior to an attempt to inspect would alleviate the difficulties or costs encountered in coordinating the availability of such equipment or expert.


(c) With the approval of the Regional Administrator and the Regional Solicitor, compulsory process may also be obtained by the Area Director or his designee.


(d) For purposes of this section, the term compulsory process shall mean the institution of any appropriate action, including ex parte application for an inspection warrant or its equivalent. Ex parte inspection warrants shall be the preferred form of compulsory process in all circumstances where compulsory process is relied upon to seek entry to a workplace under this section.


[45 FR 65923, Oct. 3, 1980]


§ 1903.5 Entry not a waiver.

Any permission to enter, inspect, review records, or question any person, shal not imply or be conditioned upon a waiver of any cause of action, citation, or penalty under the Act. Compliance Safety and Health Officers are not authorized to grant any such waiver.


§ 1903.6 Advance notice of inspections.

(a) Advance notice of inspections may not be given, except in the following situations:


(1) In cases of apparent imminent danger, to enable the employer to abate the danger as quickly as possible;


(2) In circumstances where the inspection can most effectively be conducted after regular business hours or where special preparations are necessary for an inspection;


(3) Where necessary to assure the presence of representatives of the employer and employees or the appropriate personnel needed to aid in the inspection; and


(4) In other circumstances where the Area Director determines that the giving of advance notice would enhance the probability of an effective and thorough inspection.


(b) In the situations described in paragraph (a) of this section, advance notice of inspections may be given only if authorized by the Area Director, except that in cases of apparent imminent danger, advance notice may be given by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer without such authorization if the Area Director is not immediately available. When advance notice is given, it shall be the employer’s responsibility promptly to notify the authorized representative of employees of the inspection, if the identity of such representative is known to the employer. (See § 1903.8(b) as to situations where there is no authorized representative of employees.) Upon the request of the employer, the Compliance Safety and Health Officer will inform the authorized representative of employees of the inspection, provided that the employer furnishes the Compliance Safety and Health Officer with the identity of such representative and with such other information as is necessary to enable him promptly to inform such representative of the inspection. An employer who fails to comply with his obligation under this paragraph promptly to inform the authorized representative of employees of the inspection or to furnish such information as is necessary to enable the Compliance Safety and Health Officer promptly to inform such representative of the inspection, may be subject to citation and penalty in accordance with § 1903.15(d)(4). Advance notice in any of the situations described in paragraph (a) of this section shall not be given more than 24 hours before the inspection is scheduled to be conducted, except in apparent imminent danger situations and in other unusual circumstances.


(c) The Act provides in section 17(f) that any person who gives advance notice of any inspection to be conducted under the Act, without authority from the Secretary or his designees, shall, upon conviction, be punished by fine of not more than $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than 6 months, or by both.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, as amended at 81 FR 43452, July 1, 2016]


§ 1903.7 Conduct of inspections.

(a) Subject to the provisions of § 1903.3, inspections shall take place at such times and in such places of employment as the Area Director or the Compliance Safety and Health Officer may direct. At the beginning of an inspection, Compliance Safety and Health Officers shall present their credentials to the owner, operator, or agent in charge at the establishment; explain the nature and purpose of the inspection; and indicate generally the scope of the inspection and the records specified in § 1903.3 which they wish to review. However, such designation of records shall not preclude access to additional records specified in § 1903.3.


(b) Compliance Safety and Health Officers shall have authority to take environmental samples and to take or obtain photographs related to the purpose of the inspection, employ other reasonable investigative techniques, and question privately any employer, owner, operator, agent or employee of an establishment. (See § 1903.9 on trade secrets.) As used herein, the term employ other reasonable investigative techniques includes, but is not limited to, the use of devices to measure employee exposures and the attachment of personal sampling equipment such as dosimeters, pumps, badges and other similar devices to employees in order to monitor their exposures.


(c) In taking photographs and samples, Compliance Safety and Health Officers shall take reasonable precautions to insure that such actions with flash, spark-producing, or other equipment would not be hazardous. Compliance Safety and Health Officers shall comply with all employer safety and health rules and practices at the establishment being inspected, and they shall wear and use appropriate protective clothing and equipment.


(d) The conduct of inspections shall be such as to preclude unreasonable disruption of the operations of the employer’s establishment.


(e) At the conclusion of an inspection, the Compliance Safety and Health Officer shall confer with the employer or his representative and informally advise him of any apparent safety or health violations disclosed by the inspection. During such conference, the employer shall be afforded an opportunity to bring to the attention of the Compliance Safety and Health Officer any pertinent information regarding conditions in the workplace.


(f) Inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of this part.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 14, 1971, as amended at 47 FR 6533, Feb. 12, 1982; 47 FR 55481, Dec. 10, 1982]


§ 1903.8 Representatives of employers and employees.

(a) Compliance Safety and Health Officers shall be in charge of inspections and questioning of persons. A representative of the employer and a representative authorized by his employees shall be given an opportunity to accompany the Compliance Safety and Health Officer during the physical inspection of any workplace for the purpose of aiding such inspection. A Compliance Safety and Health Officer may permit additional employer representatives and additional representatives authorized by employees to accompany him where he determines that such additional representatives will further aid the inspection. A different employer and employee representative may accompany the Compliance Safety and Health Officer during each different phase of an inspection if this will not interfere with the conduct of the inspection.


(b) Compliance Safety and Health Officers shall have authority to resolve all disputes as to who is the representative authorized by the employer and employees for the purpose of this section. If there is no authorized representative of employees, or if the Compliance Safety and Health Officer is unable to determine with reasonable certainty who is such representative, he shall consult with a reasonable number of employees concerning matters of safety and health in the workplace.


(c) The representative(s) authorized by employees shall be an employee(s) of the employer. However, if in the judgment of the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, good cause has been shown why accompaniment by a third party who is not an employee of the employer (such as an industrial hygienist or a safety engineer) is reasonably necessary to the conduct of an effective and thorough physical inspection of the workplace, such third party may accompany the Compliance Safety and Health Officer during the inspection.


(d) Compliance Safety and Health Officers are authorized to deny the right of accompaniment under this section to any person whose conduct interferes with a fair and orderly inspection. The right of accompaniment in areas containing trade secrets shall be subject to the provisions of § 1903.9(d). With regard to information classified by an agency of the U.S. Government in the interest of national security, only persons authorized to have access to such information may accompany a Compliance Safety and Health Officer in areas containing such information.


§ 1903.9 Trade secrets.

(a) Section 15 of the Act provides: “All information reported to or otherwise obtained by the Secretary or his representative in connection with any inspection or proceeding under this Act which contains or which might reveal a trade secret referred to in section 1905 of title 18 of the United States Code shall be considered confidential for the purpose of that section, except that such information may be disclosed to other officers or employees concerned with carrying out this Act or when relevant in any proceeding under this Act. In any such proceeding the Secretary, the Commission, or the court shall issue such orders as may be appropriate to protect the confidentiality of trade secrets.” Section 15 of the Act is considered a statute within the meaning of section 552(b)(3) of title 5 of the United States Code, which exempts from the disclosure requirements matters that are “specifically exempted from disclosure by statute.”


(b) Section 1905 of title 18 of the United States Code provides: “Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, publishes, divulges, discloses, or makes known in any manner or to any extent not authorized by law any information coming to him in the course of his employment or official duties or by reason of any examination or investigation made by, or return, report or record made to or filed with, such department or agency or officer or employee thereof, which information concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of work, or apparatus, or to the identity, confidential statistical data, amount or source of any income, profits, losses, or expenditures of any person, firm, partnership, corporation, or association; or permits any income return or copy thereof or any book containing any abstract or particulars thereof to be seen or examined by any person except as provided by law; shall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both; and shall be removed from office or employment.”


(c) At the commencement of an inspection, the employer may identify areas in the establishment which contain or which might reveal a trade secret. If the Compliance Safety and Health Officer has no clear reason to question such identification, information obtained in such areas, including all negatives and prints of photographs, and environmental samples, shall be labeled “confidential – trade secret” and shall not be disclosed except in accordance with the provisions of section 15 of the Act.


(d) Upon the request of an employer, any authorized representative of employees under § 1903.8 in an area containing trade secrets shall be an employee in that area or an employee authorized by the employer to enter that area. Where there is no such representative or employee, the Compliance Safety and Health Officer shall consult with a reasonable number of employees who work in that area concerning matters of safety and health.


§ 1903.10 Consultation with employees.

Compliance Safety and Health Officers may consult with employees concerning matters of occupational safety and health to the extent they deem necessary for the conduct of an effective and thorough inspection. During the course of an inspection, any employee shall be afforded an opportunity to bring any violation of the Act which he has reason to believe exists in the workplace to the attention of the Compliance Safety and Health Officer.


§ 1903.11 Complaints by employees.

(a) Any employee or representative of employees who believe that a violation of the Act exists in any workplace where such employee is employed may request an inspection of such workplace by giving notice of the alleged violation to the Area Director or to a Compliance Safety and Health Officer. Any such notice shall be reduced to writing, shall set forth with reasonable particularity the grounds for the notice, and shall be signed by the employee or representative of employees. A copy shall be provided the employer or his agent by the Area Director or Compliance Safety and Health Officer no later than at the time of inspection, except that, upon the request of the person giving such notice, his name and the names of individual employees referred to therein shall not appear in such copy or on any record published, released, or made available by the Department of Labor.


(b) If upon receipt of such notification the Area Director determines that the complaint meets the requirements set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, and that there are reasonable grounds to believe that the alleged violation exists, he shall cause an inspection to be made as soon as practicable, to determine if such alleged violation exists. Inspections under this section shall not be limited to matters referred to in the complaint.


(c) Prior to or during any inspection of a workplace, any employee or representative of employees employed in such workplace may notify the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, in writing, of any violation of the Act which they have reason to believe exists in such workplace. Any such notice shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.


(d) Section 11(c)(1) of the Act provides: “No person shall discharge or in any manner discriminate against any employee because such employee has filed any complaint or instituted or caused to be instituted any proceeding under or related to this Act or has testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding or because of the exercise by such employee on behalf of himself or others of any right afforded by this Act.”


(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0064)

[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1973, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989]


§ 1903.12 Inspection not warranted; informal review.

(a) If the Area Director determines that an inspection is not warranted because there are no reasonable grounds to believe that a violation or danger exists with respect to a complaint under § 1903.11, he shall notify the complaining party in writing of such determination. The complaining party may obtain review of such determination by submitting a written statement of position with the Assistant Regional Director and, at the same time, providing the employer with a copy of such statement by certified mail. The employer may submit an opposing written statement of position with the Assistant Regional Director and, at the same time, provide the complaining party with a copy of such statement by certified mail. Upon the request of the complaining party or the employer, the Assistant Regional Director, at his discretion, may hold an informal conference in which the complaining party and the employer may orally present their views. After considering all written and oral views presented, the Assistant Regional Director shall affirm, modify, or reverse the determination of the Area Director and furnish the complaining party and the employer and written notification of this decision and the reasons therefor. The decision of the Assistant Regional Director shall be final and not subject to further review.


(b) If the Area Director determines that an inspection is not warranted because the requirements of § 1903.11(a) have not been met, he shall notify the complaining party in writing of such determination. Such determination shall be without prejudice to the filing of a new complaint meeting the requirements of § 1903.11(a).


§ 1903.13 Imminent danger.

Whenever and as soon as a Compliance Safety and Health Officer concludes on the basis of an inspection that conditions or practices exist in any place of employment which could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm immediately or before the imminence of such danger can be eliminated through the enforcement procedures otherwise provided by the Act, he shall inform the affected employees and employers of the danger and that he is recommending a civil action to restrain such conditions or practices and for other appropriate relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and notices of proposed penalties may be issued with respect to an imminent danger even though, after being informed of such danger by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, the employer immediately eliminates the imminence of the danger and initiates steps to abate such danger.


§ 1903.14 Citations; notices of de minimis violations; policy regarding employee rescue activities.

(a) The Area Director shall review the inspection report of the Compliance Safety and Health Officer. If, on the basis of the report the Area Director believes that the employer has violated a requirement of section 5 of the Act, of any standard, rule or order promulgated pursuant to section 6 of the Act, or of any substantive rule published in this chapter, he shall, if appropriate, consult with the Regional Solicitor, and he shall issue to the employer either a citation or a notice of de minimis violations which have no direct or immediate relationship to safety or health. An appropriate citation or notice of de minimis violations shall be issued even though after being informed of an alleged violation by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, the employer immediately abates, or initiates steps to abate, such alleged violation. Any citation or notice of de minimis violations shall be issued with reasonable promptness after termination of the inspection. No citation may be issued under this section after the expiration of 6 months following the occurrence of any alleged violation.


(b) Any citation shall describe with particularity the nature of the alleged violation, including a reference to the provision(s) of the Act, standard, rule, regulation, or order alleged to have been violated. Any citation shall also fix a reasonable time or times for the abatement of the alleged violation.


(c) If a citation or notice of de minimis violations is issued for a violation alleged in a request for inspection under § 1903.11(a) or a notification of violation under § 1903.11(c), a copy of the citation or notice of de minimis violations shall also be sent to the employee or representative of employees who made such request or notification.


(d) After an inspection, if the Area Director determines that a citation is not warranted with respect to a danger or violation alleged to exist in a request for inspection under § 1903.11(a) or a notification of violation under § 1903.11(c), the informal review procedures prescribed in § 1903.12(a) shall be applicable. After considering all views presented, the Assistant Regional Director shall affirm the determination of the Area Director, order a reinspection, or issue a citation if he believes that the inspection disclosed a violation. The Assistant Regional Director shall furnish the complaining party and the employer with written notification of his determination and the reasons therefor. The determination of the Assistant Regional Director shall be final and not subject to review.


(e) Every citation shall state that the issuance of a citation does not constitute a finding that a violation of the Act has occurred unless there is a failure to contest as provided for in the Act or, if contested, unless the citation is affirmed by the Review Commission.


(f) No citation may be issued to an employer because of a rescue activity undertaken by an employee of that employer with respect to an individual in imminent danger unless:


(1)(i) Such employee is designated or assigned by the employer to have responsibility to perform or assist in rescue operations, and


(ii) The employer fails to provide protection of the safety and health of such employee, including failing to provide appropriate training and rescue equipment; or


(2)(i) Such employee is directed by the employer to perform rescue activities in the course of carrying out the employee’s job duties, and


(ii) The employer fails to provide protection of the safety and health of such employee, including failing to provide appropriate training and rescue equipment; or


(3)(i) Such employee is employed in a workplace that requires the employee to carry out duties that are directly related to a workplace operation where the likelihood of life-threatening accidents is foreseeable, such as a workplace operation where employees are located in confined spaces or trenches, handle hazardous waste, respond to emergency situations, perform excavations, or perform construction over water; and


(ii) Such employee has not been designated or assigned to perform or assist in rescue operations and voluntarily elects to rescue such an individual; and


(iii) The employer has failed to instruct employees not designated or assigned to perform or assist in rescue operations of the arrangements for rescue, not to attempt rescue, and of the hazards of attempting rescue without adequate training or equipment.


(4) For purposes of this policy, the term “imminent danger” means the existence of any condition or practice that could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm before such condition or practice can be abated.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, as amended at 59 FR 66613, Dec. 27, 1994]


§ 1903.14a Petitions for modification of abatement date.

(a) An employer may file a petition for modification of abatement date when he has made a good faith effort to comply with the abatement requirements of a citation, but such abatement has not been completed because of factors beyond his reasonable control.


(b) A petition for modification of abatement date shall be in writing and shall include the following information:


(1) All steps taken by the employer, and the dates of such action, in an effort to achieve compliance during the prescribed abatement period.


(2) The specific additional abatement time necessary in order to achieve compliance.


(3) The reasons such additional time is necessary, including the unavailability of professional or technical personnel or of materials and equipment, or because necessary construction or alteration of facilities cannot be completed by the original abatement date.


(4) All available interim steps being taken to safeguard the employees against the cited hazard during the abatement period.


(5) A certification that a copy of the petition has been posted and, if appropriate, served on the authorized representative of affected employees, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section and a certification of the date upon which such posting and service was made.


(c) A petition for modification of abatement date shall be filed with the Area Director of the United States Department of Labor who issued the citation no later than the close of the next working day following the date on which abatement was originally required. A later-filed petition shall be accompanied by the employer’s statement of exceptional circumstances explaining the delay.


(1) A copy of such petition shall be posted in a conspicuous place where all affected employees will have notice thereof or near such location where the violation occurred. The petition shall remain posted for a period of ten (10) working days. Where affected employees are represented by an authorized representative, said representative shall be served with a copy of such petition.


(2) Affected employees or their representatives may file an objection in writing to such petition with the aforesaid Area Director. Failure to file such objection within ten (10) working days of the date of posting of such petition or of service upon an authorized representative shall constitute a waiver of any further right to object to said petition.


(3) The Secretary or his duly authorized agent shall have the authority to approve any petition for modification of abatement date filed pursuant to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. Such uncontested petitions shall become final orders pursuant to sections 10 (a) and (c) of the Act.


(4) The Secretary or his authorized representative shall not exercise his approval power until the expiration of fifteen (15) working days from the date the petition was posted or served pursuant to paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section by the employer.


(d) Where any petition is objected to by the Secretary or affected employees, the petition, citation, and any objections shall be forwarded to the Commission within three (3) working days after the expiration of the fifteen (15) day period set out in paragraph (c)(4) of this section.


[40 FR 6334, Feb. 11, 1975; 40 FR 11351, Mar. 11, 1975]


§ 1903.15 Proposed penalties.

(a) After, or concurrent with, the issuance of a citation, and within a reasonable time after the termination of the inspection, the Area Director shall notify the employer by certified mail or by personal service by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer of the proposed penalty in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, or that no penalty is being proposed. Any notice of proposed penalty shall state that the proposed penalty shall be deemed to be the final order of the Review Commission and not subject to review by any court or agency unless, within 15 working days from the date of receipt of such notice, the employer notifies the Area Director in writing that he intends to contest the citation or the notification of proposed penalty before the Review Commission.


(b) The Area Director shall determine the amount of any proposed penalty, giving due consideration to the appropriateness of the penalty with respect to the size of the business of the employer being charged, the gravity of the violation, the good faith of the employer, and the history of previous violations, in accordance with the provisions of section 17 of the Act and paragraph (d) of this section.


(c) Appropriate penalties may be proposed with respect to an alleged violation even though after being informed of such alleged violation by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, the employer immediately abates, or initiates steps to abate, such alleged violation. Penalties shall not be proposed for de minimis violations which have no direct or immediate relationship to safety or health.


(d) Adjusted civil monetary penalties. The adjusted civil penalties for penalties proposed after January 15, 2022 are as follows:


(1) Willful violation. The penalty per willful violation under section 17(a) of the Act, 29 U.S.C. 666(a), shall not be less than $10,360 and shall not exceed $145,027.


(2) Repeated violation. The penalty per repeated violation under section 17(a) of the Act, 29 U.S.C. 666(a), shall not exceed $145,027.


(3) Serious violation. The penalty for a serious violation under section 17(b) of the Act, 29 U.S.C. 666(b), shall not exceed $14,502.


(4) Other-than-serious violation. The penalty for an other-than-serious violation under section 17(c) of the Act, 29 U.S.C. 666(c), shall not exceed $14,502.


(5) Failure to correct violation. The penalty for a failure to correct a violation under section 17(d) of the Act, 29 U.S.C. 666(d), shall not exceed $14,502 per day.


(6) Posting requirement violation. The penalty for a posting requirement violation under section 17(i) of the Act, 29 U.S.C. 666(i), shall not exceed $14,502.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, as amended at 81 FR 43453, July 1, 2016; 82 FR 5382, Jan. 18, 2017; 83 FR 14, Jan. 2, 2018; 84 FR 219, Jan. 23, 2019; 85 FR 2298, Jan. 15, 2020; 86 FR 2969, Jan. 14, 2021; 87 FR 2336, Jan. 14, 2022]


§ 1903.16 Posting of citations.

(a) Upon receipt of any citation under the Act, the employer shall immediately post such citation, or a copy thereof, unedited, at or near each place an alleged violation referred to in the citation occurred, except as provided below. Where, because of the nature of the employer’s operations, it is not practicable to post the citation at or near each place of alleged violation, such citation shall be posted, unedited, in a prominent place where it will be readily observable by all affected employees. For example, where employers are engaged in activities which are physically dispersed (see § 1903.2(b)), the citation may be posted at the location to which employees report each day. Where employees do not primarily work at or report to a single location (see § 1903.2(b)), the citation may be posted at the location from which the employees operate to carry out their activities. The employer shall take steps to ensure that the citation is not altered, defaced, or covered by other material. Notices of de minimis violations need not be posted.


(b) Each citation, or a copy thereof, shall remain posted until the violation has been abated, or for 3 working days, whichever is later. The filing by the employer of a notice of intention to contest under § 1903.17 shall not affect his posting responsibility under this section unless and until the Review Commission issues a final order vacating the citation.


(c) An employer to whom a citation has been issued may post a notice in the same location where such citation is posted indicating that the citation is being contested before the Review Commission, and such notice may explain the reasons for such contest. The employer may also indicate that specified steps have been taken to abate the violation.


(d) Any employer failing to comply with the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall be subject to citation and penalty in accordance with § 1903.15(d).


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, as amended at 81 FR 43453, July 1, 2016]


§ 1903.17 Employer and employee contests before the Review Commission.

(a) Any employer to whom a citation or notice of proposed penalty has been issued may, under section 10(a) of the Act, notify the Area Director in writing that he intends to contest such citation or proposed penalty before the Review Commission. Such notice of intention to contest shall be postmarked within 15 working days of the receipt by the employer of the notice of proposed penalty. Every notice of intention to contest shall specify whether it is directed to the citation or to the proposed penalty, or both. The Area Director shall immediately transmit such notice to the Review Commission in accordance with the rules of procedure prescribed by the Commission.


(b) Any employee or representative of employees of an employer to whom a citation has been issued may, under section 10(c) of the Act, file a written notice with the Area Director alleging that the period of time fixed in the citation for the abatement of the violation is unreasonable. Such notice shall be postmarked within 15 working days of the receipt by the employer of the notice of proposed penalty or notice that no penalty is being proposed. The Area Director shall immediately transmit such notice to the Review Commission in accordance with the rules of procedure prescribed by the Commission.


§ 1903.18 Failure to correct a violation for which a citation has been issued.

(a) If an inspection discloses that an employer has failed to correct an alleged violation for which a citation has been issued within the period permitted for its correction, the Area Director shall, if appropriate, consult with the Regional Solicitor, and he shall notify the employer by certified mail or by personal service by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer of such failure and of the additional penalty proposed under § 1903.15(d)(5) by reason of such failure. The period for the correction of a violation for which a citation has been issued shall not begin to run until the entry of a final order of the Review Commission in the case of any review proceedings initiated by the employer in good faith and not solely for delay or avoidance of penalties.


(b) Any employer receiving a notification of failure to correct a violation and of proposed additional penalty may, under section 10(b) of the Act, notify the Area Director in writing that he intends to contest such notification or proposed additional penalty before the Review Commission. Such notice of intention to contest shall be postmarked within 15 working days of the receipt by the employer of the notification of failure to correct a violation and of proposed additional penalty. The Area Director shall immediately transmit such notice to the Review Commission in accordance with the rules of procedure prescribed by the Commission.


(c) Each notification of failure to correct a violation and of proposed additional penalty shall state that it shall be deemed to be the final order of the Review Commission and not subject to review by any court or agency unless, within 15 working days from the date of receipt of such notification, the employer notifies the Area Director in writing that he intends to contest the notification or the proposed additional penalty before the Review Commission.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, as amended at 81 FR 43453, July 1, 2016]


§ 1903.19 Abatement verification.

Purpose. OSHA’s inspections are intended to result in the abatement of violations of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (the OSH Act). This section sets forth the procedures OSHA will use to ensure abatement. These procedures are tailored to the nature of the violation and the employer’s abatement actions.


(a) Scope and application. This section applies to employers who receive a citation for a violation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.


(b) Definitions – (1) Abatement means action by an employer to comply with a cited standard or regulation or to eliminate a recognized hazard identified by OSHA during an inspection.


(2) Abatement date means:


(i) For an uncontested citation item, the later of:


(A) The date in the citation for abatement of the violation;


(B) The date approved by OSHA or established in litigation as a result of a petition for modification of the abatement date (PMA); or


(C) The date established in a citation by an informal settlement agreement.


(ii) For a contested citation item for which the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC) has issued a final order affirming the violation, the later of:


(A) The date identified in the final order for abatement; or


(B) The date computed by adding the period allowed in the citation for abatement to the final order date;


(C) The date established by a formal settlement agreement.


(3) Affected employees means those employees who are exposed to the hazard(s) identified as violation(s) in a citation.


(4) Final order date means:


(i) For an uncontested citation item, the fifteenth working day after the employer’s receipt of the citation;


(ii) For a contested citation item:


(A) The thirtieth day after the date on which a decision or order of a commission administrative law judge has been docketed with the commission, unless a member of the commission has directed review; or


(B) Where review has been directed, the thirtieth day after the date on which the Commission issues its decision or order disposing of all or pertinent part of a case; or


(C) The date on which a federal appeals court issues a decision affirming the violation in a case in which a final order of OSHRC has been stayed.


(5) Movable equipment means a hand-held or non-hand-held machine or device, powered or unpowered, that is used to do work and is moved within or between worksites.


(c) Abatement certification. (1) Within 10 calendar days after the abatement date, the employer must certify to OSHA (the Agency) that each cited violation has been abated, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.


(2) The employer is not required to certify abatement if the OSHA Compliance Officer, during the on-site portion of the inspection:


(i) Observes, within 24 hours after a violation is identified, that abatement has occurred; and


(ii) Notes in the citation that abatement has occurred.


(3) The employer’s certification that abatement is complete must include, for each cited violation, in addition to the information required by paragraph (h) of this section, the date and method of abatement and a statement that affected employees and their representatives have been informed of the abatement.



Note to paragraph (c):

Appendix A contains a sample Abatement Certification Letter.


(d) Abatement documentation. (1) The employer must submit to the Agency, along with the information on abatement certification required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section, documents demonstrating that abatement is complete for each willful or repeat violation and for any serious violation for which the Agency indicates in the citation that such abatement documentation is required.


(2) Documents demonstrating that abatement is complete may include, but are not limited to, evidence of the purchase or repair of equipment, photographic or video evidence of abatement, or other written records.


(e) Abatement plans. (1) The Agency may require an employer to submit an abatement plan for each cited violation (except an other-than-serious violation) when the time permitted for abatement is more than 90 calendar days. If an abatement plan is required, the citation must so indicate.


(2) The employer must submit an abatement plan for each cited violation within 25 calendar days from the final order date when the citation indicates that such a plan is required. The abatement plan must identify the violation and the steps to be taken to achieve abatement, including a schedule for completing abatement and, where necessary, how employees will be protected from exposure to the violative condition in the interim until abatement is complete.



Note to paragraph (e):

Appendix B contains a Sample Abatement Plan form.


(f) Progress reports. (1) An employer who is required to submit an abatement plan may also be required to submit periodic progress reports for each cited violation. The citation must indicate:


(i) That periodic progress reports are required and the citation items for which they are required;


(ii) The date on which an initial progress report must be submitted, which may be no sooner than 30 calendar days after submission of an abatement plan;


(iii) Whether additional progress reports are required; and


(iv) The date(s) on which additional progress reports must be submitted.


(2) For each violation, the progress report must identify, in a single sentence if possible, the action taken to achieve abatement and the date the action was taken.



Note to paragraph (f):

Appendix B contains a Sample Progress Report form.


(g) Employee notification. (1) The employer must inform affected employees and their representative(s) about abatement activities covered by this section by posting a copy of each document submitted to the Agency or a summary of the document near the place where the violation occurred.


(2) Where such posting does not effectively inform employees and their representatives about abatement activities (for example, for employers who have mobile work operations), the employer must:


(i) Post each document or a summary of the document in a location where it will be readily observable by affected employees and their representatives; or


(ii) Take other steps to communicate fully to affected employees and their representatives about abatement activities.


(3) The employer must inform employees and their representatives of their right to examine and copy all abatement documents submitted to the Agency.


(i) An employee or an employee representative must submit a request to examine and copy abatement documents within 3 working days of receiving notice that the documents have been submitted.


(ii) The employer must comply with an employee’s or employee representative’s request to examine and copy abatement documents within 5 working days of receiving the request.


(4) The employer must ensure that notice to employees and employee representatives is provided at the same time or before the information is provided to the Agency and that abatement documents are:


(i) Not altered, defaced, or covered by other material; and


(ii) Remain posted for three working days after submission to the Agency.


(h) Transmitting abatement documents. (1) The employer must include, in each submission required by this section, the following information:


(i) The employer’s name and address;


(ii) The inspection number to which the submission relates;


(iii) The citation and item numbers to which the submission relates;


(iv) A statement that the information submitted is accurate; and


(v) The signature of the employer or the employer’s authorized representative.


(2) The date of postmark is the date of submission for mailed documents. For documents transmitted by other means, the date the Agency receives the document is the date of submission.


(i) Movable equipment. (1) For serious, repeat, and willful violations involving movable equipment, the employer must attach a warning tag or a copy of the citation to the operating controls or to the cited component of equipment that is moved within the worksite or between worksites.



Note to paragraph (i)(1):

Attaching a copy of the citation to the equipment is deemed by OSHA to meet the tagging requirement of paragraph (i)(1) of this section as well as the posting requirement of 29 CFR 1903.16.


(2) The employer must use a warning tag that properly warns employees about the nature of the violation involving the equipment and identifies the location of the citation issued.



Note to paragraph (i)(2):

Non-Mandatory Appendix C contains a sample tag that employers may use to meet this requirement.


(3) If the violation has not already been abated, a warning tag or copy of the citation must be attached to the equipment:


(i) For hand-held equipment, immediately after the employer receives the citation; or


(ii) For non-hand-held equipment, prior to moving the equipment within or between worksites.


(4) For the construction industry, a tag that is designed and used in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.20(b)(3) and 29 CFR 1926.200(h) is deemed by OSHA to meet the requirements of this section when the information required by paragraph (i)(2) is included on the tag.


(5) The employer must assure that the tag or copy of the citation attached to movable equipment is not altered, defaced, or covered by other material.


(6) The employer must assure that the tag or copy of the citation attached to movable equipment remains attached until:


(i) The violation has been abated and all abatement verification documents required by this regulation have been submitted to the Agency;


(ii) The cited equipment has been permanently removed from service or is no longer within the employer’s control; or


(iii) The Commission issues a final order vacating the citation.



Appendices to § 1903.19 – Abatement Verification


Note:

Appendices A through C provide information and nonmandatory guidelines to assist employers and employees in complying with the appropriate requirements of this section.



Appendix A to Section 1903.19 – Sample Abatement-Certification Letter (Nonmandatory)

(Name), Area Director

U. S. Department of Labor – OSHA

Address of the Area Office (on the citation)

[Company’s Name]

[Company’s Address]

The hazard referenced in Inspection Number [insert 9-digit #] for violation identified as:


Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on [insert date] by:



Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on [insert date] by:



Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on [insert date] by:



Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on [insert date] by:



Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on [insert date] by:



Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on [insert date] by:



Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on insert date by:



Citation [insert #] and item [insert #] was corrected on [insert date] by:



I attest that the information contained in this document is accurate.



Signature




Typed or Printed Name



Appendix B to Section 1903.19 – Sample Abatement Plan or Progress Report (Nonmandatory)

(Name), Area Director

U. S. Department of Labor – OSHA

Address of Area Office (on the citation)

[Company’s Name]

[Company’s Address]

Check one:

Abatement Plan [ ]


Progress Report [ ]


Inspection Number

Page __ of ____

Citation Number(s)*

Item Number(s)*

Action
Proposed Completion Date (for abatement plans only)
Completion Date (for progress reports only)
1.


2.


3.


4.

5.

6.

7.

Date required for final abatement:

I attest that the information contained in this document is accurate.



Signature




Typed or Printed Name


Name of primary point of contact for questions: [optional]

Telephone number:

*Abatement plans or progress reports for more than one citation item may be combined in a single abatement plan or progress report if the abatement actions, proposed completion dates, and actual completion dates (for progress reports only) are the same for each of the citation items.


Appendix C to Section 1903.19 – Sample Warning Tag (Nonmandatory)


[62 FR 15337, Mar. 31, 1997]


§ 1903.20 Informal conferences.

At the request of an affected employer, employee, or representative of employees, the Assistant Regional Director may hold an informal conference for the purpose of discussing any issues raised by an inspection, citation, notice of proposed penalty, or notice of intention to contest. The settlement of any issue at such conference shall be subject to the rules of procedure prescribed by the Review Commission. If the conference is requested by the employer, an affected employee or his representative shall be afforded an opportunity to participate, at the discretion of the Assistant Regional Director. If the conference is requested by an employee or representative of employees, the employer shall be afforded an opportunity to participate, at the discretion of the Assistant Regional Director. Any party may be represented by counsel at such conference. No such conference or request for such conference shall operate as a stay of any 15-working-day period for filing a notice of intention to contest as prescribed in § 1903.17.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971. Redesignated at 62 FR 15337, Mar. 31, 1997]


§ 1903.21 State administration.

Nothing in this part 1903 shall preempt the authority of any State to conduct inspections, to initiate enforcement proceedings or otherwise to implement the applicable provisions of State law with respect to State occupational safety and health standards in accordance with agreements and plans under section 18 of the Act and parts 1901 and 1902 of this chapter.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971. Redesignated at 62 FR 15337, Mar. 31, 1997]


§ 1903.22 Definitions.

(a) Act means the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. (84 Stat. 1590 et seq., 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.)


(b) The definitions and interpretations contained in section 3 of the Act shall be applicable to such terms when used in this part 1903.


(c) Working days means Mondays through Fridays but shall not include Saturdays, Sundays, or Federal holidays. In computing 15 working days, the day of receipt of any notice shall not be included, and the last day of the 15 working days shall be included.


(d) Compliance Safety and Health Officer means a person authorized by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, to conduct inspections.


(e) Area Director means the employee or officer regularly or temporarily in charge of an Area Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, or any other person or persons who are authorized to act for such employee or officer. The latter authorizations may include general delegations of the authority of an Area Director under this part to a Compliance Safety and Health Officer or delegations to such an officer for more limited purposes, such as the exercise of the Area Director’s duties under § 1903.14(a). The term also includes any employee or officer exercising supervisory responsibilities over an Area Director. A supervisory employee or officer is considered to exercise concurrent authority with the Area Director.


(f) Assistant Regional Director means the employee or officer regularly or temporarily in charge of a Region of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, or any other person or persons who are specifically designated to act for such employee or officer in his absence. The term also includes any employee or officer in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration exercising supervisory responsibilities over the Assistant Regional Director. Such supervisory employee or officer is considered to exercise concurrent authority with the Assistant Regional Director. No delegation of authority under this paragraph shall adversely affect the procedures for independent informal review of investigative determinations prescribed under § 1903.12 of this part.


(g) Inspection means any inspection of an employer’s factory, plant, establishment, construction site, or other area, workplace or environment where work is performed by an employee of an employer, and includes any inspection conducted pursuant to a complaint filed under § 1903.11 (a) and (c), any reinspection, followup inspection, accident investigation or other inspection conducted under section 8(a) of the Act.


[36 FR 17850, Sept. 4, 1971, as amended at 38 FR 22624, Aug. 23, 1973. Redesignated at 62 FR 15337, Mar. 31, 1997]


PART 1904 – RECORDING AND REPORTING OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND ILLNESSES


Authority:29 U.S.C. 657, 658, 660, 666, 669, 673, Secretary of Labor’s Orders No. 3-2000 (65 FR 50017) and 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable, and 5 U.S.C. 553.



Source:66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, unless otherwise noted.



Editorial Note:At 82 FR 20548, May 3, 2017, as required by the Congressional Review Act and Public Law 115-21, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration removed all amendments to part 1904 published at 81 FR 91792, Dec. 19, 2016.

Subpart A – Purpose

§ 1904.0 Purpose.

The purpose of this rule (part 1904) is to require employers to record and report work-related fatalities, injuries, and illnesses.



Note to § 1904.0:

Recording or reporting a work-related injury, illness, or fatality does not mean that the employer or employee was at fault, that an OSHA rule has been violated, or that the employee is eligible for workers’ compensation or other benefits.


[82 FR 20548, May 3, 2017]


Subpart B – Scope


Note to subpart B:

All employers covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) are covered by these part 1904 regulations. However, most employers do not have to keep OSHA injury and illness records unless OSHA or the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) informs them in writing that they must keep records. For example, employers with 10 or fewer employees and business establishments in certain industry classifications are partially exempt from keeping OSHA injury and illness records.

§ 1904.1 Partial exemption for employers with 10 or fewer employees.

(a) Basic requirement. (1) If your company had 10 or fewer employees at all times during the last calendar year, you do not need to keep OSHA injury and illness records unless OSHA or the Bureau of Labor Statistics informs you in writing that you must keep records under § 1904.41 or § 1904.42. However, as required by § 1904.39, all employers covered by the OSH Act must report to OSHA any work-related incident that results in a fatality, the in-patient hospitalization of one or more employees, an employee amputation, or an employee loss of an eye.


(2) If your company had more than ten (10) employees at any time during the last calendar year, you must keep OSHA injury and illness records unless your establishment is classified as a partially exempt industry under § 1904.2.


(b) Implementation – (1) Is the partial exemption for size based on the size of my entire company or on the size of an individual business establishment? The partial exemption for size is based on the number of employees in the entire company.


(2) How do I determine the size of my company to find out if I qualify for the partial exemption for size? To determine if you are exempt because of size, you need to determine your company’s peak employment during the last calendar year. If you had no more than 10 employees at any time in the last calendar year, your company qualifies for the partial exemption for size.


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 85 FR 8731, Feb. 18, 2020]


§ 1904.2 Partial exemption for establishments in certain industries.

(a) Basic requirement. (1) If your business establishment is classified in a specific industry group listed in appendix A to this subpart, you do not need to keep OSHA injury and illness records unless the government asks you to keep the records under § 1904.41 or § 1904.42. However, all employers must report to OSHA any workplace incident that results in an employee’s fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye (see § 1904.39).


(2) If one or more of your company’s establishments are classified in a non-exempt industry, you must keep OSHA injury and illness records for all of such establishments unless your company is partially exempted because of size under § 1904.1.


(b) Implementation – (1) Is the partial industry classification exemption based on the industry classification of my entire company or on the classification of individual business establishments operated by my company? The partial industry classification exemption applies to individual business establishments. If a company has several business establishments engaged in different classes of business activities, some of the company’s establishments may be required to keep records, while others may be partially exempt.


(2) How do I determine the correct NAICS code for my company or for individual establishments? You can determine your NAICS code by using one of three methods, or you may contact your nearest OSHA office or State agency for help in determining your NAICS code:


(i) You can use the search feature at the U.S. Census Bureau NAICS main Web page: http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/. In the search box for the most recent NAICS, enter a keyword that describes your kind of business. A list of primary business activities containing that keyword and the corresponding NAICS codes will appear. Choose the one that most closely corresponds to your primary business activity, or refine your search to obtain other choices.


(ii) Rather than searching through a list of primary business activities, you may also view the most recent complete NAICS structure with codes and titles by clicking on the link for the most recent NAICS on the U.S. Census Bureau NAICS main Web page: http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/. Then click on the two-digit Sector code to see all the NAICS codes under that Sector. Then choose the six-digit code of your interest to see the corresponding definition, as well as cross-references and index items, when available.


(iii) If you know your old SIC code, you can also find the appropriate 2002 NAICS code by using the detailed conversion (concordance) between the 1987 SIC and 2002 NAICS available in Excel format for download at the “Concordances” link at the U.S. Census Bureau NAICS main Web page: http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/.


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 79 FR 56186, Sept. 18, 2014]


§ 1904.3 Keeping records for more than one agency.

If you create records to comply with another government agency’s injury and illness recordkeeping requirements, OSHA will consider those records as meeting OSHA’s part 1904 recordkeeping requirements if OSHA accepts the other agency’s records under a memorandum of understanding with that agency, or if the other agency’s records contain the same information as this part 1904 requires you to record. You may contact your nearest OSHA office or State agency for help in determining whether your records meet OSHA’s requirements.


Non-Mandatory Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1904 – Partially Exempt Industries

Employers are not required to keep OSHA injury and illness records for any establishment classified in the following North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes, unless they are asked in writing to do so by OSHA, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), or a state agency operating under the authority of OSHA or the BLS. All employers, including those partially exempted by reason of company size or industry classification, must report to OSHA any employee’s fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye (see § 1904.39).


NAICS Code
Industry
4412Other Motor Vehicle Dealers.
4431Electronics and Appliance Stores.
4461Health and Personal Care Stores.
4471Gasoline Stations.
4481Clothing Stores.
4482Shoe Stores.
4483Jewelry, Luggage, and Leather Goods Stores.
4511Sporting Goods, Hobby, and Musical Instrument Stores.
4512Book, Periodical, and Music Stores.
4531Florists.
4532Office Supplies, Stationery, and Gift Stores.
4812Nonscheduled Air Transportation.
4861Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil.
4862Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas.
4869Other Pipeline Transportation.
4879Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other.
4885Freight Transportation Arrangement.
5111Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Directory Publishers.
5112Software Publishers.
5121Motion Picture and Video Industries.
5122Sound Recording Industries.
5151Radio and Television Broadcasting.
5172Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite).
5173Telecommunications Resellers.
5179Other Telecommunications.
5181Internet Service Providers and Web Search Portals.
5182Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services.
5191Other Information Services.
5211Monetary Authorities – Central Bank.
5221Depository Credit Intermediation.
5222Nondepository Credit Intermediation.
5223Activities Related to Credit Intermediation.
5231Securities and Commodity Contracts Intermediation and Brokerage.
5232Securities and Commodity Exchanges.
5239Other Financial Investment Activities.
5241Insurance Carriers.
5242Agencies, Brokerages, and Other Insurance Related Activities.
5251Insurance and Employee Benefit Funds.
5259Other Investment Pools and Funds.
5312Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers.
5331Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets (except Copyrighted Works).
5411Legal Services.
5412Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services.
5413Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services.
5414Specialized Design Services.
5415Computer Systems Design and Related Services.
5416Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services.
5417Scientific Research and Development Services.
5418Advertising and Related Services.
5511Management of Companies and Enterprises.
5611Office Administrative Services.
5614Business Support Services.
5615Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services.
5616Investigation and Security Services.
6111Elementary and Secondary Schools.
6112Junior Colleges.
6113Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools.
6114Business Schools and Computer and Management Training.
6115Technical and Trade Schools.
6116Other Schools and Instruction.
6117Educational Support Services.
6211Offices of Physicians.
6212Offices of Dentists.
6213Offices of Other Health Practitioners.
6214Outpatient Care Centers.
6215Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories.
6244Child Day Care Services.
7114Agents and Managers for Artists, Athletes, Entertainers, and Other Public Figures.
7115Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers.
7213Rooming and Boarding Houses.
7221Full-Service Restaurants.
7222Limited-Service Eating Places.
7224Drinking Places (Alcoholic Beverages).
8112Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance.
8114Personal and Household Goods Repair and Maintenance.
8121Personal Care Services.
8122Death Care Services.
8131Religious Organizations.
8132Grantmaking and Giving Services.
8133Social Advocacy Organizations.
8134Civic and Social Organizations.
8139Business, Professional, Labor, Political, and Similar Organizations.

[79 FR 56186, Sept. 18, 2014]


Subpart C – Recordkeeping Forms and Recording Criteria


Note to subpart C:

This subpart describes the work-related injuries and illnesses that an employer must enter into the OSHA records and explains the OSHA forms that employers must use to record work-related fatalities, injuries, and illnesses.

§ 1904.4 Recording criteria.

(a) Basic requirement. Each employer required by this part to keep records of fatalities, injuries, and illnesses must record each fatality, injury and illness that:


(1) Is work-related; and


(2) Is a new case; and


(3) Meets one or more of the general recording criteria of § 1904.7 or the application to specific cases of §§ 1904.8 through 1904.12.


(b) Implementation – (1) What sections of this rule describe recording criteria for recording work-related injuries and illnesses? The table below indicates which sections of the rule address each topic.


(i) Determination of work-relatedness. See § 1904.5.


(ii) Determination of a new case. See § 1904.6.


(iii) General recording criteria. See § 1904.7.


(iv) Additional criteria. (Needlestick and sharps injury cases, tuberculosis cases, hearing loss cases, medical removal cases, and musculoskeletal disorder cases). See §§ 1904.8 through 1904.12.


(2) How do I decide whether a particular injury or illness is recordable? The decision tree for recording work-related injuries and illnesses below shows the steps involved in making this determination.



[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 81 FR 91809, Dec. 19, 2016; 82 FR 20548, May 3, 2017]


§ 1904.5 Determination of work-relatedness.

(a) Basic requirement. You must consider an injury or illness to be work-related if an event or exposure in the work environment either caused or contributed to the resulting condition or significantly aggravated a pre-existing injury or illness. Work-relatedness is presumed for injuries and illnesses resulting from events or exposures occurring in the work environment, unless an exception in § 1904.5(b)(2) specifically applies.


(b) Implementation. (1) What is the “work environment”? OSHA defines the work environment as “the establishment and other locations where one or more employees are working or are present as a condition of their employment. The work environment includes not only physical locations, but also the equipment or materials used by the employee during the course of his or her work.”


(2) Are there situations where an injury or illness occurs in the work environment and is not considered work-related? Yes, an injury or illness occurring in the work environment that falls under one of the following exceptions is not work-related, and therefore is not recordable.


1904.5(b)(2)
You are not required to record injuries and illnesses if . . .
(i)At the time of the injury or illness, the employee was present in the work environment as a member of the general public rather than as an employee.
(ii)The injury or illness involves signs or symptoms that surface at work but result solely from a non-work-related event or exposure that occurs outside the work environment.
(iii)The injury or illness results solely from voluntary participation in a wellness program or in a medical, fitness, or recreational activity such as blood donation, physical examination, flu shot, exercise class, racquetball, or baseball.
(iv)The injury or illness is solely the result of an employee eating, drinking, or preparing food or drink for personal consumption (whether bought on the employer’s premises or brought in). For example, if the employee is injured by choking on a sandwich while in the employer’s establishment, the case would not be considered work-related.
Note: If the employee is made ill by ingesting food contaminated by workplace contaminants (such as lead), or gets food poisoning from food supplied by the employer, the case would be considered work-related.
(v)The injury or illness is solely the result of an employee doing personal tasks (unrelated to their employment) at the establishment outside of the employee’s assigned working hours.
(vi)The injury or illness is solely the result of personal grooming, self medication for a non-work-related condition, or is intentionally self-inflicted.
(vii)The injury or illness is caused by a motor vehicle accident and occurs on a company parking lot or company access road while the employee is commuting to or from work.
(viii)The illness is the common cold or flu (Note: contagious diseases such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, hepatitis A, or plague are considered work-related if the employee is infected at work).
(ix)The illness is a mental illness. Mental illness will not be considered work-related unless the employee voluntarily provides the employer with an opinion from a physician or other licensed health care professional with appropriate training and experience (psychiatrist, psychologist, psychiatric nurse practitioner, etc.) stating that the employee has a mental illness that is work-related.

(3) How do I handle a case if it is not obvious whether the precipitating event or exposure occurred in the work environment or occurred away from work? In these situations, you must evaluate the employee’s work duties and environment to decide whether or not one or more events or exposures in the work environment either caused or contributed to the resulting condition or significantly aggravated a pre-existing condition.


(4) How do I know if an event or exposure in the work environment “significantly aggravated” a preexisting injury or illness? A preexisting injury or illness has been significantly aggravated, for purposes of OSHA injury and illness recordkeeping, when an event or exposure in the work environment results in any of the following:


(i) Death, provided that the preexisting injury or illness would likely not have resulted in death but for the occupational event or exposure.


(ii) Loss of consciousness, provided that the preexisting injury or illness would likely not have resulted in loss of consciousness but for the occupational event or exposure.


(iii) One or more days away from work, or days of restricted work, or days of job transfer that otherwise would not have occurred but for the occupational event or exposure.


(iv) Medical treatment in a case where no medical treatment was needed for the injury or illness before the workplace event or exposure, or a change in medical treatment was necessitated by the workplace event or exposure.


(5) Which injuries and illnesses are considered pre-existing conditions? An injury or illness is a preexisting condition if it resulted solely from a non-work-related event or exposure that occured outside the work environment.


(6) How do I decide whether an injury or illness is work-related if the employee is on travel status at the time the injury or illness occurs? Injuries and illnesses that occur while an employee is on travel status are work-related if, at the time of the injury or illness, the employee was engaged in work activities “in the interest of the employer.” Examples of such activities include travel to and from customer contacts, conducting job tasks, and entertaining or being entertained to transact, discuss, or promote business (work-related entertainment includes only entertainment activities being engaged in at the direction of the employer).


Injuries or illnesses that occur when the employee is on travel status do not have to be recorded if they meet one of the exceptions listed below.


1904.5 (b)(6)
If the employee has . . .
You may use the following to determine if an injury or illness is work-related
(i)checked into a hotel or motel for one or more daysWhen a traveling employee checks into a hotel, motel, or into an other temporary residence, he or she establishes a “home away from home.” You must evaluate the employee’s activities after he or she checks into the hotel, motel, or other temporary residence for their work-relatedness in the same manner as you evaluate the activities of a non-traveling employee. When the employee checks into the temporary residence, he or she is considered to have left the work environment. When the employee begins work each day, he or she re-enters the work environment. If the employee has established a “home away from home” and is reporting to a fixed worksite each day, you also do not consider injuries or illnesses work-related if they occur while the employee is commuting between the temporary residence and the job location.
(ii)taken a detour for personal reasonsInjuries or illnesses are not considered work-related if they occur while the employee is on a personal detour from a reasonably direct route of travel (e.g., has taken a side trip for personal reasons).

(7) How do I decide if a case is work-related when the employee is working at home? Injuries and illnesses that occur while an employee is working at home, including work in a home office, will be considered work-related if the injury or illness occurs while the employee is performing work for pay or compensation in the home, and the injury or illness is directly related to the performance of work rather than to the general home environment or setting. For example, if an employee drops a box of work documents and injures his or her foot, the case is considered work-related. If an employee’s fingernail is punctured by a needle from a sewing machine used to perform garment work at home, becomes infected and requires medical treatment, the injury is considered work-related. If an employee is injured because he or she trips on the family dog while rushing to answer a work phone call, the case is not considered work-related. If an employee working at home is electrocuted because of faulty home wiring, the injury is not considered work-related.


§ 1904.6 Determination of new cases.

(a) Basic requirement. You must consider an injury or illness to be a “new case” if:


(1) The employee has not previously experienced a recorded injury or illness of the same type that affects the same part of the body, or


(2) The employee previously experienced a recorded injury or illness of the same type that affected the same part of the body but had recovered completely (all signs and symptoms had disappeared) from the previous injury or illness and an event or exposure in the work environment caused the signs or symptoms to reappear.


(b) Implementation – (1) When an employee experiences the signs or symptoms of a chronic work-related illness, do I need to consider each recurrence of signs or symptoms to be a new case? No, for occupational illnesses where the signs or symptoms may recur or continue in the absence of an exposure in the workplace, the case must only be recorded once. Examples may include occupational cancer, asbestosis, byssinosis and silicosis.


(2) When an employee experiences the signs or symptoms of an injury or illness as a result of an event or exposure in the workplace, such as an episode of occupational asthma, must I treat the episode as a new case? Yes, because the episode or recurrence was caused by an event or exposure in the workplace, the incident must be treated as a new case.


(3) May I rely on a physician or other licensed health care professional to determine whether a case is a new case or a recurrence of an old case? You are not required to seek the advice of a physician or other licensed health care professional. However, if you do seek such advice, you must follow the physician or other licensed health care professional’s recommendation about whether the case is a new case or a recurrence. If you receive recommendations from two or more physicians or other licensed health care professionals, you must make a decision as to which recommendation is the most authoritative (best documented, best reasoned, or most authoritative), and record the case based upon that recommendation.


§ 1904.7 General recording criteria.

(a) Basic requirement. You must consider an injury or illness to meet the general recording criteria, and therefore to be recordable, if it results in any of the following: death, days away from work, restricted work or transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness. You must also consider a case to meet the general recording criteria if it involves a significant injury or illness diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health care professional, even if it does not result in death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness.


(b) Implementation – (1) How do I decide if a case meets one or more of the general recording criteria? A work-related injury or illness must be recorded if it results in one or more of the following:


(i) Death. See § 1904.7(b)(2).


(ii) Days away from work. See § 1904.7(b)(3).


(iii) Restricted work or transfer to another job. See § 1904.7(b)(4).


(iv) Medical treatment beyond first aid. See § 1904.7(b)(5).


(v) Loss of consciousness. See § 1904.7(b)(6).


(vi) A significant injury or illness diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health care professional. See § 1904.7(b)(7).


(2) How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in the employee’s death? You must record an injury or illness that results in death by entering a check mark on the OSHA 300 Log in the space for cases resulting in death. You must also report any work-related fatality to OSHA within eight (8) hours, as required by § 1904.39.


(3) How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in days away from work? When an injury or illness involves one or more days away from work, you must record the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log with a check mark in the space for cases involving days away and an entry of the number of calendar days away from work in the number of days column. If the employee is out for an extended period of time, you must enter an estimate of the days that the employee will be away, and update the day count when the actual number of days is known.


(i) Do I count the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began? No, you begin counting days away on the day after the injury occurred or the illness began.


(ii) How do I record an injury or illness when a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the worker stay at home but the employee comes to work anyway? You must record these injuries and illnesses on the OSHA 300 Log using the check box for cases with days away from work and enter the number of calendar days away recommended by the physician or other licensed health care professional. If a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends days away, you should encourage your employee to follow that recommendation. However, the days away must be recorded whether the injured or ill employee follows the physician or licensed health care professional’s recommendation or not. If you receive recommendations from two or more physicians or other licensed health care professionals, you may make a decision as to which recommendation is the most authoritative, and record the case based upon that recommendation.


(iii) How do I handle a case when a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the worker return to work but the employee stays at home anyway? In this situation, you must end the count of days away from work on the date the physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the employee return to work.


(iv) How do I count weekends, holidays, or other days the employee would not have worked anyway? You must count the number of calendar days the employee was unable to work as a result of the injury or illness, regardless of whether or not the employee was scheduled to work on those day(s). Weekend days, holidays, vacation days or other days off are included in the total number of days recorded if the employee would not have been able to work on those days because of a work-related injury or illness.


(v) How do I record a case in which a worker is injured or becomes ill on a Friday and reports to work on a Monday, and was not scheduled to work on the weekend? You need to record this case only if you receive information from a physician or other licensed health care professional indicating that the employee should not have worked, or should have performed only restricted work, during the weekend. If so, you must record the injury or illness as a case with days away from work or restricted work, and enter the day counts, as appropriate.


(vi) How do I record a case in which a worker is injured or becomes ill on the day before scheduled time off such as a holiday, a planned vacation, or a temporary plant closing? You need to record a case of this type only if you receive information from a physician or other licensed health care professional indicating that the employee should not have worked, or should have performed only restricted work, during the scheduled time off. If so, you must record the injury or illness as a case with days away from work or restricted work, and enter the day counts, as appropriate.


(vii) Is there a limit to the number of days away from work I must count? Yes, you may “cap” the total days away at 180 calendar days. You are not required to keep track of the number of calendar days away from work if the injury or illness resulted in more than 180 calendar days away from work and/or days of job transfer or restriction. In such a case, entering 180 in the total days away column will be considered adequate.


(viii) May I stop counting days if an employee who is away from work because of an injury or illness retires or leaves my company? Yes, if the employee leaves your company for some reason unrelated to the injury or illness, such as retirement, a plant closing, or to take another job, you may stop counting days away from work or days of restriction/job transfer. If the employee leaves your company because of the injury or illness, you must estimate the total number of days away or days of restriction/job transfer and enter the day count on the 300 Log.


(ix) If a case occurs in one year but results in days away during the next calendar year, do I record the case in both years? No, you only record the injury or illness once. You must enter the number of calendar days away for the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log for the year in which the injury or illness occurred. If the employee is still away from work because of the injury or illness when you prepare the annual summary, estimate the total number of calendar days you expect the employee to be away from work, use this number to calculate the total for the annual summary, and then update the initial log entry later when the day count is known or reaches the 180-day cap.


(4) How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in restricted work or job transfer? When an injury or illness involves restricted work or job transfer but does not involve death or days away from work, you must record the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log by placing a check mark in the space for job transfer or restriction and an entry of the number of restricted or transferred days in the restricted workdays column.


(i) How do I decide if the injury or illness resulted in restricted work? Restricted work occurs when, as the result of a work-related injury or illness:


(A) You keep the employee from performing one or more of the routine functions of his or her job, or from working the full workday that he or she would otherwise have been scheduled to work; or


(B) A physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the employee not perform one or more of the routine functions of his or her job, or not work the full workday that he or she would otherwise have been scheduled to work.


(ii) What is meant by “routine functions”? For recordkeeping purposes, an employee’s routine functions are those work activities the employee regularly performs at least once per week.


(iii) Do I have to record restricted work or job transfer if it applies only to the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began? No, you do not have to record restricted work or job transfers if you, or the physician or other licensed health care professional, impose the restriction or transfer only for the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began.


(iv) If you or a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends a work restriction, is the injury or illness automatically recordable as a “restricted work” case? No, a recommended work restriction is recordable only if it affects one or more of the employee’s routine job functions. To determine whether this is the case, you must evaluate the restriction in light of the routine functions of the injured or ill employee’s job. If the restriction from you or the physician or other licensed health care professional keeps the employee from performing one or more of his or her routine job functions, or from working the full workday the injured or ill employee would otherwise have worked, the employee’s work has been restricted and you must record the case.


(v) How do I record a case where the worker works only for a partial work shift because of a work-related injury or illness? A partial day of work is recorded as a day of job transfer or restriction for recordkeeping purposes, except for the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began.


(vi) If the injured or ill worker produces fewer goods or services than he or she would have produced prior to the injury or illness but otherwise performs all of the routine functions of his or her work, is the case considered a restricted work case? No, the case is considered restricted work only if the worker does not perform all of the routine functions of his or her job or does not work the full shift that he or she would otherwise have worked.


(vii) How do I handle vague restrictions from a physician or other licensed health care professional, such as that the employee engage only in “light duty” or “take it easy for a week”? If you are not clear about the physician or other licensed health care professional’s recommendation, you may ask that person whether the employee can do all of his or her routine job functions and work all of his or her normally assigned work shift. If the answer to both of these questions is “Yes,” then the case does not involve a work restriction and does not have to be recorded as such. If the answer to one or both of these questions is “No,” the case involves restricted work and must be recorded as a restricted work case. If you are unable to obtain this additional information from the physician or other licensed health care professional who recommended the restriction, record the injury or illness as a case involving restricted work.


(viii) What do I do if a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends a job restriction meeting OSHA’s definition, but the employee does all of his or her routine job functions anyway? You must record the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log as a restricted work case. If a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends a job restriction, you should ensure that the employee complies with that restriction. If you receive recommendations from two or more physicians or other licensed health care professionals, you may make a decision as to which recommendation is the most authoritative, and record the case based upon that recommendation.


(ix) How do I decide if an injury or illness involved a transfer to another job? If you assign an injured or ill employee to a job other than his or her regular job for part of the day, the case involves transfer to another job. Note: This does not include the day on which the injury or illness occurred.


(x) Are transfers to another job recorded in the same way as restricted work cases? Yes, both job transfer and restricted work cases are recorded in the same box on the OSHA 300 Log. For example, if you assign, or a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that you assign, an injured or ill worker to his or her routine job duties for part of the day and to another job for the rest of the day, the injury or illness involves a job transfer. You must record an injury or illness that involves a job transfer by placing a check in the box for job transfer.


(xi) How do I count days of job transfer or restriction? You count days of job transfer or restriction in the same way you count days away from work, using § 1904.7(b)(3)(i) to (viii), above. The only difference is that, if you permanently assign the injured or ill employee to a job that has been modified or permanently changed in a manner that eliminates the routine functions the employee was restricted from performing, you may stop the day count when the modification or change is made permanent. You must count at least one day of restricted work or job transfer for such cases.


(5) How do I record an injury or illness that involves medical treatment beyond first aid? If a work-related injury or illness results in medical treatment beyond first aid, you must record it on the OSHA 300 Log. If the injury or illness did not involve death, one or more days away from work, one or more days of restricted work, or one or more days of job transfer, you enter a check mark in the box for cases where the employee received medical treatment but remained at work and was not transferred or restricted.


(i) What is the definition of medical treatment? “Medical treatment” means the management and care of a patient to combat disease or disorder. For the purposes of part 1904, medical treatment does not include:


(A) Visits to a physician or other licensed health care professional solely for observation or counseling;


(B) The conduct of diagnostic procedures, such as x-rays and blood tests, including the administration of prescription medications used solely for diagnostic purposes (e.g., eye drops to dilate pupils); or


(C) “First aid” as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section.


(ii) What is “first aid”? For the purposes of part 1904, “first aid” means the following:


(A) Using a non-prescription medication at nonprescription strength (for medications available in both prescription and non-prescription form, a recommendation by a physician or other licensed health care professional to use a non-prescription medication at prescription strength is considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes);


(B) Administering tetanus immunizations (other immunizations, such as Hepatitis B vaccine or rabies vaccine, are considered medical treatment);


(C) Cleaning, flushing or soaking wounds on the surface of the skin;


(D) Using wound coverings such as bandages, Band-Aids
TM, gauze pads, etc.; or using butterfly bandages or Steri-Strips
TM (other wound closing devices such as sutures, staples, etc., are considered medical treatment);


(E) Using hot or cold therapy;


(F) Using any non-rigid means of support, such as elastic bandages, wraps, non-rigid back belts, etc. (devices with rigid stays or other systems designed to immobilize parts of the body are considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes);


(G) Using temporary immobilization devices while transporting an accident victim (e.g., splints, slings, neck collars, back boards, etc.).


(H) Drilling of a fingernail or toenail to relieve pressure, or draining fluid from a blister;


(I) Using eye patches;


(J) Removing foreign bodies from the eye using only irrigation or a cotton swab;


(K) Removing splinters or foreign material from areas other than the eye by irrigation, tweezers, cotton swabs or other simple means;


(L) Using finger guards;


(M) Using massages (physical therapy or chiropractic treatment are considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes); or


(N) Drinking fluids for relief of heat stress.


(iii) Are any other procedures included in first aid? No, this is a complete list of all treatments considered first aid for part 1904 purposes.


(iv) Does the professional status of the person providing the treatment have any effect on what is considered first aid or medical treatment? No, OSHA considers the treatments listed in § 1904.7(b)(5)(ii) of this part to be first aid regardless of the professional status of the person providing the treatment. Even when these treatments are provided by a physician or other licensed health care professional, they are considered first aid for the purposes of part 1904. Similarly, OSHA considers treatment beyond first aid to be medical treatment even when it is provided by someone other than a physician or other licensed health care professional.


(v) What if a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends medical treatment but the employee does not follow the recommendation? If a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends medical treatment, you should encourage the injured or ill employee to follow that recommendation. However, you must record the case even if the injured or ill employee does not follow the physician or other licensed health care professional’s recommendation.


(6) Is every work-related injury or illness case involving a loss of consciousness recordable? Yes, you must record a work-related injury or illness if the worker becomes unconscious, regardless of the length of time the employee remains unconscious.


(7) What is a “significant” diagnosed injury or illness that is recordable under the general criteria even if it does not result in death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness? Work-related cases involving cancer, chronic irreversible disease, a fractured or cracked bone, or a punctured eardrum must always be recorded under the general criteria at the time of diagnosis by a physician or other licensed health care professional.



Note to § 1904.7:

OSHA believes that most significant injuries and illnesses will result in one of the criteria listed in § 1904.7(a): death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness. However, there are some significant injuries, such as a punctured eardrum or a fractured toe or rib, for which neither medical treatment nor work restrictions may be recommended. In addition, there are some significant progressive diseases, such as byssinosis, silicosis, and some types of cancer, for which medical treatment or work restrictions may not be recommended at the time of diagnosis but are likely to be recommended as the disease progresses. OSHA believes that cancer, chronic irreversible diseases, fractured or cracked bones, and punctured eardrums are generally considered significant injuries and illnesses, and must be recorded at the initial diagnosis even if medical treatment or work restrictions are not recommended, or are postponed, in a particular case.


§ 1904.8 Recording criteria for needlestick and sharps injuries.

(a) Basic requirement. You must record all work-related needlestick injuries and cuts from sharp objects that are contaminated with another person’s blood or other potentially infectious material (as defined by 29 CFR 1910.1030). You must enter the case on the OSHA 300 Log as an injury. To protect the employee’s privacy, you may not enter the employee’s name on the OSHA 300 Log (see the requirements for privacy cases in paragraphs 1904.29(b)(6) through 1904.29(b)(9)).


(b) Implementation – (1) What does “other potentially infectious material” mean? The term “other potentially infectious materials” is defined in the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens standard at § 1910.1030(b). These materials include:


(i) Human bodily fluids, tissues and organs, and


(ii) Other materials infected with the HIV or hepatitis B (HBV) virus such as laboratory cultures or tissues from experimental animals.


(2) Does this mean that I must record all cuts, lacerations, punctures, and scratches? No, you need to record cuts, lacerations, punctures, and scratches only if they are work-related and involve contamination with another person’s blood or other potentially infectious material. If the cut, laceration, or scratch involves a clean object, or a contaminant other than blood or other potentially infectious material, you need to record the case only if it meets one or more of the recording criteria in § 1904.7.


(3) If I record an injury and the employee is later diagnosed with an infectious bloodborne disease, do I need to update the OSHA 300 Log? Yes, you must update the classification of the case on the OSHA 300 Log if the case results in death, days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer. You must also update the description to identify the infectious disease and change the classification of the case from an injury to an illness.


(4) What if one of my employees is splashed or exposed to blood or other potentially infectious material without being cut or scratched? Do I need to record this incident? You need to record such an incident on the OSHA 300 Log as an illness if:


(i) It results in the diagnosis of a bloodborne illness, such as HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C; or


(ii) It meets one or more of the recording criteria in § 1904.7.


§ 1904.9 Recording criteria for cases involving medical removal under OSHA standards.

(a) Basic requirement. If an employee is medically removed under the medical surveillance requirements of an OSHA standard, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log.


(b) Implementation – (1) How do I classify medical removal cases on the OSHA 300 Log? You must enter each medical removal case on the OSHA 300 Log as either a case involving days away from work or a case involving restricted work activity, depending on how you decide to comply with the medical removal requirement. If the medical removal is the result of a chemical exposure, you must enter the case on the OSHA 300 Log by checking the “poisoning” column.


(2) Do all of OSHA’s standards have medical removal provisions? No, some OSHA standards, such as the standards covering bloodborne pathogens and noise, do not have medical removal provisions. Many OSHA standards that cover specific chemical substances have medical removal provisions. These standards include, but are not limited to, lead, cadmium, methylene chloride, formaldehyde, and benzene.


(3) Do I have to record a case where I voluntarily removed the employee from exposure before the medical removal criteria in an OSHA standard are met? No, if the case involves voluntary medical removal before the medical removal levels required by an OSHA standard, you do not need to record the case on the OSHA 300 Log.


§ 1904.10 Recording criteria for cases involving occupational hearing loss.

(a) Basic requirement. If an employee’s hearing test (audiogram) reveals that the employee has experienced a work-related Standard Threshold Shift (STS) in hearing in one or both ears, and the employee’s total hearing level is 25 decibels (dB) or more above audiometric zero (averaged at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) in the same ear(s) as the STS, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log.


(b) Implementation – (1) What is a Standard Threshold Shift? A Standard Threshold Shift, or STS, is defined in the occupational noise exposure standard at 29 CFR 1910.95(g)(10)(i) as a change in hearing threshold, relative to the baseline audiogram for that employee, of an average of 10 decibels (dB) or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000 hertz (Hz) in one or both ears.


(2) How do I evaluate the current audiogram to determine whether an employee has an STS and a 25-dB hearing level? – (i) STS. If the employee has never previously experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee’s current audiogram with that employee’s baseline audiogram. If the employee has previously experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee’s current audiogram with the employee’s revised baseline audiogram (the audiogram reflecting the employee’s previous recordable hearing loss case).


(ii) 25-dB loss. Audiometric test results reflect the employee’s overall hearing ability in comparison to audiometric zero. Therefore, using the employee’s current audiogram, you must use the average hearing level at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz to determine whether or not the employee’s total hearing level is 25 dB or more.


(3) May I adjust the current audiogram to reflect the effects of aging on hearing? Yes. When you are determining whether an STS has occurred, you may age adjust the employee’s current audiogram results by using Tables F-1 or F-2, as appropriate, in appendix F of 29 CFR 1910.95. You may not use an age adjustment when determining whether the employee’s total hearing level is 25 dB or more above audiometric zero.


(4) Do I have to record the hearing loss if I am going to retest the employee’s hearing? No, if you retest the employee’s hearing within 30 days of the first test, and the retest does not confirm the recordable STS, you are not required to record the hearing loss case on the OSHA 300 Log. If the retest confirms the recordable STS, you must record the hearing loss illness within seven (7) calendar days of the retest. If subsequent audiometric testing performed under the testing requirements of the § 1910.95 noise standard indicates that an STS is not persistent, you may erase or line-out the recorded entry.


(5) Are there any special rules for determining whether a hearing loss case is work-related? No. You must use the rules in § 1904.5 to determine if the hearing loss is work-related. If an event or exposure in the work environment either caused or contributed to the hearing loss, or significantly aggravated a pre-existing hearing loss, you must consider the case to be work related.


(6) If a physician or other licensed health care professional determines the hearing loss is not work-related, do I still need to record the case? If a physician or other licensed health care professional determines, following the rules set out in § 1904.5, that the hearing loss is not work-related or that occupational noise exposure did not significantly aggravate the hearing loss, you do not have to consider the case work-related or record the case on the OSHA 300 Log.


(7) How do I complete the 300 Log for a hearing loss case? When you enter a recordable hearing loss case on the OSHA 300 Log, you must check the 300 Log column for hearing loss.



(Note:

§ 1904.10(b)(7) is effective beginning January 1, 2004.)


[67 FR 44047, July 1, 2002, as amended at 67 FR 77170, Dec. 17, 2002; 84 FR 21457, May 14, 2019]


§ 1904.11 Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.

(a) Basic requirement. If any of your employees has been occupationally exposed to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee subsequently develops a tuberculosis infection, as evidenced by a positive skin test or diagnosis by a physician or other licensed health care professional, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log by checking the “respiratory condition” column.


(b) Implementation – (1) Do I have to record, on the Log, a positive TB skin test result obtained at a pre-employment physical? No, you do not have to record it because the employee was not occupationally exposed to a known case of active tuberculosis in your workplace.


(2) May I line-out or erase a recorded TB case if I obtain evidence that the case was not caused by occupational exposure? Yes, you may line-out or erase the case from the Log under the following circumstances:


(i) The worker is living in a household with a person who has been diagnosed with active TB;


(ii) The Public Health Department has identified the worker as a contact of an individual with a case of active TB unrelated to the workplace; or


(iii) A medical investigation shows that the employee’s infection was caused by exposure to TB away from work, or proves that the case was not related to the workplace TB exposure.


§§ 1904.13-1904.28 [Reserved]

§ 1904.29 Forms.

(a) Basic requirement. You must use OSHA 300, 300-A, and 301 forms, or equivalent forms, for recordable injuries and illnesses. The OSHA 300 form is called the Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses, the 300-A is the Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses, and the OSHA 301 form is called the Injury and Illness Incident Report.


(b) Implementation – (1) What do I need to do to complete the OSHA 300 Log? You must enter information about your business at the top of the OSHA 300 Log, enter a one or two line description for each recordable injury or illness, and summarize this information on the OSHA 300-A at the end of the year.


(2) What do I need to do to complete the OSHA 301 Incident Report? You must complete an OSHA 301 Incident Report form, or an equivalent form, for each recordable injury or illness entered on the OSHA 300 Log.


(3) How quickly must each injury or illness be recorded? You must enter each recordable injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log and 301 Incident Report within seven (7) calendar days of receiving information that a recordable injury or illness has occurred.


(4) What is an equivalent form? An equivalent form is one that has the same information, is as readable and understandable, and is completed using the same instructions as the OSHA form it replaces. Many employers use an insurance form instead of the OSHA 301 Incident Report, or supplement an insurance form by adding any additional information required by OSHA.


(5) May I keep my records on a computer? Yes, if the computer can produce equivalent forms when they are needed, as described under §§ 1904.35 and 1904.40, you may keep your records using the computer system.


(6) Are there situations where I do not put the employee’s name on the forms for privacy reasons? Yes, if you have a “privacy concern case,” you may not enter the employee’s name on the OSHA 300 Log. Instead, enter “privacy case” in the space normally used for the employee’s name. This will protect the privacy of the injured or ill employee when another employee, a former employee, or an authorized employee representative is provided access to the OSHA 300 Log under § 1904.35(b)(2). You must keep a separate, confidential list of the case numbers and employee names for your privacy concern cases so you can update the cases and provide the information to the government if asked to do so.


(7) How do I determine if an injury or illness is a privacy concern case? You must consider the following injuries or illnesses to be privacy concern cases:


(i) An injury or illness to an intimate body part or the reproductive system;


(ii) An injury or illness resulting from a sexual assault;


(iii) Mental illnesses;


(iv) HIV infection, hepatitis, or tuberculosis;


(v) Needlestick injuries and cuts from sharp objects that are contaminated with another person’s blood or other potentially infectious material (see § 1904.8 for definitions); and


(vi) Other illnesses, if the employee voluntarily requests that his or her name not be entered on the log.


(8) May I classify any other types of injuries and illnesses as privacy concern cases? No, this is a complete list of all injuries and illnesses considered privacy concern cases for part 1904 purposes.


(9) If I have removed the employee’s name, but still believe that the employee may be identified from the information on the forms, is there anything else that I can do to further protect the employee’s privacy? Yes, if you have a reasonable basis to believe that information describing the privacy concern case may be personally identifiable even though the employee’s name has been omitted, you may use discretion in describing the injury or illness on both the OSHA 300 and 301 forms. You must enter enough information to identify the cause of the incident and the general severity of the injury or illness, but you do not need to include details of an intimate or private nature. For example, a sexual assault case could be described as “injury from assault,” or an injury to a reproductive organ could be described as “lower abdominal injury.”


(10) What must I do to protect employee privacy if I wish to provide access to the OSHA Forms 300 and 301 to persons other than government representatives, employees, former employees or authorized representatives? If you decide to voluntarily disclose the Forms to persons other than government representatives, employees, former employees or authorized representatives (as required by §§ 1904.35 and 1904.40), you must remove or hide the employees’ names and other personally identifying information, except for the following cases. You may disclose the Forms with personally identifying information only:


(i) to an auditor or consultant hired by the employer to evaluate the safety and health program;


(ii) to the extent necessary for processing a claim for workers’ compensation or other insurance benefits; or


(iii) to a public health authority or law enforcement agency for uses and disclosures for which consent, an authorization, or opportunity to agree or object is not required under Department of Health and Human Services Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, 45 CFR 164.512.


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 52034, Oct. 12, 2001; 67 FR 77170, Dec. 17, 2002; 68 FR 38607, June 30, 2003; 81 FR 91809, Dec. 19, 2016; 82 FR 20548, May 3, 2017]


Subpart D – Other OSHA Injury and Illness Recordkeeping Requirements

§ 1904.30 Multiple business establishments.

(a) Basic requirement. You must keep a separate OSHA 300 Log for each establishment that is expected to be in operation for one year or longer.


(b) Implementation – (1) Do I need to keep OSHA injury and illness records for short-term establishments (i.e., establishments that will exist for less than a year)? Yes, however, you do not have to keep a separate OSHA 300 Log for each such establishment. You may keep one OSHA 300 Log that covers all of your short-term establishments. You may also include the short-term establishments’ recordable injuries and illnesses on an OSHA 300 Log that covers short-term establishments for individual company divisions or geographic regions.


(2) May I keep the records for all of my establishments at my headquarters location or at some other central location? Yes, you may keep the records for an establishment at your headquarters or other central location if you can:


(i) Transmit information about the injuries and illnesses from the establishment to the central location within seven (7) calendar days of receiving information that a recordable injury or illness has occurred; and


(ii) Produce and send the records from the central location to the establishment within the time frames required by §§ 1904.35 and 1904.40 when you are required to provide records to a government representative, employees, former employees or employee representatives.


(3) Some of my employees work at several different locations or do not work at any of my establishments at all. How do I record cases for these employees? You must link each of your employees with one of your establishments, for recordkeeping purposes. You must record the injury and illness on the OSHA 300 Log of the injured or ill employee’s establishment, or on an OSHA 300 Log that covers that employee’s short-term establishment.


(4) How do I record an injury or illness when an employee of one of my establishments is injured or becomes ill while visiting or working at another of my establishments, or while working away from any of my establishments? If the injury or illness occurs at one of your establishments, you must record the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log of the establishment at which the injury or illness occurred. If the employee is injured or becomes ill and is not at one of your establishments, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log at the establishment at which the employee normally works.


§ 1904.31 Covered employees.

(a) Basic requirement. You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the recordable injuries and illnesses of all employees on your payroll, whether they are labor, executive, hourly, salary, part-time, seasonal, or migrant workers. You also must record the recordable injuries and illnesses that occur to employees who are not on your payroll if you supervise these employees on a day-to-day basis. If your business is organized as a sole proprietorship or partnership, the owner or partners are not considered employees for recordkeeping purposes.


(b) Implementation – (1) If a self-employed person is injured or becomes ill while doing work at my business, do I need to record the injury or illness? No, self-employed individuals are not covered by the OSH Act or this regulation.


(2) If I obtain employees from a temporary help service, employee leasing service, or personnel supply service, do I have to record an injury or illness occurring to one of those employees? You must record these injuries and illnesses if you supervise these employees on a day-to-day basis.


(3) If an employee in my establishment is a contractor’s employee, must I record an injury or illness occurring to that employee? If the contractor’s employee is under the day-to-day supervision of the contractor, the contractor is responsible for recording the injury or illness. If you supervise the contractor employee’s work on a day-to-day basis, you must record the injury or illness.


(4) Must the personnel supply service, temporary help service, employee leasing service, or contractor also record the injuries or illnesses occurring to temporary, leased or contract employees that I supervise on a day-to-day basis? No, you and the temporary help service, employee leasing service, personnel supply service, or contractor should coordinate your efforts to make sure that each injury and illness is recorded only once: either on your OSHA 300 Log (if you provide day-to-day supervision) or on the other employer’s OSHA 300 Log (if that company provides day-to-day supervision).


§ 1904.32 Annual summary.

(a) Basic requirement. At the end of each calendar year, you must:


(1) Review the OSHA 300 Log to verify that the entries are complete and accurate, and correct any deficiencies identified;


(2) Create an annual summary of injuries and illnesses recorded on the OSHA 300 Log;


(3) Certify the summary; and


(4) Post the annual summary.


(b) Implementation – (1) How extensively do I have to review the OSHA 300 Log entries at the end of the year? You must review the entries as extensively as necessary to make sure that they are complete and correct.


(2) How do I complete the annual summary? You must:


(i) Total the columns on the OSHA 300 Log (if you had no recordable cases, enter zeros for each column total); and


(ii) Enter the calendar year covered, the company’s name, establishment name, establishment address, annual average number of employees covered by the OSHA 300 Log, and the total hours worked by all employees covered by the OSHA 300 Log.


(iii) If you are using an equivalent form other than the OSHA 300-A summary form, as permitted under § 1904.29(b)(4), the summary you use must also include the employee access and employer penalty statements found on the OSHA 300-A Summary form.


(3) How do I certify the annual summary? A company executive must certify that he or she has examined the OSHA 300 Log and that he or she reasonably believes, based on his or her knowledge of the process by which the information was recorded, that the annual summary is correct and complete.


(4) Who is considered a company executive? The company executive who certifies the log must be one of the following persons:


(i) An owner of the company (only if the company is a sole proprietorship or partnership);


(ii) An officer of the corporation;


(iii) The highest ranking company official working at the establishment; or


(iv) The immediate supervisor of the highest ranking company official working at the establishment.


(5) How do I post the annual summary? You must post a copy of the annual summary in each establishment in a conspicuous place or places where notices to employees are customarily posted. You must ensure that the posted annual summary is not altered, defaced or covered by other material.


(6) When do I have to post the annual summary? You must post the summary no later than February 1 of the year following the year covered by the records and keep the posting in place until April 30.


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 81 FR 91810, Dec. 19, 2016; 82 FR 20548, May 3, 2017; 85 FR 8731, Feb. 18, 2020]


§ 1904.33 Retention and updating.

(a) Basic requirement. You must save the OSHA 300 Log, the privacy case list (if one exists), the annual summary, and the OSHA 301 Incident Report forms for five (5) years following the end of the calendar year that these records cover.


(b) Implementation – (1) Do I have to update the OSHA 300 Log during the five-year storage period? Yes, during the storage period, you must update your stored OSHA 300 Logs to include newly discovered recordable injuries or illnesses and to show any changes that have occurred in the classification of previously recorded injuries and illnesses. If the description or outcome of a case changes, you must remove or line out the original entry and enter the new information.


(2) Do I have to update the annual summary? No, you are not required to update the annual summary, but you may do so if you wish.


(3) Do I have to update the OSHA 301 Incident Reports? No, you are not required to update the OSHA 301 Incident Reports, but you may do so if you wish.


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 81 FR 91810, Dec. 19, 2016; 82 FR 20548, May 3, 2017]


§ 1904.34 Change in business ownership.

If your business changes ownership, you are responsible for recording and reporting work-related injuries and illnesses only for that period of the year during which you owned the establishment. You must transfer the part 1904 records to the new owner. The new owner must save all records of the establishment kept by the prior owner, as required by § 1904.33 of this part, but need not update or correct the records of the prior owner.


[82 FR 20549, May 3, 2017]


§ 1904.35 Employee involvement.

(a) Basic requirement. Your employees and their representatives must be involved in the recordkeeping system in several ways.


(1) You must inform each employee of how he or she is to report a work-related injury or illness to you.


(2) You must provide employees with the information described in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.


(3) You must provide access to your injury and illness records for your employees and their representatives as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.


(b) Implementation – (1) What must I do to make sure that employees report work-related injuries and illnesses to me? (i) You must establish a reasonable procedure for employees to report work-related injuries and illnesses promptly and accurately. A procedure is not reasonable if it would deter or discourage a reasonable employee from accurately reporting a workplace injury or illness;


(ii) You must inform each employee of your procedure for reporting work-related injuries and illnesses;


(iii) You must inform each employee that:


(A) Employees have the right to report work-related injuries and illnesses; and


(B) Employers are prohibited from discharging or in any manner discriminating against employees for reporting work-related injuries or illnesses; and


(iv) You must not discharge or in any manner discriminate against any employee for reporting a work-related injury or illness.


(2) Do I have to give my employees and their representatives access to the OSHA injury and illness records? Yes, your employees, former employees, their personal representatives, and their authorized employee representatives have the right to access the OSHA injury and illness records, with some limitations, as discussed below.


(i) Who is an authorized employee representative? An authorized employee representative is an authorized collective bargaining agent of employees.


(ii) Who is a “personal representative” of an employee or former employee? A personal representative is:


(A) Any person that the employee or former employee designates as such, in writing; or


(B) The legal representative of a deceased or legally incapacitated employee or former employee.


(iii) If an employee or representative asks for access to the OSHA 300 Log, when do I have to provide it? When an employee, former employee, personal representative, or authorized employee representative asks for copies of your current or stored OSHA 300 Log(s) for an establishment the employee or former employee has worked in, you must give the requester a copy of the relevant OSHA 300 Log(s) by the end of the next business day.


(iv) May I remove the names of the employees or any other information from the OSHA 300 Log before I give copies to an employee, former employee, or employee representative? No, you must leave the names on the 300 Log. However, to protect the privacy of injured and ill employees, you may not record the employee’s name on the OSHA 300 Log for certain “privacy concern cases,” as specified in § 1904.29(b)(6) through (9).


(v) If an employee or representative asks for access to the OSHA 301 Incident Report, when do I have to provide it? (A) When an employee, former employee, or personal representative asks for a copy of the OSHA 301 Incident Report describing an injury or illness to that employee or former employee, you must give the requester a copy of the OSHA 301 Incident Report containing that information by the end of the next business day.


(B) When an authorized employee representative asks for copies of the OSHA 301 Incident Reports for an establishment where the agent represents employees under a collective bargaining agreement, you must give copies of those forms to the authorized employee representative within 7 calendar days. You are only required to give the authorized employee representative information from the OSHA 301 Incident Report section titled “Tell us about the case.” You must remove all other information from the copy of the OSHA 301 Incident Report or the equivalent substitute form that you give to the authorized employee representative.


(vi) May I charge for the copies? No, you may not charge for these copies the first time they are provided. However, if one of the designated persons asks for additional copies, you may assess a reasonable charge for retrieving and copying the records.


[81 FR 29691, May 12, 2016; 81 FR 31854, May 20, 2016, as amended at 81 FR 91810, Dec. 19, 2016; 82 FR 20549, May 3, 2017]


§ 1904.36 Prohibition against discrimination.

In addition to § 1904.35, section 11(c) of the OSH Act also prohibits you from discriminating against an employee for reporting a work-related fatality, injury, or illness. That provision of the Act also protects the employee who files a safety and health complaint, asks for access to the part 1904 records, or otherwise exercises any rights afforded by the OSH Act.


[81 FR 29692, May 12, 2016]


§ 1904.37 State recordkeeping regulations.

(a) Basic requirement. Some States operate their own OSHA programs, under the authority of a State plan as approved by OSHA. States operating OSHA-approved State plans must have occupational injury and illness recording and reporting requirements that are substantially identical to the requirements in this part (see 29 CFR 1902.3(j), 29 CFR 1902.7, and 29 CFR 1956.10(i)).


(b) Implementation. (1) State-Plan States must have the same requirements as Federal OSHA for determining which injuries and illnesses are recordable and how they are recorded.


(2) For other part 1904 provisions (for example, industry exemptions, reporting of fatalities and hospitalizations, record retention, or employee involvement), State-Plan State requirements may be more stringent than or supplemental to the Federal requirements, but because of the unique nature of the national recordkeeping program, States must consult with and obtain approval of any such requirements.


(3) Although State and local government employees are not covered Federally, all State-Plan States must provide coverage, and must develop injury and illness statistics, for these workers. State Plan recording and reporting requirements for State and local government entities may differ from those for the private sector but must meet the requirements of paragraphs 1904.37(b)(1) and (b)(2).


(4) A State-Plan State may not issue a variance to a private sector employer and must recognize all variances issued by Federal OSHA.


(5) A State Plan State may only grant an injury and illness recording and reporting variance to a State or local government employer within the State after obtaining approval to grant the variance from Federal OSHA.


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 80 FR 49904, Aug. 18, 2015]


§ 1904.38 Variances from the recordkeeping rule.

(a) Basic requirement. If you wish to keep records in a different manner from the manner prescribed by the part 1904 regulations, you may submit a variance petition to the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210. You can obtain a variance only if you can show that your alternative recordkeeping system:


(1) Collects the same information as this part requires;


(2) Meets the purposes of the Act; and


(3) Does not interfere with the administration of the Act.


(b) Implementation – (1) What do I need to include in my variance petition? You must include the following items in your petition:


(i) Your name and address;


(ii) A list of the State(s) where the variance would be used;


(iii) The address(es) of the business establishment(s) involved;


(iv) A description of why you are seeking a variance;


(v) A description of the different recordkeeping procedures you propose to use;


(vi) A description of how your proposed procedures will collect the same information as would be collected by this part and achieve the purpose of the Act; and


(vii) A statement that you have informed your employees of the petition by giving them or their authorized representative a copy of the petition and by posting a statement summarizing the petition in the same way as notices are posted under § 1903.2(a).


(2) How will the Assistant Secretary handle my variance petition? The Assistant Secretary will take the following steps to process your variance petition.


(i) The Assistant Secretary will offer your employees and their authorized representatives an opportunity to submit written data, views, and arguments about your variance petition.


(ii) The Assistant Secretary may allow the public to comment on your variance petition by publishing the petition in the Federal Register. If the petition is published, the notice will establish a public comment period and may include a schedule for a public meeting on the petition.


(iii) After reviewing your variance petition and any comments from your employees and the public, the Assistant Secretary will decide whether or not your proposed recordkeeping procedures will meet the purposes of the Act, will not otherwise interfere with the Act, and will provide the same information as the part 1904 regulations provide. If your procedures meet these criteria, the Assistant Secretary may grant the variance subject to such conditions as he or she finds appropriate.


(iv) If the Assistant Secretary grants your variance petition, OSHA will publish a notice in the Federal Register to announce the variance. The notice will include the practices the variance allows you to use, any conditions that apply, and the reasons for allowing the variance.


(3) If I apply for a variance, may I use my proposed recordkeeping procedures while the Assistant Secretary is processing the variance petition? No, alternative recordkeeping practices are only allowed after the variance is approved. You must comply with the part 1904 regulations while the Assistant Secretary is reviewing your variance petition.


(4) If I have already been cited by OSHA for not following the part 1904 regulations, will my variance petition have any effect on the citation and penalty? No, in addition, the Assistant Secretary may elect not to review your variance petition if it includes an element for which you have been cited and the citation is still under review by a court, an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), or the OSH Review Commission.


(5) If I receive a variance, may the Assistant Secretary revoke the variance at a later date? Yes, the Assistant Secretary may revoke your variance if he or she has good cause. The procedures revoking a variance will follow the same process as OSHA uses for reviewing variance petitions, as outlined in paragraph 1904.38(b)(2). Except in cases of willfulness or where necessary for public safety, the Assistant Secretary will:


(i) Notify you in writing of the facts or conduct that may warrant revocation of your variance; and


(ii) Provide you, your employees, and authorized employee representatives with an opportunity to participate in the revocation procedures.


Subpart E – Reporting Fatality, Injury and Illness Information to the Government


Authority:29 U.S.C. 657, 673, 5 U.S.C. 553, and Secretary of Labor’s Order 1-2012 (77 FR 3912, Jan. 25, 2012).

§ 1904.39 Reporting fatalities, hospitalizations, amputations, and losses of an eye as a result of work-related incidents to OSHA.

(a) Basic requirement. (1) Within eight (8) hours after the death of any employee as a result of a work-related incident, you must report the fatality to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor.


(2) Within twenty-four (24) hours after the in-patient hospitalization of one or more employees or an employee’s amputation or an employee’s loss of an eye, as a result of a work-related incident, you must report the in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye to OSHA.


(3) You must report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye using one of the following methods:


(i) By telephone or in person to the OSHA Area Office that is nearest to the site of the incident.


(ii) By telephone to the OSHA toll-free central telephone number, 1-800-321-OSHA (1-800-321-6742).


(iii) By electronic submission using the reporting application located on OSHA’s public Web site at www.osha.gov.


(b) Implementation – (1) If the Area Office is closed, may I report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye by leaving a message on OSHA’s answering machine, faxing the Area Office, or sending an email? No, if the Area Office is closed, you must report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye using either the 800 number or the reporting application located on OSHA’s public Web site at www.osha.gov.


(2) What information do I need to give to OSHA about the in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye? You must give OSHA the following information for each fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye:


(i) The establishment name;


(ii) The location of the work-related incident;


(iii) The time of the work-related incident;


(iv) The type of reportable event (i.e., fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye);


(v) The number of employees who suffered a fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye;


(vi) The names of the employees who suffered a fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye;


(vii) Your contact person and his or her phone number; and


(viii) A brief description of the work-related incident.


(3) Do I have to report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye if it resulted from a motor vehicle accident on a public street or highway? If the motor vehicle accident occurred in a construction work zone, you must report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye. If the motor vehicle accident occurred on a public street or highway, but not in a construction work zone, you do not have to report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye to OSHA. However, the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye must be recorded on your OSHA injury and illness records, if you are required to keep such records.


(4) Do I have to report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye if it occurred on a commercial or public transportation system? No, you do not have to report the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye to OSHA if it occurred on a commercial or public transportation system (e.g., airplane, train, subway, or bus). However, the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye must be recorded on your OSHA injury and illness records, if you are required to keep such records.


(5) Do I have to report a work-related fatality or in-patient hospitalization caused by a heart attack? Yes, your local OSHA Area Office director will decide whether to investigate the event, depending on the circumstances of the heart attack.


(6) What if the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye does not occur during or right after the work-related incident? You must only report a fatality to OSHA if the fatality occurs within thirty (30) days of the work-related incident. For an in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye, you must only report the event to OSHA if it occurs within twenty-four (24) hours of the work-related incident. However, the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye must be recorded on your OSHA injury and illness records, if you are required to keep such records.


(7) What if I don’t learn about a reportable fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye right away? If you do not learn about a reportable fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye at the time it takes place, you must make the report to OSHA within the following time period after the fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye is reported to you or to any of your agent(s): Eight (8) hours for a fatality, and twenty-four (24) hours for an in-patient hospitalization, an amputation, or a loss of an eye.


(8) What if I don’t learn right away that the reportable fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye was the result of a work-related incident? If you do not learn right away that the reportable fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye was the result of a work-related incident, you must make the report to OSHA within the following time period after you or any of your agent(s) learn that the reportable fatality, in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye was the result of a work-related incident: Eight (8) hours for a fatality, and twenty-four (24) hours for an in-patient hospitalization, an amputation, or a loss of an eye.


(9) How does OSHA define “in-patient hospitalization”? OSHA defines in-patient hospitalization as a formal admission to the in-patient service of a hospital or clinic for care or treatment.


(10) Do I have to report an in-patient hospitalization that involves only observation or diagnostic testing? No, you do not have to report an in-patient hospitalization that involves only observation or diagnostic testing. You must only report to OSHA each in-patient hospitalization that involves care or treatment.


(11) How does OSHA define “amputation”? An amputation is the traumatic loss of a limb or other external body part. Amputations include a part, such as a limb or appendage, that has been severed, cut off, amputated (either completely or partially); fingertip amputations with or without bone loss; medical amputations resulting from irreparable damage; amputations of body parts that have since been reattached. Amputations do not include avulsions, enucleations, deglovings, scalpings, severed ears, or broken or chipped teeth.


[79 FR 56187, Sept. 18, 2014]


§ 1904.40 Providing records to government representatives.

(a) Basic requirement. When an authorized government representative asks for the records you keep under part 1904, you must provide copies of the records within four (4) business hours.


(b) Implementation – (1) What government representatives have the right to get copies of my part 1904 records? The government representatives authorized to receive the records are:


(i) A representative of the Secretary of Labor conducting an inspection or investigation under the Act;


(ii) A representative of the Secretary of Health and Human Services (including the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – NIOSH) conducting an investigation under section 20(b) of the Act, or


(iii) A representative of a State agency responsible for administering a State plan approved under section 18 of the Act.


(2) Do I have to produce the records within four (4) hours if my records are kept at a location in a different time zone? OSHA will consider your response to be timely if you give the records to the government representative within four (4) business hours of the request. If you maintain the records at a location in a different time zone, you may use the business hours of the establishment at which the records are located when calculating the deadline.


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 81 FR 91810, Dec. 19, 2016; 82 FR 20549, May 3, 2017]


§ 1904.41 Electronic submission of Employer Identification Number (EIN) and injury and illness records to OSHA.

(a) Basic requirements – (1) Annual electronic submission of OSHA Form 300A Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses by establishments with 250 or more employees. If your establishment had 250 or more employees at any time during the previous calendar year, and this part requires your establishment to keep records, then you must electronically submit information from OSHA Form 300A Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses to OSHA or OSHA’s designee. You must submit the information once a year, no later than the date listed in paragraph (c) of this section of the year after the calendar year covered by the form (for example, 2019 for the 2018 form).


(2) Annual electronic submission of OSHA Form 300A Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses by establishments with 20 or more employees but fewer than 250 employees in designated industries. If your establishment had 20 or more employees but fewer than 250 employees at any time during the previous calendar year, and your establishment is classified in an industry listed in appendix A to subpart E of this part, then you must electronically submit information from OSHA Form 300A Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses to OSHA or OSHA’s designee. You must submit the information once a year, no later than the date listed in paragraph (c) of this section of the year after the calendar year covered by the form.


(3) Electronic submission of part 1904 records upon notification. Upon notification, you must electronically submit the requested information from your part 1904 records to OSHA or OSHA’s designee.


(4) Electronic submission of the Employer Identification Number (EIN). For each establishment that is subject to these reporting requirements, you must provide the EIN used by the establishment.


(b) Implementation – (1) Does every employer have to routinely submit this information to OSHA? No, only two categories of employers must routinely submit this information. First, if your establishment had 250 or more employees at any time during the previous calendar year, and this part requires your establishment to keep records, then you must submit the required information to OSHA once a year. Second, if your establishment had 20 or more employees but fewer than 250 employees at any time during the previous calendar year, and your establishment is classified in an industry listed in appendix A to this subpart, then you must submit the required information to OSHA once a year. Employers in these two categories must submit the required information by the date listed in paragraph (c) of this section of the year after the calendar year covered by the form (for example, 2019 for the 2018 form). If you are not in either of these two categories, then you must submit the information to OSHA only if OSHA notifies you to do so for an individual data collection.


(2) Do part-time, seasonal, or temporary workers count as employees in the criteria for number of employees in paragraph (a) of this section? Yes, each individual employed in the establishment at any time during the calendar year counts as one employee, including full-time, part-time, seasonal, and temporary workers.


(3) How will OSHA notify me that I must submit information as part of an individual data collection under paragraph (a)(3) of this section? OSHA will notify you by mail if you will have to submit information as part of an individual data collection under paragraph (a)(3). OSHA will also announce individual data collections through publication in the Federal Register and the OSHA newsletter, and announcements on the OSHA website. If you are an employer who must routinely submit the information, then OSHA will not notify you about your routine submittal.


(4) When do I have to submit the information? If you are required to submit information under paragraph (a)(1) or (2) of this section, then you must submit the information once a year, by the date listed in paragraph (c) of this section of the year after the calendar year covered by the form (for example, 2019 for the 2018 form). If you are submitting information because OSHA notified you to submit information as part of an individual data collection under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, then you must submit the information as specified in the notification.


(5) How do I submit the information? You must submit the information electronically. OSHA will provide a secure website for the electronic submission of information. For individual data collections under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, OSHA will include the website’s location in the notification for the data collection.


(6) Do I have to submit information if my establishment is partially exempt from keeping OSHA injury and illness records? If you are partially exempt from keeping injury and illness records under §§ 1904.1 and/or 1904.2, then you do not have to routinely submit information under paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section. You will have to submit information under paragraph (a)(3) of this section if OSHA informs you in writing that it will collect injury and illness information from you. If you receive such a notification, then you must keep the injury and illness records required by this part and submit information as directed.


(7) Do I have to submit information if I am located in a State Plan State? Yes, the requirements apply to employers located in State Plan States.


(8) May an enterprise or corporate office electronically submit information for its establishment(s)? Yes, if your enterprise or corporate office had ownership of or control over one or more establishments required to submit information under paragraph (a) of this section, then the enterprise or corporate office may collect and electronically submit the information for the establishment(s).


(c) Reporting dates. (1) In 2017 and 2018, establishments required to submit under paragraph (a)(1) or (2) of this section must submit the required information according to the table in this paragraph (c)(1):


Submission year
Establishments submitting under paragraph (a)(1) of this section must submit the required information from this form/these forms:
Establishments submitting under paragraph (a)(2) of this section must submit the required information from this form:
Submission deadline
2017300A300ADecember 15, 2017.
2018300A, 300, 301300AJuly 1, 2018.

(2) Beginning in 2019, establishments that are required to submit under paragraph (a)(1) or (2) of this section will have to submit all of the required information by March 2 of the year after the calendar year covered by the form or forms (for example, by March 2, 2019, for the forms covering 2018).


[81 FR 29692, May 12, 2016, as amended at 82 FR 55765, Nov. 24, 2017; 84 FR 405, Jan. 25, 2019]


§ 1904.42 Requests from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for data.

(a) Basic requirement. If you receive a Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Form from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), or a BLS designee, you must promptly complete the form and return it following the instructions contained on the survey form.


(b) Implementation – (1) Does every employer have to send data to the BLS? No, each year, the BLS sends injury and illness survey forms to randomly selected employers and uses the information to create the Nation’s occupational injury and illness statistics. In any year, some employers will receive a BLS survey form and others will not. You do not have to send injury and illness data to the BLS unless you receive a survey form.


(2) If I get a survey form from the BLS, what do I have to do? If you receive a Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Form from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), or a BLS designee, you must promptly complete the form and return it, following the instructions contained on the survey form.


(3) Do I have to respond to a BLS survey form if I am normally exempt from keeping OSHA injury and illness records? Yes, even if you are exempt from keeping injury and illness records under § 1904.1 to § 1904.3, the BLS may inform you in writing that it will be collecting injury and illness information from you in the coming year. If you receive such a letter, you must keep the injury and illness records required by § 1904.5 to § 1904.15 and make a survey report for the year covered by the survey.


(4) Do I have to answer the BLS survey form if I am located in a State-Plan State? Yes, all employers who receive a survey form must respond to the survey, even those in State-Plan States.


Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 1904 – Designated Industries for § 1904.41(a)(2) Annual Electronic Submission of OSHA Form 300A Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses by Establishments With 20 or More Employees but Fewer Than 250 Employees in Designated Industries

NAICS
Industry
11Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting.
22Utilities.
23Construction.
31-33Manufacturing.
42Wholesale trade.
4413Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores.
4421Furniture stores.
4422Home furnishings stores.
4441Building material and supplies dealers.
4442Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores.
4451Grocery stores.
4452Specialty food stores.
4521Department stores.
4529Other general merchandise stores.
4533Used merchandise stores.
4542Vending machine operators.
4543Direct selling establishments.
4811Scheduled air transportation.
4841General freight trucking.
4842Specialized freight trucking.
4851Urban transit systems.
4852Interurban and rural bus transportation.
4853Taxi and limousine service.
4854School and employee bus transportation.
4855Charter bus industry.
4859Other transit and ground passenger transportation.
4871Scenic and sightseeing transportation, land.
4881Support activities for air transportation.
4882Support activities for rail transportation.
4883Support activities for water transportation.
4884Support activities for road transportation.
4889Other support activities for transportation.
4911Postal service.
4921Couriers and express delivery services.
4922Local messengers and local delivery.
4931Warehousing and storage.
5152Cable and other subscription programming.
5311Lessors of real estate.
5321Automotive equipment rental and leasing.
5322Consumer goods rental.
5323General rental centers.
5617Services to buildings and dwellings.
5621Waste collection.
5622Waste treatment and disposal.
5629Remediation and other waste management services.
6219Other ambulatory health care services.
6221General medical and surgical hospitals.
6222Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals.
6223Specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals.
6231Nursing care facilities.
6232Residential mental retardation, mental health and substance abuse facilities.
6233Community care facilities for the elderly.
6239Other residential care facilities.
6242Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services.
6243Vocational rehabilitation services.
7111Performing arts companies.
7112Spectator sports.
7121Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions.
7131Amusement parks and arcades.
7132Gambling industries.
7211Traveler accommodation.
7212RV (recreational vehicle) parks and recreational camps.
7213Rooming and boarding houses.
7223Special food services.
8113Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance.
8123Dry-cleaning and laundry services.

[81 FR 29693, May 12, 2016]


Subpart F – Transition From the Former Rule

§ 1904.43 Summary and posting of the 2001 data.

(a) Basic requirement. If you were required to keep OSHA 200 Logs in 2001, you must post a 2000 annual summary from the OSHA 200 Log of occupational injuries and illnesses for each establishment.


(b) Implementation – (1) What do I have to include in the summary? (i) You must include a copy of the totals from the 2001 OSHA 200 Log and the following information from that form:


(A) The calendar year covered;


(B) Your company name;


(C) The name and address of the establishment; and


(D) The certification signature, title and date.


(ii) If no injuries or illnesses occurred at your establishment in 2001, you must enter zeros on the totals line and post the 2001 summary.


(2) When am I required to summarize and post the 2001 information? (i) You must complete the summary by February 1, 2002; and


(ii) You must post a copy of the summary in each establishment in a conspicuous place or places where notices to employees are customarily posted. You must ensure that the summary is not altered, defaced or covered by other material.


(3) You must post the 2001 summary from February 1, 2002 to March 1, 2002.


§ 1904.44 Retention and updating of old forms.

You must save your copies of the OSHA 200 and 101 forms for five years following the year to which they relate and continue to provide access to the data as though these forms were the OSHA 300 and 301 forms. You are not required to update your old 200 and 101 forms.


§ 1904.45 OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act

The following sections each contain a collection of information requirement which has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the control number listed


29 CFR citation
OMB Control No.
1904.4-351218-0176
1904.39-411218-0176
1904.421220-0045
1904.43-441218-0176

Subpart G – Definitions

§ 1904.46 Definitions.

The Act. The Act means the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.). The definitions contained in section 3 of the Act (29 U.S.C. 652) and related interpretations apply to such terms when used in this part 1904.


Establishment. An establishment is a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed. For activities where employees do not work at a single physical location, such as construction; transportation; communications, electric, gas and sanitary services; and similar operations, the establishment is represented by main or branch offices, terminals, stations, etc. that either supervise such activities or are the base from which personnel carry out these activities.


(1) Can one business location include two or more establishments? Normally, one business location has only one establishment. Under limited conditions, the employer may consider two or more separate businesses that share a single location to be separate establishments. An employer may divide one location into two or more establishments only when:


(i) Each of the establishments represents a distinctly separate business;


(ii) Each business is engaged in a different economic activity;


(iii) No one industry description in the North American Industry Classification System (2007) codes applies to the joint activities of the establishments; and


(iv) Separate reports are routinely prepared for each establishment on the number of employees, their wages and salaries, sales or receipts, and other business information. For example, if an employer operates a construction company at the same location as a lumber yard, the employer may consider each business to be a separate establishment.


(2) Can an establishment include more than one physical location? Yes, but only under certain conditions. An employer may combine two or more physical locations into a single establishment only when:


(i) The employer operates the locations as a single business operation under common management;


(ii) The locations are all located in close proximity to each other; and


(iii) The employer keeps one set of business records for the locations, such as records on the number of employees, their wages and salaries, sales or receipts, and other kinds of business information. For example, one manufacturing establishment might include the main plant, a warehouse a few blocks away, and an administrative services building across the street.


(3) If an employee telecommutes from home, is his or her home considered a separate establishment? No, for employees who telecommute from home, the employee’s home is not a business establishment and a separate 300 Log is not required. Employees who telecommute must be linked to one of your establishments under § 1904.30(b)(3).


Injury or illness. An injury or illness is an abnormal condition or disorder. Injuries include cases such as, but not limited to, a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation. Illnesses include both acute and chronic illnesses, such as, but not limited to, a skin disease, respiratory disorder, or poisoning. (Note: Injuries and illnesses are recordable only if they are new, work-related cases that meet one or more of the part 1904 recording criteria.)


Physician or Other Licensed Health Care Professional. A physician or other licensed health care professional is an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently perform, or be delegated the responsibility to perform, the activities described by this regulation.


You. “You” means an employer as defined in section 3 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 652).


[66 FR 6122, Jan. 19, 2001, as amended at 85 FR 8731, Feb. 18, 2020]


PART 1905 – RULES OF PRACTICE FOR VARIANCES, LIMITATIONS, VARIATIONS, TOLERANCES, AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970


Authority:Secs. 6, 8, 16, Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 655, 657, 665), Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), or 9-83 (48 FR 35736) as applicable.


Source:36 FR 12290, June 30, 1971, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General

§ 1905.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) This part contains rules of practice for administrative proceedings


(1) To grant variances and other relief under sections 6(b)(6)(A) and 6(d) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, and


(2) To provide limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions under section 16 of the Act.


(b) These rules shall be construed to secure a prompt and just conclusion of proceedings subject thereto.


(c) The rules of practice in this part do not apply to the granting of variances under section 6(b)(6)(C). Whenever appropriate, the procedure for granting such a variance shall be published in the Federal Register.


§ 1905.2 Definitions.

As used in this part, unless the context clearly requires otherwise –


(a) Act means the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.


(b) Secretary means the Secretary of Labor.


(c) Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.


(d) Person means an individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, legal representative, and organized group of individuals, or an agency, authority, or instrumentality of the United States or of a State.


(e) Party means a person admitted to participate in a hearing conducted in accordance with subpart C of this part. An applicant for relief and any affected employee shall be entitled to be named parties. The Department of Labor, represented by the Office of the Solicitor, shall be deemed to be a party without the necessity of being named.


(f) Affected employee means an employee who would be affected by the grant or denial of a variance, limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption, or any one of his authorized representatives, such as his collective bargaining agent.


§ 1905.3 Petitions for amendments to this part.

Any person may at any time petition the Assistant Secretary in writing to revise, amend, or revoke any provisions of this part. The petition should set forth either the terms or the substance of the rule desired, with a concise statement of the reasons therefor and the effects thereof.


§ 1905.4 Amendments to this part.

The Assistant Secretary may at any time revise, amend, or revoke any provisions of this part, on his own motion or upon the written petition of any person.


§ 1905.5 Effect of variances.

All variances granted pursuant to this part shall have only future effect. In his discretion, the Assistant Secretary may decline to entertain an application for a variance on a subject or issue concerning which a citation has been issued to the employer involved and a proceeding on the citation or a related issue concerning a proposed penalty or period of abatement is pending before the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission or appropriate State review authority until the completion of such proceeding.


[36 FR 12290, June 30, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 25449, June 16, 1975]


§ 1905.6 Public notice of a granted variance, limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption.

Every final action granting a variance, limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption under this part shall be published in the Federal Register. Every such final action shall specify the alternative to the standard involved which the particular variance permits.


§ 1905.7 Form of documents; subscription; copies.

(a) No particular form is prescribed for applications and other papers which may be filed in proceedings under this part. However, any applications and other papers shall be clearly legible. An original and six copies of any application or other papers shall be filed. The original shall be typewritten. Clear carbon copies, or printed or processed copies are acceptable copies.


(b) Each application or other paper which is filed in proceedings under this part shall be subscribed by the person filing the same or by his attorney or other authorized representative.


Subpart B – Applications for Variances, Limitations, Variations, Tolerances, Exemptions and Other Relief

§ 1905.10 Variances and other relief under section 6(b)(6)(A).

(a) Application for variance. Any employer, or class of employers, desiring a variance from a standard, or portion thereof, authorized by section 6(b)(6)(A) of the Act may file a written application containing the information specified in paragraph (b) of this section with the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210.


(b) Contents. An application filed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall include:


(1) The name and address of the applicant;


(2) The address of the place or places of employment involved;


(3) A specification of the standard or portion thereof from which the applicant seeks a variance;


(4) A representation by the applicant, supported by representations from qualified persons having first-hand knowledge of the facts represented, that he is unable to comply with the standard or portion thereof by its effective date and a detailed statement of the reasons therefor;


(5) A statement of the steps the applicant has taken and will take, with specific dates where appropriate, to protect employees against the hazard covered by the standard;


(6) A statement of when the applicant expects to be able to comply with the standard and of what steps he has taken and will take, with specific dates where appropriate, to come into compliance with the standard;


(7) A statement of the facts the applicant would show to establish that


(i) The applicant is unable to comply with a standard by its effective date because of unavailability of professional or technical personnel or of materials and equipment needed to come into compliance with the standard or because necessary construction or alteration of facilities cannot be completed by the effective date;


(ii) He is taking all available steps to safeguard his employees against the hazards covered by the standard; and


(iii) He has an effective program for coming into compliance with the standard as quickly as practicable;


(8) Any request for a hearing, as provided in this part;


(9) A statement that the applicant has informed his affected employees of the application by giving a copy thereof to their authorized representative, posting a statement, giving a summary of the application and specifying where a copy may be examined, at the place or places where notices to employees are normally posted, and by other appropriate means; and


(10) A description of how affected employees have been informed of the application and of their right to petition the Assistant Secretary for a hearing.


(11) Where the requested variance would be applicable to employment or places of employment in more than one State, including at least one State with a State plan approved under section 18 of the Act, and involves a standard, or portion thereof, identical to a State standard effective under such plan:


(i) A side-by-side comparison of the Federal standard, or portion thereof, involved with the State standard, or portion thereof, identical in substance and requirements;


(ii) A certification that the employer or employers have not filed for such variance on the same material facts for the same employment or place of employment with any State authority having jurisdiction under an approval plan over any employment or place of employment covered in the application; and


(iii) A statement as to whether, with an identification of, any citations for violations of the State standard, or portion thereof, involved have been issued to the employer or employers by any of the State authorities enforcing the standard under a plan, and are pending.


(c) Interim order – (1) Application. An application may also be made for an interim order to be effective until a decision is rendered on the application for the variance filed previously or concurrently. An application for an interim order may include statements of fact and arguments as to why the order should be granted. The Assistant Secretary may rule ex parte upon the application.


(2) Notice of denial of application. If an application filed pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section is denied, the applicant shall be given prompt notice of the denial, which shall include, or be accompanied by, a brief statement of the grounds therefor.


(3) Notice of the grant of an interim order. If an interim order is granted, a copy of the order shall be served upon the applicant for the order and other parties and the terms of the order shall be published in the Federal Register. It shall be a condition of the order that the affected employer shall give notice thereof to affected employees by the same means to be used to inform them of an application for a variance.


[36 FR 12290, June 30, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 25449, June 16, 1975]


§ 1905.11 Variances and other relief under section 6(d).

(a) Application for variance. Any employer, or class of employers, desiring a variance authorized by section 6(d) of the Act may file a written application containing the information specified in paragraph (b) of this section, with the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210.


(b) Contents. An application filed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall include:


(1) The name and address of the applicant;


(2) The address of the place or places of employment involved;


(3) A description of the conditions, practices, means, methods, operations, or processes used or proposed to be used by the applicant:


(4) A statement showing how the conditions, practices, means, methods, operations, or processes used or proposed to be used would provide employment and places of employment to employees which are as safe and healthful as those required by the standard from which a variance is sought:


(5) A certification that the applicant has informed his employees of the application by


(i) Giving a copy thereof to their authorized representative;


(ii) Posting a statement giving a summary of the application and specifying where a copy may be examined, at the place or places where notices to employees are normally posted (or in lieu of such summary, the posting of the application itself); and


(iii) By other appropriate means;


(6) Any request for a hearing, as provided in this part; and


(7) A description of how employees have been informed of the application and of their right to petition the Assistant Secretary for a hearing.


(8) Where the requested variance would be applicable to employment or places of employment in more than one State, including at least one State with a State plan approved under section 18 of the Act, and involves a standard, or portion thereof, identical to a State standard effective under such plan:


(i) A side-by-side comparison of the Federal standard, or portion thereof, involved with the State standard, or portion thereof, identical in substance and requirements;


(ii) A certification that the employer or employers have not filed for such variance on the same material facts for the same employment or place of employment with any State authority having jurisdiction under an approved plan over any employment or place of employment covered in the application; and


(iii) A statement as to whether, with an identification of, any citations for violations of the State standard, or portion thereof, involved have been issued to the employer or employers by any of the State authorities enforcing the standard under a plan, and are pending.


(c) Interim order – (1) Application. An application may also be made for an interim order to be effective until a decision is rendered on the application for the variance filed previously or concurrently. An application for an interim order may include statements of fact and arguments as to why the order should be granted. The Assistant Secretary may rule ex parte upon the application.


(2) Notice of denial of application. If an application filed pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section is denied, the applicant shall be given prompt notice of the denial, which shall include, or be accompanied by; a brief statement of the grounds therefor.


(3) Notice of the grant of an interim order. If an interim order is granted, a copy of the order shall be served upon the applicant for the order and other parties, and the terms of the order shall be published in the Federal Register. It shall be a condition of the order that the affected employer shall give notice thereof to affected employees by the same means to be used to inform them of an application for a variance.


[36 FR 12290, June 30, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 25449, June 16, 1975]


§ 1905.12 Limitations, variations, tolerances, or exemptions under section 16.

(a) Application. Any person, or class of persons, desiring a limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption authorized by section 16 of the Act may file an application containing the information specified in paragraph (b) of this section, with the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210.


(b) Contents. An application filed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall include:


(1) The name and address of the applicant;


(2) The address of the place or places of employment involved;


(3) A specification of the provision of the Act to or from which the applicant seeks a limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption;


(4) A representation showing that the limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption sought is necessary and proper to avoid serious impairment of the national defense;


(5) Any request for a hearing, as provided in this part; and


(6) A description of how employees have been informed of the application and of their right to petition the Assistant Secretary for a hearing.


(c) Interim order – (1) Application. An application may also be made for an interim order to be effective until a decision is rendered on the application for the limitation, variation, tolerance, or exemption filed previously or concurrently. An application for an interim order may include statements of fact and arguments as to why the order should be granted. The Assistant Secretary may rule ex parte upon the application.


(2) Notice of denial of application. If an application filed pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section is denied, the applicant shall be given prompt notice of the denial, which shall include, or be accompanied, by a brief statement of the grounds therefor.


(3) Notice of the grant of an interim order. If an interim order is granted, a copy of the order shall be served upon the applicant for the order and other parties, and the terms of the order shall be published in the Federal Register. It shall be a condition of the order that the affected employer shall give notice thereof to affected employees by the same means to be used to inform them of an application for a variance.


§ 1905.13 Modification, revocation, and renewal of rules or orders.

(a) Modification or revocation. (1) An affected employer or an affected employee may apply in writing to the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health for a modification or revocation of a rule or order issued under section 6(b) (6) (A), 6(d), or 16 of the Act. The application shall contain:


(i) The name and address of the applicant;


(ii) A description of the relief which is sought;


(iii) A statement setting forth with particularity the grounds for relief;


(iv) If the applicant is an employer, a certification that the applicant has informed his affected employees of the application by:


(a) Giving a copy thereof to their authorized representative;


(b) Posting at the place or places where notices to employees are normally posted, a statement giving a summary of the application and specifying where a copy of the full application may be examined (or, in lieu of the summary, posting the application itself); and


(c) Other appropriate means.


(v) If the applicant is an affected employee, a certification that a copy of the application has been furnished to the employer; and


(vi) Any request for a hearing, as provided in this part.


(2) The Assistant Secretary may on his own motion proceed to modify or revoke a rule or order issued under section 6(b) (6) (A), 6(d), or 16 of the Act. In such event, the Assistant Secretary shall cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of his intention, affording interested persons an opportunity to submit written data, views, or arguments regarding the proposal and informing the affected employer and employees of their right to request a hearing, and shall take such other action as may be appropriate to give actual notice to affected employees. Any request for a hearing shall include a short and plain statement of:


(i) How the proposed modification or revocation would affect the requesting party; and


(ii) What the requesting party would seek to show on the subjects or issues involved.


(b) Renewal. Any final rule or order issued under section 6(b) (6) (A) or 16 of the Act may be renewed or extended as permitted by the applicable section and in the manner prescribed for its issuance.


(c) Multi-state variances. Where a Federal variance has been granted with multi-state applicability, including applicability in a State operating under a State plan approved under section 18 of the Act, from a standard, or portion thereof, identical to a State standard, or portion thereof, without filing the information required in § 1905.10(b)(11) or § 1905.11(b)(8) of this chapter, such variance shall likewise be deemed an authoritative interpretation of the employer(s)’ compliance obligations with regard to the State standard, or portion thereof, upon filing the information required under § 1905.10(b)(11) or § 1905.11(b)(8) of this chapter, provided no objections of substance are found to be interposed by the State authority under § 1905.14 of this chapter.


[36 FR 12290, June 30, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 25449, June 16, 1975]


§ 1905.14 Action on applications.

(a) Defective applications. (1) If an application filed pursuant to § 1905.10(a), § 1905.11(a), § 1905.12(a), or § 1905.13 does not conform to the applicable section, the Assistant Secretary may deny the application.


(2) Prompt notice of the denial of an application shall be given to the applicant.


(3) A notice of denial shall include, or be accompanied by, a brief statement of the grounds for the denial.


(4) A denial of an application pursuant to this paragraph shall be without prejudice to the filing of another application.


(b) Adequate applications. (1) If an application has not been denied pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, the Assistant Secretary shall cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of the filing of the application.


(2) A notice of the filing of an application shall include:


(i) The terms, or an accurate summary, of the application;


(ii) A reference to the section of the Act under which the application has been filed;


(iii) An invitation to interested persons to submit within a stated period of time written data, views, or arguments regarding the application; and


(iv) Information to affected employers, employees, and appropriate State authority having jurisdiction over employment or places of employment covered in the application of any right to request a hearing on the application.


(3) Where the requested variance, or any proposed modification or extension thereof, involves a Federal standard, or any portion thereof, identical to a State standard, or any portion thereof, as provided in §§ 1905.10(b)(11) and 1905.11(b)(8) of this chapter, the Assistant Secretary will promptly furnish a copy of the application to the appropriate State authority and provide an opportunity for comment, including the opportunity to participate as a party, on the application by such authority, which shall be taken into consideration in determining the merits of the proposed action.


(4) A copy of each final decision of the Assistant Secretary with respect to an application filed under § 1905.10, § 1905.11, or § 1905.13 shall be furnished, within 10 days of issuance, the State authorities having jurisdiction over the employment or place of employment covered in the application.


[36 FR 12290, June 30, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 25449, June 16, 1975]


§ 1905.15 Requests for hearings on applications.

(a) Request for hearing. Within the time allowed by a notice of the filing of an application, any affected employer, employee, or appropriate State agency having jurisdiction over employment or places of employment covered in an application may file with the Assistant Secretary, in quadruplicate, a request for a hearing on the application.


(b) Contents of a request for a hearing. A request for a hearing filed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall include:


(1) A concise statement of facts showing how the employer or employee would be affected by the relief applied for;


(2) A specification of any statement or representation in the application which is denied, and a concise summary of the evidence that would be adduced in support of each denial; and


(3) Any views or arguments on any issue of fact or law presented.


[36 FR 12290, June 30, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 25450, June 16, 1975]


§ 1905.16 Consolidation of proceedings.

The Assistant Secretary on his own motion or that of any party may consolidate or contemporaneously consider two or more proceedings which involve the same or closely related issues.


Subpart C – Hearings

§ 1905.20 Notice of hearing.

(a) Service. Upon request for a hearing as provided in this part, or upon his own initiative, the Assistant Secretary shall serve, or cause to be served, a reasonable notice of hearing.


(b) Contents. A notice of hearing served under paragraph (a) of this section shall include:


(1) The time, place, and nature of the hearing;


(2) The legal authority under which the hearing is to be held;


(3) A specification of issues of fact and law; and


(4) A designation of a hearing examiner appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105 to preside over the hearing.


(c) Referral to hearing examiner. A copy of a notice of hearing served pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall be referred to the hearing examiner designated therein, together with the original application and any written request for a hearing thereon filed pursuant to this part.


§ 1905.21 Manner of service.

Service of any document upon any party may be made by personal delivery of, or by mailing, a copy of the document to the last known address of the party. The person serving the document shall certify to the manner and the date of the service.


§ 1905.22 Hearing examiners; powers and duties.

(a) Powers. A hearing examiner designated to preside over a hearing shall have all powers necessary or appropriate to conduct a fair, full, and impartial hearing, including the following:


(1) To administer oaths and affirmations;


(2) To rule upon offers of proof and receive relevant evidence;


(3) To provide for discovery and to determine its scope;


(4) To regulate the course of the hearing and the conduct of the parties and their counsel therein;


(5) To consider and rule upon procedural requests;


(6) To hold conferences for the settlement or simplification of the issues by consent of the parties;


(7) To make, or to cause to be made, an inspection of the employment or place of employment involved.


(8) To make decisions in accordance with the Act, this part, and the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. Ch. 5); and


(9) To take any other appropriate action authorized by the Act, this part, or the Administrative Procedure Act.


(b) Private consultation. Except to the extent required for the disposition of ex parte matters, a hearing examiner may not consult a person or a party on any fact at issue, unless upon notice and opportunity for all parties to participate.


(c) Disqualification. (1) When a hearing examiner deems himself disqualified to preside over a particular hearing, he shall withdraw therefrom by notice on the record directed to the Chief Hearing Examiner.


(2) Any party who deems a hearing examiner for any reason to be disqualified to preside, or to continue to preside, over a particular hearing, may file with the Chief Hearing Examiner of the Department of Labor a motion to disqualify and remove the hearing examiner, such motion to be supported by affidavits setting forth the alleged grounds for disqualification. The Chief Hearing Examiner shall rule upon the motion.


(d) Contumacious conduct; failure or refusal to appear or obey the rulings of a presiding hearing examiner. (1) Contumacious conduct at any hearing before the hearing examiner shall be grounds for exclusion from the hearing.


(2) If a witness or a party refuses to answer a question after being directed to do so, or refuses to obey an order to provide or permit discovery, the hearing examiner may make such orders with regard to the refusal as are just and appropriate, including an order denying the application of an applicant or regulating the contents of the record of the hearing.


(e) Referral to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. On any procedural question not regulated by this part, the Act, or the Administrative Procedure Act, a hearing examiner shall be guided to the extent practicable by any pertinent provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.


§ 1905.23 Prehearing conferences.

(a) Convening a conference. Upon his own motion or the motion of a party, the hearing examiner may direct the parties or their counsel to meet with him for a conference to consider:


(1) Simplification of the issues;


(2) Necessity or desirability of amendments to documents for purposes of clarification, simplification, or limitation;


(3) Stipulations, admissions of fact, and of contents and authenticity of documents;


(4) Limitation of the number of parties and of expert witnesses; and


(5) Such other matters as may tend to expedite the disposition of the proceeding, and to assure a just conclusion thereof.


(b) Record of conference. The hearing examiner shall make an order which recites the action taken at the conference, the amendments allowed to any documents which have been filed, and the agreements made between the parties as to any of the matters considered, and which limits the issues for hearing to those not disposed of by admissions or agreements; and such order when entered controls the subsequent course of the hearing, unless modified at the hearing, to prevent manifest injustice.


§ 1905.24 Consent findings and rules or orders.

(a) General. At any time before the reception of evidence in any hearing, or during any hearing a reasonable opportunity may be afforded to permit negotiation by the parties of an agreement containing consent findings and a rule or order disposing of the whole or any part of the proceeding. The allowance of such opportunity and the duration thereof shall be in the discretion of the presiding hearing examiner, after consideration of the nature of the proceeding, the requirements of the public interest, the representations of the parties, and the probability of an agreement which will result in a just disposition of the issues involved.


(b) Contents. Any agreement containing consent findings and rule or order disposing of a proceeding shall also provide:


(1) That the rule or order shall have the same force and effect as if made after a full hearing;


(2) That the entire record on which any rule or order may be based shall consist solely of the application and the agreement;


(3) A waiver of any further procedural steps before the hearing examiner and the Assistant Secretary; and


(4) A waiver of any right to challenge or contest the validity of the findings and of the rule or order made in accordance with the agreement.


(c) Submission. On or before the expiration of the time granted for negotiations, the parties or their counsel may:


(1) Submit the proposed agreement to the presiding hearing examiner for his consideration; or


(2) Inform the presiding hearing examiner that agreement cannot be reached.


(d) Disposition. In the event an agreement containing consent findings and rule or order is submitted within the time allowed therefor, the presiding hearing examiner may accept such agreement by issuing his decision based upon the agreed findings.


§ 1905.25 Discovery.

(a) Depositions. (1) For reasons of unavailability or for other good cause shown, the testimony of any witness may be taken by deposition. Depositions may be taken orally or upon written interrogatories before any person designated by the presiding hearing examiner and having power to administer oaths.


(2) Application. Any party desiring to take the deposition of a witness may make application in writing to the presiding hearing examiner, setting forth:


(i) The reasons why such deposition should be taken;


(ii) The time when, the place where, and the name and post office address of the person before whom the deposition is to be taken;


(iii) The name and address of each witness; and


(iv) The subject matter concerning which each witness is expected to testify.


(3) Notice. Such notice as the presiding hearings examiner may order shall be given by the party taking the deposition to every other party.


(4) Taking and receiving in evidence. Each witness testifying upon deposition shall be sworn, and the parties not calling him shall have the right to cross-examine him. The questions propounded and the answers thereto, together with all objections made, shall be reduced to writing, read to the witness, subscribed by him, and certified by the officer before whom the deposition is taken. Thereafter, the officer shall seal the deposition, with two copies thereof, in an envelope and mail the same by registered mail to the presiding hearing examiner. Subject to such objections to the questions and answers as were noted at the time of taking the deposition and would be valid were the witness personally present and testifying, such deposition may be read and offered in evidence by the party taking it as against any party who was present, represented at the taking of the deposition, or who had due notice thereof. No part of a deposition shall be admitted in evidence unless there is a showing that the reasons for the taking of the deposition in the first instance exist at the time of hearing.


(b) Other discovery. Whenever appropriate to a just disposition of any issue in a hearing, the presiding hearing examiner may allow discovery by any other appropriate procedure, such as by written interrogatories upon a party, production of documents by a party, or by entry for inspection of the employment or place of employment involved.


§ 1905.26 Hearings.

(a) Order of proceeding. Except as may be ordered otherwise by the presiding hearing examiner, the party applicant for relief shall proceed first at a hearing.


(b) Burden of proof. The party applicant shall have the burden of proof.


(c) Evidence – (1) Admissibility. A party shall be entitled to present his case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct such cross-examination as may be required for a full and true disclosure of the facts. Any oral or documentary evidence may be received, but a presiding hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious.


(2) Testimony of witnesses. The testimony of a witness shall be upon oath or affirmation administered by the presiding hearing examiner.


(3) Objections. If a party objects to the admission or rejection of any evidence, or to the limitation of the scope of any examination or cross-examination, or to the failure to limit such scope, he shall state briefly the grounds for such objection. Rulings on all objections shall appear in the record. Only objections made before the presiding hearing examiner may be relied upon subsequently in a proceeding.


(4) Exceptions. Formal exception to an adverse ruling is not required.


(d) Official notice. Official notice may be taken of any material fact not appearing in evidence in the record, which is among the traditional matters of judicial notice or concerning which the Department of Labor by reason of its functions is presumed to be expert: Provided, That the parties shall be given adequate notice, at the hearing or by reference in the presiding hearing examiner’s decision, of the matters so noticed, and shall be given adequate opportunity to show the contrary.


(e) Transcript. Hearings shall be stenographically reported. Copies of the transcript may be obtained by the parties upon written application filed with the reporter, and upon the payment of fees at the rate provided in the agreement with the reporter.


§ 1905.27 Decisions of hearing examiners.

(a) Proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and rules or orders. Within 10 days after receipt of notice that the transcript of the testimony has been filed or such additional time as the presiding hearing examiner may allow, each party may file with the hearing examiner proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and rule or order, together with a supporting brief expressing the reasons for such proposals. Such proposals and brief shall be served on all other parties, and shall refer to all portions of the record and to all authorities relied upon in support of each proposal.


(b) Decision of the hearing examiner. Within a reasonable time after the time allowed for the filing of proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and rule or order, the presiding hearing examiner shall make and serve upon each party his decision, which shall become final upon the 20th day after service thereof, unless exceptions are filed thereto, as provided in § 1905.28. The decision of the hearing examiner shall include (1) a statement of findings and conclusions, with reasons and bases therefor, upon each material issue of fact, law, or discretion presented on the record, and (2) the appropriate rule, order, relief, or denial thereof. The decision of the hearing examiner shall be based upon a consideration of the whole record and shall state all facts officially noticed and relied upon. It shall be made on the basis of a preponderance of reliable and probative evidence.


§ 1905.28 Exceptions.

Within 20 days after service of a decision of a presiding hearing examiner, any party may file with the hearing examiner written exceptions thereto with supporting reasons. Such exceptions shall refer to the specific findings of fact, conclusions of law, or terms of the rule or order excepted to, the specific pages of transcript relevant to the suggestions, and shall suggest corrected findings of fact, conclusions of law, or terms of the rule or order. Upon receipt of any exceptions, the hearing examiner shall fix a time for filing any objections to the exceptions and any supporting reasons.


§ 1905.29 Transmission of record.

If exceptions are filed, the hearing examiner shall transmit the record of the proceeding to the Assistant Secretary for review. The record shall include: The application, any request for hearing thereon, motions and requests filed in written form, rulings thereon, the transcript of the testimony taken at the hearing, together with the exhibits admitted in evidence, any documents or papers filed in connection with prehearing conferences, such proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, rules or orders, and supporting reasons, as may have been filed, the hearing examiner’s decision, and such exceptions, statements of objections, and briefs in support thereof, as may have been filed in the proceeding.


§ 1905.30 Decision of the Assistant Secretary.

If exceptions to a decision of a hearing examiner are taken pursuant to § 1905.28, the Assistant Secretary shall upon consideration thereof, together with the record references and authorities cited in support thereof, and any objections to exceptions and supporting reasons, make his decision. The decision may affirm, modify, or set aside, in whole or part, the findings, conclusions, and the rule or order contained in the decision of the presiding hearing examiner, and shall include a statement of reasons or bases for the actions taken on each exception presented.


Subpart D – Summary Decisions

§ 1905.40 Motion for summary decision.

(a) Any party may, at least 20 days before the date fixed for any hearing under subpart C of this part, move with or without supporting affidavits for a summary decision in his favor on all or any part of the proceeding. Any other party may, within 10 days after service of the motion, serve opposing affidavits or countermove for summary decision. The presiding hearing examiner may, in his discretion, set the matter for argument and call for the submission of briefs.


(b) The filing of any documents under paragraph (a) of this section shall be with the hearing examiner, and copies of any such documents shall be served in accordance with § 1905.21.


(c) The hearing examiner may grant such motion if the pleadings, affidavits, material obtained by discovery or otherwise obtained, or matters officially noticed show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that a party is entitled to summary decision. The hearing examiner may deny such motion whenever the moving party denies access to information by means of discovery to a party opposing the motion.


(d) Affidavits shall set forth such facts as would be admissible in evidence in a proceeding subject to 5 U.S.C. 556 and 557 and shall show affirmatively that the affiant is competent to testify to the matters stated therein. When a motion for summary decision is made and supported as provided in this section, a party opposing the motion may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of his pleading; his response must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue of fact for the hearing.


(e) Should it appear from the affidavits of a party opposing the motion that he cannot for reasons stated present by affidavit facts essential to justify his opposition, the hearing examiner may deny the motion for summary decision or may order a continuance to permit affidavits to be obtained or discovery to be had or may make such other order as is just.


(f) The denial of all or any part of a motion for summary decision by the hearing examiner shall not be subject to interlocutory appeal to the Assistant Secretary unless the hearing examiner certifies in writing (1) that the ruling involves an important question of law or policy as to which there is substantial ground for difference of opinion, and (2) that an immediate appeal from the ruling may materially advance the ultimate termination of the proceeding. The allowance of such an interlocutory appeal shall not stay the proceeding before the hearing examiner unless the Assistant Secretary shall so order.


§ 1905.41 Summary decision.

(a) No genuine issue of material fact. (1) Where no genuine issue of a material fact is found to have been raised, the hearing examiner may issue an initial decision to become final 20 days after service thereof, unless, within such period of time any party has filed written exceptions to the decision. If any timely exception is filed, the hearing examiner shall fix a time for filing any objections to the exception and any supporting reasons. Thereafter, the Assistant Secretary, after consideration of the exceptions and any supporting briefs filed therewith and of any objections to the exceptions and any supporting reasons, may issue a final decision.


(2) An initial decision and a final decision made under this paragraph shall include a statement of:


(i) Findings and conclusions, and the reasons or bases therefor, on all issues presented; and


(ii) The terms and conditions of the rule or order made.


(3) A copy of an initial decision and a final decision under this paragraph shall be served on each party.


(b) Hearings on issues of fact. Where a genuine material question of fact is raised, the hearing examiner shall, and in any other case he may, set the case for an evidentiary hearing in accordance with subpart C of this part.


Subpart E – Effect of Initial Decisions

§ 1905.50 Effect of appeal of a hearing examiner’s decision.

A hearing examiner’s decision under this part shall not be operative pending a decision on appeal by the Assistant Secretary.


§ 1905.51 Finality for purposes of judicial review.

Only a decision by the Assistant Secretary shall be deemed final agency action for purposes of judicial review. A decision by a hearing examiner which becomes final for lack of appeal is not deemed final agency action for purposes of 5 U.S.C. 704.


PART 1906 – ADMINISTRATION WITNESSES AND DOCUMENTS IN PRIVATE LITIGATION [RESERVED]

PART 1908 – CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS


Authority:Secs. 7(c), 8, 21(d), Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 656, 657, 670) and Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 6-96 (62 FR 111, January 2, 1997).


Source:49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, unless otherwise noted.

§ 1908.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) This part contains requirements for Cooperative Agreements between states and the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) under sections 21(c) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.) and section 21(d), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Compliance Assistance Authorization Act of 1998 (which amends the Occupational Safety and Health Act,) under which OSHA will utilize state personnel to provide consultative services to employers. Priority in scheduling such consultation visits must be assigned to requests received from small businesses which are in higher hazard industries or have the most hazardous conditions at issue in the request. Consultation programs operated under the authority of a state plan approved under section 18 of the Act (and funded under section 23(g), rather than under a Cooperative Agreement) which provide consultative services to private sector employers, must be “at least as effective as” the section 21(d) Cooperative Agreement programs established by this part. The service will be made available at no cost to employers to assist them in establishing effective occupational safety and health programs for providing employment and places of employment which are safe and healthful. The overall goal is to prevent the occurrence of injuries and illnesses which may result from exposure to hazardous workplace conditions and from hazardous work practices. The principal assistance will be provided at the employer’s worksite, but off-site assistance may also be provided by telephone and correspondence and at locations other than the employer’s worksite, such as the consultation project offices. At the worksite, the consultant will, within the scope of the employer’s request, evaluate the employer’s program for providing employment and a place of employment which is safe and healthful, as well as identify specific hazards in the workplace, and will provide appropriate advice and assistance in establishing or improving the employer’s safety and health program and in correcting any hazardous conditions identified.


(b) Assistance may include education and training of the employer, the employer’s supervisors, and the employer’s other employees as needed to make the employer self-sufficient in ensuring safe and healthful work and working conditions. Although onsite consultation will be conducted independent of any OSHA enforcement activity, and the discovery of hazards will not mandate citation or penalties, the employer remains under a statutory obligation to protect employees, and in certain instances will be required to take necessary protective action. Employer correction of hazards identified by the consultant during a comprehensive workplace survey, and implementation of certain core elements of an effective safety and health program and commitment to the completion of others may serve as the basis for employer exemption from certain OSHA enforcement activities. States entering into Agreements under this part will receive ninety percent Federal reimbursement for allowable costs, and will provide consultation to employers requesting the service, subject to scheduling priorities, available resources, and any other limitations established by the Assistant Secretary as part of the Cooperative Agreement.


(c) States operating approved Plans under section 18 of the Act shall, in accord with section 18(b), establish enforcement policies applicable to the safety and health issues covered by the State Plan which are at least as effective as the enforcement policies established by this part, including a recognition and exemption program.


[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 65 FR 64290, Oct. 26, 2000]


§ 1908.2 Definitions.

As used in this part:


Act means the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.


Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.


Compliance Officer means a Federal compliance safety and health officer.


Consultant means an employee under a Cooperative Agreement pursuant to this part who provides consultation.


Consultation means all activities related to the provision of consultative assistance under this part, including offsite consultation and onsite consultation.


Cooperative Agreement means the legal instrument which enables the States to collaborate with OSHA to provide consultation in accord with this part.


Designee means the State official designated by the Governor to be responsible for entering into a Cooperative Agreement in accord with this part.


Education means planned and organized activity by a consultant to impart information to employers and employees to enable them to establish and maintain employment and a place of employment which is safe and healthful.


Employee means an employee of an employer who is employed in the business of that employer which affects interstate commerce.


Employee representative, as used in the OSHA consultation program under this part, means the authorized representative of employees at a site where there is a recognized labor organization representing employees.


Employer means a person engaged in a business who has employees, but does not include the United States (not including the United States Postal Service,) or any state or political subdivision of a state.


Hazard correction means the elimination or control of a workplace hazard in accord with the requirements of applicable Federal or State statutes, regulations or standards.


Imminent danger means any conditions or practices in a place of employment which are such that a danger exists which could reasonably be expected to cause death or serious physical harm immediately or before the imminence of such danger can be eliminated through the procedures set forth in § 1908.6(e)(4), (f) (2) and (3), and (g).


List of Hazards means a list of all serious hazards that are identified by the consultant and the correction due dates agreed upon by the employer and the consultant. Serious hazards include hazards addressed under section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act and recordkeeping requirements classified as serious. The List of Hazards will accompany the consultant’s written report but is separate from the written report to the employer.


Offsite consultation means the provision of consultative assistance on occupational safety and health issues away from an employer’s worksite by such means as telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than the employer’s worksite, such as the consultation project offices. It may, under limited conditions specified by the Assistant Secretary, include training and education.


Onsite consultation means the provision of consultative assistance on an employer’s occupational safety and health program and on specific workplace hazards through a visit to an employer’s worksite. It includes a written report to the employer on the findings and recommendations resulting from the visit. It may include training and education needed to address hazards, or potential hazards, at the worksite.


OSHA means the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the State agency responsible under a Plan approved under section 18 of the Act for the enforcement of occupational safety and health standards in that State.


Other-than-serious hazard means any condition or practice which would be classified as an other-than-serious violation of applicable federal or state statutes, regulations or standards, based on criteria contained in the current OSHA field instructions or approved State Plan counterpart.


Programmed inspection means OSHA worksite inspections which are scheduled based upon objective or neutral criteria. These inspections do not include imminent danger, fatality/catastrophe, and formal complaints.


Programmed inspection schedule means OSHA inspections scheduled in accordance with criteria contained in the current OSHA field instructions or approved State Plan counterpart.


RA means the Regional Administrator for Occupational Safety and Health of the Region in which the State concerned is located.


Recognition and exemption program means an achievement recognition program of the OSHA consultation services which recognizes small employers who operate, at a particular worksite, an exemplary program that results in the immediate and long term prevention of job related injuries and illnesses.


Serious hazard means any condition or practice which would be classified as a serious violation of applicable federal or state statutes, regulations or standards, based on criteria contained in the current OSHA field instructions or approved State Plan counterpart, except that the element of employer knowledge shall not be considered.


State includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.


Training means the planned and organized activity of a consultant to impart skills, techniques and methodologies to employers and their employees to assist them in establishing and maintaining employment and a place of employment which is safe and healthful.


[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 65 FR 64290, Oct. 26, 2000]


§ 1908.3 Eligibility and funding.

(a) State eligibility. Any state may enter into an agreement with the Assistant Secretary to perform consultation for private sector employers; except that a state having a plan approved under section 18 of the Act is eligible to participate in the program only if that Plan does not include provisions for federally funded consultation to private sector employers as a part of its plan.


(b) Reimbursement. (1) The Assistant Secretary will reimburse 90 percent of the costs incurred under a Cooperative Agreement entered into pursuant to this part. Approved training of State staff operating under a Cooperative Agreement and specified out-of-State travel by such staff will be fully reimbursed.


(2) Reimbursement to States under this part is limited to costs incurred in providing consultation to private sector employers only.


(i) In all States with Plans approved under section 18 of the Act, consultation provided to State and local governments, as well as the remaining range of voluntary compliance activities referred to in 29 CFR 1902.4(c)(2)(xiii), will not be affected by the provisions of this part. Federal reimbursement for these activities will be made in accordance with the provisions of section 23(g) of the Act.


(ii) In States without Plans approved under section 18, no Federal reimbursement for consultation provided to State and local governments will be allowed, although this activity may be conducted independently by a State with 100 percent State funding.


[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 65 FR 64291, Oct. 26, 2000]


§ 1908.4 Offsite consultation.

The State may provide consultative services to employers on occupational safety and health issues by telephone and correspondence, and at locations other than the employer’s worksite, such as the consultation project offices. It may, under limited conditions specified by the Assistant Secretary, include training and education.


§ 1908.5 Requests and scheduling for onsite consultation.

(a) Encouraging requests – (1) State responsibility. The State shall be responsible for encouraging employers to request consultative assistance and shall publicize the availability of its consultative service and the scope of the service which will be provided. The Assistant Secretary will also engage in activities to publicize and promote the program.


(2) Promotional methods. To inform employers of the availability of its consultative service and to encourage requests, the State may use methods such as the following:


(i) Paid newspaper advertisements;


(ii) Newspaper, magazine, and trade publication articles;


(iii) Special direct mailings or telephone solicitations to establishments based on workers’ compensation data or other appropriate listings;


(iv) In-person visits to workplaces to explain the availability of the service, and participation at employer conferences and seminars;


(v) Solicitation of support from State business and labor organizations and leaders, and public officials;


(vi) Solicitation of publicizing by employers and employees who have received consultative services;


(vii) Preparation and dissemination of publications, descriptive materials, and other appropriate items on consultative services;


(viii) Free public service announcements on radio and television.


(3) Scope of service. In its publicity for the program, in response to any inquiry, and before an employer’s request for a consultative visit may be accepted, the state shall clearly explain that the service is provided at no cost to an employer with federal and state funds for the purpose of assisting the employer in establishing and maintaining effective programs for providing safe and healthful places of employment for employees, in accord with the requirements of the applicable state or federal laws and regulations. The state shall explain that while utilizing this service, an employer remains under a statutory obligation to provide safe and healthful work and working conditions for employees. In addition, while the identification of hazards by a consultant will not mandate the issuance of citations or penalties, the employer is required to take necessary action to eliminate employee exposure to a hazard which in the judgment of the consultant represents an imminent danger to employees, and to take action to correct within a reasonable time any serious hazards that are identified. The state shall emphasize, however, that the discovery of such a hazard will not initiate any enforcement activity, and that referral will not take place, unless the employer fails to eliminate the identified hazard within the established time frame. The state shall also explain the requirements for participation in the recognition and exemption program as set forth in § 1908.7(b)(4), and shall ensure that the employer understands his or her obligation to post the List of Hazards accompanying the consultant’s written report.


(b) Employer requests. (1) An onsite consultative visit will be provided only at the request of the employer, and shall not result from the enforcement of any right of entry under state law.


(2) When making a request, an employer in a small, high hazard establishment shall generally be encouraged to include within the scope of such request all working conditions at the worksite and the employer’s entire safety and health program. However, a more limited scope may be encouraged in larger and less hazardous establishments. Moreover, any employer may specify a more limited scope for the visit by indicating working conditions, hazards, or situations on which onsite consultation will be focused. When such limited requests are at issue, the consultant will limit review and provide assistance only with respect to those working conditions, hazards, or situations specified; except that if the consultant observes, in the course of the onsite visit, hazards which are outside the scope of the request, the consultant must treat such hazards as though they were within the scope of the request.


(3) Employers may request onsite consultation to assist in the abatement of hazards cited during an OSHA enforcement inspection. However, an onsite consultative visit may not take place after an inspection until the conditions set forth in § 1908.7(b)(3) have been met.


(c) Scheduling priority. Priority shall be assigned to requests from businesses with the most hazardous operations, with primary attention to smaller businesses. Preference shall be given to the smaller businesses which are in higher hazard industries or which have the most hazardous conditions at issue in the request.


[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 65 FR 64291, Oct. 26, 2000]


§ 1908.6 Conduct of a visit.

(a) Preparation. (1) An onsite consultative visit shall be made only after appropriate preparation by the consultant. Prior to the visit, the consultant shall become familiar with as many factors concerning the establishment’s operation as possible. The consultant shall review all applicable codes and standards. In addition, the consultant shall assure that all necessary technical and personal protective equipment is available and functioning properly.


(2) At the time of any promotional visit conducted by a consultant to encourage the use of the onsite consultative services, a consultation may be performed without delay if the employer so requests and the consultant is otherwise prepared to conduct such consultation.


(b) Structured format. An initial onsite consultative visit will consist of an opening conference, an examination of those aspects of the employer’s safety and health program which relate to the scope of the visit, a walkthrough of the workplace, and a closing conference. An initial visit may include training and education for employers and employees, if the need for such training and education is revealed by the walkthrough of the workplace and the examination of the employer’s safety and health program, and if the employer so requests. The visit shall be followed by a written report to the employer. Additional visits may be conducted at the employer’s request to provide needed education and training, assistance with the employer’s safety and health program, technical assistance in the correction of hazards, or as necessary to verify the correction of serious hazards identified during previous visits. A compliance inspection may in some cases be the basis for a visit limited to education and training, assistance with the employer’s safety and health program, or technical assistance in the correction of hazards.


(c) Employee participation. (1) The consultant shall retain the right to confer with individual employees during the course of the visit in order to identify and judge the nature and extent of particular hazards within the scope of the employer’s request, and to evaluate the employer’s safety and health program. The consultant shall explain the necessity for this contact to the employer during the opening conference, and an employer must agree to permit such contact before a visit can proceed.


(2)(i) In addition, an employee representative of affected employees must be afforded an opportunity to accompany the consultant and the employer’s representative during the physical inspection of the workplace. The consultant may permit additional employees (such as representatives of a joint safety and health committee, if one exists at the worksite) to participate in the walkaround, where the consultant determines that such additional representatives will further aid the visit.


(ii) If there is no employee representative, or if the consultant is unable with reasonable certainty to determine who is such a representative, or if the employee representative declines the offer to participate, the consultant must confer with a reasonable number of employees concerning matters of occupational safety and health.


(iii) The consultant is authorized to deny the right to accompany under this section to any person whose conduct interferes with the orderly conduct of the visit.


(d) Opening and closing conferences. (1) The consultant will encourage a joint opening conference with employer and employee representatives. If there is an objection to a joint conference, the consultant will conduct separate conferences with employer and employee representatives. The consultant must inform affected employees, with whom he confers, of the purpose of the consultation visit.


(2) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, the consultant will, in the opening conference, explain to the employer the relationship between onsite consultation and OSHA enforcement activity, explain the obligation to protect employees in the event that certain hazardous conditions are identified, and emphasize the employer’s obligation to post the List of Hazards accompanying the consultant’s written report as described in paragraph (e)(8) of this section.


(3) At the conclusion of the consultation visit, the consultant will conduct a closing conference with employer and employee representatives, jointly or separately. The consultant will describe hazards identified during the visit and other pertinent issues related to employee safety and health.


(e) Onsite activity. (1) Activity during the onsite consultative visit will focus primarily on those areas, conditions, or hazards regarding which the employer has requested assistance. An employer may expand or reduce the scope of the request at any time during the onsite visit. The consultant shall, if prepared and if scheduling priorities permit, expand the scope of the visit at the time of the request. If the employer’s request for expansion necessitates further preparation by the consultant or the expertise of another consultant, or if other employer requests may merit higher priority, the consultant shall refer the request to the consultation manager for scheduling. In all cases in which the scope of the visit is reduced, the consultant remains obligated to work with the employer to ensure correction of those serious hazards which are identified during the visit.


(2) The consultant shall advise the employer as to the employer’s obligations and responsibilities under applicable Federal or State law and implementing regulations.


(3) Within the scope of the employer’s request, consultants shall review the employer’s safety and health program and provide advice on modifications or additions to make such programs more effective.


(4) Consultants shall identify and provide advice on correction of those hazards included in the employer’s request and any other safety or health hazards observed in the workplace during the course of the onsite consultative visit. This advice shall include basic information indicating the possibility of a solution and describing the general form of the solution. The consultant shall conduct sampling and testing, with subsequent analyses. as may be necessary to confirm the existence of safety and health hazards.


(5) Advice and technical assistance on the correction of identified safety and health hazards may be provided to employers during and after the onsite consultative visit. Descriptive materials may be provided on approaches, means, techniques, and other appropriate items commonly utilized for the elimination or control of such hazards. The consultants shall also advise the employers of additional sources of assistance, if known.


(6) When a hazard is identified in the workplace, the consultant shall indicate to the employer the consultant’s best judgment as to whether the situation would be classified as a “serious” or “other-than-serious” hazard.


(7) At the time the consultant determines that a serious hazard exists, the consultant will assist the employer to develop a specific plan to correct the hazard, affording the employer a reasonable period of time to complete the necessary action. The state must provide, upon request from the employer within 15 working days of receipt of the consultant’s report, a prompt opportunity for an informal discussion with the consultation manager regarding the period of time established for the correction of a hazard or any other substantive finding of the consultant.


(8) As a condition for receiving the consultation service, the employer must agree to post the List of Hazards accompanying the consultant’s written report, and to notify affected employees when hazards are corrected. When received, the List of Hazards must be posted, unedited, in a prominent place where it is readily observable by all affected employees for 3 working days, or until the hazards are corrected, whichever is later. A copy of the List of Hazards must be made available to the employee representative who participates in the visit. In addition, the employer must agree to make information on the corrective actions proposed by the consultant, as well as other-than-serious hazards identified, available at the worksite for review by affected employees or the employee representative. OSHA will not schedule a compliance inspection in response to a complaint based upon a posted List of Hazards unless the employer fails to meet his obligations under paragraph (f) of this section, or fails to provide interim protection for exposed employees.


(f) Employer obligations. (1) An employer must take immediate action to eliminate employee exposure to a hazard which, in the judgment of the consultant, presents an imminent danger to employees. If the employer fails to take the necessary action, the consultant must immediately notify the affected employees and the appropriate OSHA enforcement authority and provide the relevant information.


(2) An employer must also take the necessary action in accordance with the plan developed under paragraph (e)(7) of this section to eliminate or control employee exposure to any identified serious hazard, and meet the posting requirements of paragraph (e)(8) of this section. In order to demonstrate that the necessary action is being taken, an employer may be required to submit periodic reports, permit a follow-up visit, or take similar action that achieves the same end.


(3) An employer may request, and the consultation manager may grant, an extension of the time frame established for correction of a serious hazard when the employer demonstrates having made a good faith effort to correct the hazard within the established time frame; shows evidence that correction has not been completed because of factors beyond the employer’s reasonable control; and shows evidence that the employer is taking all available interim steps to safeguard the employees against the hazard during the correction period.


(4) If the employer fails to take the action necessary to correct a serious hazard within the established time frame or any extensions thereof, the consultation manager shall immediately notify the appropriate OSHA enforcement authority and provide the relevant information. The OSHA enforcement authority will make a determination, based on a review of the facts, whether enforcement activity is warranted.


(5) After correction of all serious hazards, the employer shall notify the consultation manager by written confirmation of the correction of the hazards, unless correction of the serious hazards is verified by direct observation by the consultant.


(g) Written report. (1) A written report shall be prepared for each visit which results in substantive findings or recommendations, and shall be sent to the employer. The timing and format of the report shall be approved by the Assistant Secretary. The report shall restate the employer’s request and describe the working conditions examined by the consultant; shall, within the scope of the request, evaluate the employer’s program for ensuring safe and healthful employment and provide recommendations for making such programs effective; shall identify specific hazards and describe their nature, including reference to applicable standards or codes; shall identify the seriousness of the hazards; and, to the extent possible, shall include suggested means or approaches to their correction. Additional sources of assistance shall also be indicated, if known, including the possible need to procure specific engineering consultation, medical advice and assistance, and other appropriate items. The report shall also include reference to the completion dates for the situations described in § 1908.6(f) (1) and (2).


(2) Because the consultant’s written report contains information considered confidential, and because disclosure of such reports would adversely affect the operation of the OSHA consultation program, the state shall not disclose the consultant’s written report except to the employer for whom it was prepared and as provided for in § 1908.7(a)(3). The state may also disclose information contained in the consultant’s written report to the extent required by 29 CFR 1910.1020 or other applicable OSHA standards or regulations.


(h) Confidentiality. (1) The consultant shall preserve the confidentiality of information obtained as the result of a consultative visit which contains or might reveal a trade secret of the employer.


(2) Disclosure of consultation program information which identifies employers who have requested the services of a consultant would adversely affect the operation of the OSHA consultation program as well as breach the confidentiality of commercial information not customarily disclosed by the employer. Accordingly, the state shall keep such information confidential. The state shall provide consultation program information requested by OSHA, including information which identifies employers who have requested consultation services. OSHA may use such information to administer the consultation program and to evaluate state and federal performance under that program, but shall, to the maximum extent permitted by law, treat information which identifies specific employers as exempt from public disclosure.


(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0110)

[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 65 FR 64291, Oct. 26, 2000]


§ 1908.7 Relationship to enforcement.

(a) Independence. (1) Consultative activity by a State shall be conducted independently of any OSHA enforcement activity.


(2) The consultative activity shall have its own identifiable managerial staff. In States with Plans approved under section 18 of the Act, this staff will be separate from the managing of compliance inspections and scheduling.


(3) The identity of employers requesting onsite consultation, as well as the file of the consultant’s visit, shall not be provided to OSHA for use in any compliance activity, except as provided for in § 1908.6(f)(1) (failure to eliminate imminent danger,) § 1908.6(f)(4) (failure to eliminate serious hazards,) paragraph (b)(1) of this section (inspection deferral) and paragraph (b)(4) of this section (recognition and exemption program).


(b) Effect upon scheduling. (1) An onsite consultative visit already in progress will have priority over OSHA compliance inspections except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. The consultant and the employer shall notify the compliance officer of the visit in progress and request delay of the inspection until after the visit is completed. An onsite consultative visit shall be considered “in progress” in relation to the working conditions, hazards, or situations covered by the visit from the beginning of the opening conference through the end of the correction due dates and any extensions thereof. OSHA may, in exercising its authority to schedule compliance inspections, assign a lower priority to worksites where consultation visits are scheduled.


(2) The consultant shall terminate an onsite consultative visit already in progress where one of the following kinds of OSHA compliance inspections is about to take place:


(i) Imminent danger investigations;


(ii) Fatality/catastrophe investigations;


(iii) Complaint investigations;


(iv) Other critical inspections as determined by the Assistant Secretary.


(3) An onsite consultation visit may not take place while an OSHA enforcement inspection is in progress at the establishment. An enforcement inspection shall be deemed “in progress” from the time a compliance officer initially seeks entry to the workplace to the end of the closing conference. An enforcement inspection will also be considered “in progress” in cases where entry is refused, until such times as: the inspection is conducted; the RA determines that a warrant to require entry to the workplace will not be sought; or the RA determines that allowing a consultative visit to proceed is in the best interest of employee safety and health. An onsite consultative visit shall not take place subsequent to an OSHA enforcement inspection until a determination has been made that no citation will be issued, or if a citation is issued, onsite consultation shall only take place with regard to those citation items which have become final orders.


(4) The recognition and exemption program operated by the OSHA consultation projects provide incentives and support to smaller, high-hazard employers to work with their employees to develop, implement, and continuously improve the effectiveness of their workplace safety and health management system.


(i) Programmed Inspection Schedule. (A) When an employer requests participation in a recognition and exemption program, and undergoes a consultative visit covering all conditions and operations in the place of employment related to occupational safety and health; corrects all hazards that were identified during the course of the consultative visit within established time frames; has began to implement all the elements of an effective safety and health program; and agrees to request a consultative visit if major changes in working conditions or work processes occur which may introduce new hazards, OSHA’s Programmed Inspections at that particular site may be deferred while the employer is working to achieve recognition and exemption status.


(B) Employers who meet all the requirements for recognition and exemption will have the names of their establishments removed from OSHA’s Programmed Inspection Schedule for a period of not less than one year. The exemption period will extend from the date of issuance by the Regional Office of the certificate of recognition.


(ii) Inspections. OSHA will continue to make inspections in the following categories at sites that achieved recognition status and have been granted exemption from OSHA’s Programmed Inspection Schedule; and at sites granted inspection deferrals as provided for under paragraph (b)(4)(i)(A) of this section:


(A) Imminent danger.


(B) Fatality/Catastrophe.


(C) Formal Complaints.


(5) When an employer requests consideration for participation in the recognition and exemption program under paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the provisions of § 1908.6(e)(7), (e)(8), (f)(3), and (f)(5) shall apply to other-than-serious hazards as well as serious hazards.


(c) Effect upon enforcement. (1) The advice of the consultant and the consultant’s written report will not be binding on a compliance officer in a subsequent enforcement inspection. In a subsequent inspection, a compliance officer is not precluded from finding hazardous conditions, or violations of standards, rules or regulations, for which citations would be issued and penalties proposed.


(2) The hazard identification and correction assistance given by a State consultant, or the failure of a consultant to point out a specific hazard, or other possible errors or omissions by the consultant, shall not be binding upon a compliance officer and need not affect the regular conduct of a compliance inspection or preclude the finding of alleged violations and the issuance of citations, or constitute a defense to any enforcement action.


(3) In the event of a subsequent inspection, the employer is not required to inform the compliance officer of the prior visit. The employer is not required to provide a copy of the state consultant’s written report to the compliance officer, except to the extent that disclosure of information contained in the report is required by 29 CFR 1910.1020 or other applicable OSHA standard or regulation. If, during a subsequent enforcement investigation, OSHA independently determines there is reason to believe that the employer: failed to correct serious hazards identified during the course of a consultation visit; created the same hazard again; or made false statements to the state or OSHA in connection with participation in the consultation program, OSHA may exercise its authority to obtain the consultation report.


(4) If, however, the employer chooses to provide a copy of the consultant’s report to a compliance officer, it may be used as a factor in determining the extent to which an inspection is required and as a factor in determining proposed penalties. When, during the course of a compliance inspection, an OSHA compliance officer identifies the existence of serious hazards previously identified as a result of a consultative visit, the Area Director shall have authority to assess minimum penalties if the employer is in good faith complying with the recommendations of a consultant after such consultative visit.


(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0110)

[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 65 FR 64292, Oct. 26, 2000]


§ 1908.8 Consultant specifications.

(a) Number. (1) The number of consultant positions which will be funded under a Cooperative Agreement pursuant to this part for the purpose of providing consultation to private sector employers will be determined by the Assistant Secretary on the basis of program performance, demand for services, industrial mix, resources available, and the recommendation of the RA, and may be adjusted periodically.


(2) States shall make efforts to utilize consultants with the safety and health expertise necessary to properly meet the demand for consultation by the various industries within a State. The RA will determine and negotiate a reasonable balance with the State on an annual basis.


(b) Qualifications. (1) All consultants utilized under Cooperative Agreements pursuant to this part shall be employees of the State, qualified under State requirements for employment in occupational safety and health. They must demonstrate adequate education and experience to satisfy the RA before assignment to work under an Agreement, and annually thereafter, that they meet the requirements set out in § 1908.8(b)(2), and that they have the ability to perform satisfactorily pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement. Persons who have the potential but do not yet demonstrate adequate education and experience to satisfy the RA that they have the ability to perform consultant duties independently may, with RA approval, be trained under a Cooperative Agreement to perform consultant duties. Such persons may not, however, perform consultant duties independently until it has been determined by the RA that they meet the requirements and have the ability indicated. All consultants shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of Executive Order 11246 of September 24, 1965, as amended, entitled “Equal Employment Opportunity.”


(2) Minimum requirements of consultants shall include the following:


(i) The ability to identify hazards; the ability to assess employee exposure and risk; knowledge of OSHA standards; knowledge of hazard correction techniques and practices; knowledge of workplace safety and health program requirements; and the ability to effectively communicate, both orally and in writing.


(ii) Consultants shall meet any additional degree and/or experience requirements as may be established by the Assistant Secretary.


(c) Training. As necessary, the Assistant Secretary will specify immediate and continuing training requirements for consultants. Expenses for training which is required by the Assistant Secretary or approved by the RA will be reimbursed in full.


§ 1908.9 Monitoring and evaluation.

(a) Assistant Secretary responsibility. A State’s performance under a Cooperative Agreement will be regularly monitored and evaluated by the Assistant Secretary as part of a systematic Federal plan for this activity. The Assistant Secretary may require changes as a result of these evaluations to foster conformance with consultation policy. If the State policies or practices which require change are such that the State’s assurance of correction of serious hazards and of the effectiveness of employers’ safety and health programs is in doubt, the Assistant Secretary may, pending the completion of the changes, suspend recognition of a State’s consultative visits as a basis for exemption from compliance inspection as permitted under § 1908.7(b)(4).


(b) Consultant performance – (1) State activity. The State shall establish and maintain an organized consultant performance monitoring system under the Cooperative Agreement:


(i) Operation of the system shall conform to all requirements established by the Assistant Secretary. The system shall be approved by the Assistant Secretary before it is placed in operation.


(ii) A performance evaluation of each State consultant performing consultation services for employers shall be prepared annually. All aspects of a consultant’s performance shall be reviewed at that time. Recommendation for remedial action shall be made and acted upon. The annual evaluation report shall be a confidential State personnel record and may be timed to coincide with regular personnel evaluations.


(iii) Performance of individual consultants shall be measured in terms of their ability to identify hazards in the workplaces which they have visited; their ability to determine employee exposure and risk, and in particular their performance under § 1908.6 (e) and (f); their knowledge and application of applicable Federal or State statutes, regulations or standards; their knowledge and application of appropriate hazard correction techniques and approaches; their knowledge and application of the requirements of an effective workplace safety and health program; and their ability to communicate effectively their findings and recommendations and the reasons for them to employers, and relevant information, skills and techniques to employers and employees.


(iv) Accompanied visits to observe consultants during onsite consultative visits shall be conducted periodically in accord with a plan established in each annual Cooperative Agreement. The State may also conduct unaccompanied visits to workplaces which received onsite consultation, for the purpose of evaluating consultants. A written report of each visit shall be provided to the consultant. These visits shall be conducted only with the expressed permission of the employer who requests the onsite consultative visit.


(v) The State will report quarterly to the RA on system operations, including copies of accompanied visit reports completed that quarter.


(2) Federal activity. State consultant performance monitoring as set out in § 1908.9(b)(1) shall not preclude Federal monitoring activity by methods determined to be appropriate by the Assistant Secretary.


(c) State reporting. For Federal monitoring and evaluation purposes, the State shall compile and submit such factual and statistical data in the format and at the frequency required by the Assistant Secretary. The State shall prepare and submit to the RA any narrative reports, including copies of written reports to employers as may be required by the Assistant Secretary.


(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0110)

[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989]


§ 1908.10 Cooperative Agreements.

(a) Who may make Agreements. The Assistant Secretary may make a Cooperative Agreement under this part with the Governor of a State or with any State agency designated for that purpose by the Governor.


(b) Negotiations. (1) Procedures for negotiations may be obtained through the RA who will negotiate for the Assistant Secretary and make final recommendations on each Agreement to the Assistant Secretary.


(2) States with Plans approved under section 18 of the Act may initiate negotiations in anticipation of the withdrawal from the Plan of Federally funded onsite consultation services to private sector employers.


(3) Renegotiation of existing Agreements funded under this part shall be initiated within 30 days of the effective date of these revisions.


(c) Contents of Cooperative Agreement. (1) Any Agreement and subsequent modifications shall be in writing and signed by both parties.


(2) Each Agreement shall provide that the State will conform its operations under the Agreement to:


(i) The requirements contained in this part 1908;


(ii) All related formal directives subsequently issued by the Assistant Secretary implementing this regulation.


(3) Each Agreement shall contain such other explicit written commitments in conformance with the provisions of this part as may be required by the Assistant Secretary. Each Agreement shall also include a budget of the State’s anticipated expenditures under the Agreement, in the detail and format required by the Assistant Secretary.


(d) Location of sample Cooperative Agreement. A sample Agreement is available for inspection at all Regional Offices of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor.


(e) Action upon requests. The State will be notified within a reasonable period of time of any decision concerning its request for a Cooperative Agreement. If a request is denied, the State will be informed in writing of the reasons supporting the decision. If a Cooperative Agreement is negotiated, the initial finding will specify the period for the Agreement. Additional funds may be added at a later time provided the activity is satisfactorily carried out and appropriations are available. The State may also be required to amend the Agreement for continued support.


(f) Termination. Either party may terminate a Cooperative Agreement under this part upon 30 days’ written notice to the other party.


(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1218-0110)

[49 FR 25094, June 19, 1984, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989]


§ 1908.11 Exclusions.

A Cooperative Agreement under this part will not restrict in any manner the authority and responsibility of the Assistant Secretary under sections 8, 9, 10, 13, and 17 of the Act, or any corresponding State authority.


PART 1910 – OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS


Source:39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General


Authority:29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor’s Order Numbers 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736),1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable.

Sections 1910.6, 1910.7, 1910.8 and 1910.9 also issued under 29 CFR 1911. Section 1910.7(f) also issued under 31 U.S.C. 9701; 29 U.S.C. 9a; 5 U.S.C. 553; Public Law 106-113 (113 Stat. 1501A-222); Public Law 11-8 and 111-317; and OMB Circular A-25 (dated July 8, 1993) (58 FR 38142, July 15, 1993).

§ 1910.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) Section 6(a) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1593) provides that “without regard to chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, or to the other subsections of this section, the Secretary shall, as soon as practicable during the period beginning with the effective date of this Act and ending 2 years after such date, by rule promulgate as an occupational safety or health standard any national concensus standard, and any established Federal standard, unless he determines that the promulgation of such a standard would not result in improved safety or health for specifically designated employees.” The legislative purpose of this provision is to establish, as rapidly as possible and without regard to the rule-making provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, standards with which industries are generally familiar, and on whose adoption interested and affected persons have already had an opportunity to express their views. Such standards are either (1) national concensus standards on whose adoption affected persons have reached substantial agreement, or (2) Federal standards already established by Federal statutes or regulations.


(b) This part carries out the directive to the Secretary of Labor under section 6(a) of the Act. It contains occupational safety and health standards which have been found to be national consensus standards or established Federal standards.


§ 1910.2 Definitions.

As used in this part, unless the context clearly requires otherwise:


(a) Act means the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1590).


(b) Assistant Secretary of Labor means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health;


(c) Employer means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who has employees, but does not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State;


(d) Employee means an employee of an employer who is employed in a business of his employer which affects commerce;


(e) Commerce means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between a State and any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia, or a possession of the United States (other than the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands), or between points in the same State but through a point outside thereof;


(f) Standard means a standard which requires conditions, or the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, methods, operations, or processes, reasonably necessary or appropriate to provide safe or healthful employment and places of employment;


(g) National consensus standard means any standard or modification thereof which (1) has been adopted and promulgated by a nationally recognized standards-producing organization under procedures whereby it can be determined by the Secretary of Labor or by the Assistant Secretary of Labor that persons interested and affected by the scope or provisions of the standard have reached substantial agreement on its adoption, (2) was formulated in a manner which afforded an opportunity for diverse views to be considered, and (3) has been designated as such a standard by the Secretary or the Assistant Secretary, after consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies; and


(h) Established Federal standard means any operative standard established by any agency of the United States and in effect on April 28, 1971, or contained in any Act of Congress in force on the date of enactment of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act.


§ 1910.3 Petitions for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard.

(a) Any interested person may petition in writing the Assistant Secretary of Labor to promulgate, modify, or revoke a standard. The petition should set forth the terms or the substance of the rule desired, the effects thereof if promulgated, and the reasons therefor.


(b)(1) The relevant legislative history of the Act indicates congressional recognition of the American National Standards Institute and the National Fire Protection Association as the major sources of national consensus standards. National consensus standards adopted on May 29, 1971, pursuant to section 6(a) of the Act are from those two sources. However, any organization which deems itself a producer of national consensus standards, within the meaning of section 3(9) of the Act, is invited to submit in writing to the Assistant Secretary of Labor at any time prior to February 1, 1973, all relevant information which may enable the Assistant Secretary to determine whether any of its standards satisfy the requirements of the definition of “national consensus standard” in section 3(9) of the Act.


(2) Within a reasonable time after the receipt of a submission pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall publish or cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of such submission, and shall afford interested persons a reasonable opportunity to present written data, views, or arguments with regard to the question whether any standards of the organization making the submission are national consensus standards.


§ 1910.4 Amendments to this part.

(a) The Assistant Secretary of Labor shall have all of the authority of the Secretary of Labor under sections 3(9) and 6(a) of the Act.


(b) The Assistant Secretary of Labor may at any time before April 28, 1973, on his own motion or upon the written petition of any person, by rule promulgate as a standard any national consensus standard and any established Federal standard, pursuant to and in accordance with section 6(a) of the Act, and, in addition, may modify or revoke any standard in this part 1910. In the event of conflict among any such standards, the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall take the action necessary to eliminate the conflict, including the revocation or modification of a standard in this part, so as to assure the greatest protection of the safety or health of the affected employees.


§ 1910.5 Applicability of standards.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the standards contained in this Part shall apply with respect to employments performed in a workplace in a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island, Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, and Johnston Island.


(b) None of the standards in this part shall apply to working conditions of employees with respect to which Federal agencies other than the Department of Labor, or State agencies acting under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2021), exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting occupational safety or health.


(c)(1) If a particular standard is specifically applicable to a condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process, it shall prevail over any different general standard which might otherwise be applicable to the same condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process. For example, § 1915.23(c)(3) of this title prescribes personal protective equipment for certain ship repairmen working in specified areas. Such a standard shall apply, and shall not be deemed modified nor superseded by any different general standard whose provisions might otherwise be applicable, to the ship repairmen working in the areas specified in § 1915.23(c)(3).


(2) On the other hand, any standard shall apply according to its terms to any employment and place of employment in any industry, even though particular standards are also prescribed for the industry, as in subpart B or subpart R of this part, to the extent that none of such particular standards applies. To illustrate, the general standard regarding noise exposure in § 1910.95 applies to employments and places of employment in pulp, paper, and paperboard mills covered by § 1910.261.


(d) In the event a standard protects on its face a class of persons larger than employees, the standard shall be applicable under this part only to employees and their employment and places of employment.


(e) [Reserved]


(f) An employer who is in compliance with any standard in this part shall be deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of section 5(a)(1) of the Act, but only to the extent of the condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process covered by the standard.


[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993; 85 FR 8732, Feb. 18, 2020]


§ 1910.6 Incorporation by reference.

(a)(1) The standards of agencies of the U.S. Government, and organizations which are not agencies of the U.S. Government which are incorporated by reference in this part, have the same force and effect as other standards in this part. Only the mandatory provisions (i.e., provisions containing the word “shall” or other mandatory language) of standards incorporated by reference are adopted as standards under the Occupational Safety and Health Act.


(2) Any changes in the standards incorporated by reference in this part and an official historic file of such changes are available for inspection in the Docket Office at the national office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210; telephone: 202-693-2350 (TTY number: 877-889-5627).


(3) The standards listed in this section are incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, OSHA must publish a document in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public.


(4) Copies of standards listed in this section and issued by private standards organizations are available for purchase from the issuing organizations at the addresses or through the other contact information listed below for these private standards organizations. In addition, these standards are available for inspection at any Regional Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), or at the OSHA Docket Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Room N-3508, Washington, DC 20210; telephone: 202-693-2350 (TTY number: 877-889-5627). They are also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of these standards at NARA, telephone: 202-741-6030, or go to www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html.


(b) The following material is available for purchase from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati OH 45202:


(1) “Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice” (22nd ed., 1995), incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(iii).


(2) Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1986-87 (1986), IBR approved for § 1910.120, PEL definition.


(c) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), 2950 Niles Road, Post Office Box 229, St. Joseph, MI 49085:


(1) ASAE Emblem for Identifying Slow Moving Vehicles, ASAE S276.2 (1968), IBR approved for § 1910.145(d)(10).


(2) [Reserved]


(d) The following material is available for purchase from the Agriculture Ammonia Institute-Rubber Manufacturers (AAI-RMA) Association, 1400 K St. NW, Washington DC 20005:


(1) AAI-RMA Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia Hose, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(8)(i).


(2) [Reserved]


(e) Except as noted, copies of the standards listed below in this paragraph are available for purchase from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4900; fax: 212-398-0023; Web site: http://www.ansi.org.


(1)-(2) [Reserved]


(3) ANSI A11.1-65 (R 70) Practice for Industrial Lighting, IBR approved for §§ 1910.219(c)(5)(iii); 1910.261 (a)(3)(i), (c)(10), and (k)(21); and 1910.265(c)(2).


(4) ANSI A11.1-65 Practice for Industrial Lighting, IBR approved for §§ 1910.262(c)(6) and 1910.265(d)(2)(i)(a).


(5) [Reserved]


(6) ANSI A13.1-56 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, IBR approved for §§ 1910.253(d)(4)(ii); 1910.261(a)(3)(iii); 1910.262(c)(7).


(7) ANSI A14.1-68 Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders, Supplemented by ANSI A14.1a-77, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(iv) and (c)(3)(i).


(8) ANSI A14.2-56 Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders, Supplemented by ANSI A14.2a-77, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(v) and (c)(3)(i).


(9) ANSI A14.3-56 Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, IBR approved for §§ 1910.68(b)(4); and 1910.261 (a)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(i).


(10) ANSI A17.1-65 Safety Code for Elevators, Dumbwaiters and Moving Walks, Including Supplements, A17.1a (1967); A17.1b (1968); A17.1c (1969); A17.1d (1970), IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(vii), (g)(11)(i), and (l)(4).


(11) ANSI A17.2-60 Practice for the Inspection of Elevators, Including Supplements, A17.2a (1965), A17.2b (1967), IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(viii).


(12) ANSI A90.1-69 Safety Standard for Manlifts, IBR approved for § 1910.68(b)(3).


(13) ANSI A92.2-69 Standard for Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms, IBR approved for § 1910.67 (b)(1), (2), (c)(3), and (4) and 1910.268(s)(1)(v).


(14) ANSI A120.1-70 Safety Code for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance, IBR approved for § 1910.66 app. D (b) through (d).


(15) ANSI B7.1-70 Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, IBR approved for §§ 1910.215(b)(12) and 1910.218(j).


(16) ANSI B15.1-53 (R 58) Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, IBR approved for §§ 1910.68(b)(4) and 1910.261 (a)(3)(ix), (b)(1), (e)(3), (e)(9), (f)(4), (j)(5)(iv), (k)(12), and (l)(3).


(17) ANSI B20.1-57 Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment, IBR approved for §§ 1910.218(j)(3); 1910.261 (a)(3)(x), (b)(1), (c)(15)(iv), (f)(4), and (j)(2); 1910.265(c)(18)(i).


(18) ANSI B30.2-43 (R 52) Safety Code for Cranes, Derricks, and Hoists, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xi), (c)(2)(vi), and (c)(8) (i) and (iv).


(19) ANSI B30.2.0-67 Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, IBR approved for §§ 1910.179(b)(2); 1910.261 (a)(3)(xii), (c)(2)(v), and (c)(8) (i) and (iv).


(20) ANSI B30.5-68 Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes, IBR approved for §§ 1910.180(b)(2) and 1910.261(a)(3)(xiii).


(21) ANSI B30.6-69 Safety Code for Derricks, IBR approved for §§ 1910.181(b)(2) and 1910.268(j)(4)(iv) (E) and (H).


(22) ANSI B31.1-55 Code for Pressure Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).


(23) ANSI B31.1-67, IBR approved for § 1910.253(d)(1)(i)(A)


(24) ANSI B31.1a-63 Addenda to ANSI B31.1 (1955), IBR approved for § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).


(25) ANSI B31.1-67 and Addenda B31.1 (1969) Code for Pressure Piping, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103(b)(1)(iii)(b); 1910.104(b)(5)(ii); 1910.218 (d)(4) and (e)(1)(iv); and 1910.261 (a)(3)(xiv) and (g)(18)(iii).


(26) ANSI B31.2-68 Fuel Gas Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.261(g)(18)(iii).


(27) ANSI B31.3-66 Petroleum Refinery Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b).


(28) ANSI B31.5-66 Addenda B31.5a (1968) Refrigeration Piping, IB approved for §§ 1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b) and 1910.111(b)(7)(iii).


(29) ANSI B56.1-69 Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, IBR approved for §§ 1910.178(a) (2) and (3) and 1910.261 (a)(3)(xv), (b)(6), (m)(2), and (m)(5)(iii).


(30) ANSI B57.1-65 Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections, IBR approved for § 1910.253(b)(1)(iii).


(31) [Reserved]


(32) ANSI B175.1-1991, Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws 1910.266(e)(2)(i).


(33) [Reserved]


(34) ANSI C33.2-56 Safety Standard for Transformer-Type Arc Welding Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.254(b)(1).


(35) [Reserved]


(36) ANSI H23.1-70 Seamless Copper Water Tube Specification, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b) (8)(ii) and (13)(ii)(b)(1).


(37) ANSI H38.7-69 Specification for Aluminum Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(8)(i).


(38) ANSI J6.4-71 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets, IBR approved for § 1910.268 (f)(1) and (n)(11)(v).


(39) ANSI J6.6-71 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves, IBR approved for § 1910.268 (f)(1) and (n)(11)(iv).


(40) ANSI K13.1-67 Identification of Gas Mask Canisters, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xvi) and (h)(2)(iii).


(41) ANSI K61.1-60 Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(11)(i).


(42) ANSI K61.1-66 Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(11)(i).


(43) ANSI O1.1-54 (R 61) Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xvii), (e)(7), and (i)(2).


(44) ANSI S1.4-71 (R 76) Specification for Sound Level Meters, IBR approved for § 1910.95 appendixes D and I.


(45) ANSI S1.11-71 (R 76) Specification for Octave, Half-Octave and Third-Octave Band Filter Sets, IBR approved for § 1910.95 appendix D.


(46) ANSI S3.6-69 Specifications for Audiometers, IBR approved for § 1910.95(h)(2) and (5)(ii) and appendix D.


(47) ANSI Z4.1-68 Requirements for Sanitation in Places of Employment, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xviii) and (g)(15)(vi).


(48) [Reserved]


(49) ANSI Z9.1-51 Safety Code for Ventilation and Operation of Open Surface Tanks, IBR approved for 1910.261(a)(3)(xix), (g)(18)(v), and (h)(2)(i).


(50) ANSI Z9.1-71 Practices for Ventilation and Operation of Open-Surface Tanks, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(iv).


(51) ANSI Z9.2-60 Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for §§ 1910.94(a)(4)(i) introductory text, (a)(6) introductory text, (b)(3)(ix), (b)(4)(i) and (ii), (c)(3)(i) introductory text, (c)(5)(iii)(b), and (c)(7)(iv)(a); 1910.261(a)(3)(xx), (g)(1)(i) and (iii), and (h)(2)(ii).


(52) ANSI Z9.2-79 Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(i).


(53) ANSI Z12.12-68 Standard for the Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions, IBR approved for § 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxi), (d)(1)(i), (f)(2)(iv), and (g)(1)(i).


(54) ANSI Z12.20-62 (R 69) Code for the Prevention of Dust Explosions in Woodworking and Wood Flour Manufacturing Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.265(c)(20)(i).


(55) ANSI Z21.30-64 Requirements for Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Installations, IBR approved for § 1910.265(c)(15).


(56) ANSI Z24.22-57 Method of Measurement of Real-Ear Attenuation of Ear Protectors at Threshold, IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(xxii).


(57) ANSI Z33.1-61 Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, IBR approved for §§ 1910.94(a)(4)(i); 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxiii) and (f)(5); and 1910.265(c)(20)(i).


(58) ANSI Z33.1-66 Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, IBR approved for § 1910.94(a)(2)(ii).


(59) ANSI Z35.1-1968, Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs; IBR approved for § 1910.261(c). Copies available for purchase from the IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 1-877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com.


(60) ANSI Z41-1999, American National Standard for Personal Protection – Protective Footwear; IBR approved for § 1910.136(b)(1)(ii). Copies of ANSI Z41-1999 are available for purchase only from the National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558; telephone: 1-800-621-7619; fax: 708-285-0797; Web site: http://www.nsc.org.


(61) ANSI Z41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection – Protective Footwear; IBR approved for § 1910.136(b)(1)(iii). Copies of ANSI Z41-1991 are available for purchase only from the National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558; telephone: 1-800-621-7619; fax: 708-285-0797; Web site: http://www.nsc.org.


(62)-(63) [Reserved]


(64) ANSI Z49.1-67 Safety in Welding and Cutting, IBR approved for § 1910.252(c)(1)(iv) (A) and (B).


(65) USAS Z53.1-1967 (also referred to as ANSI Z53.1-1967), Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards, ANSI approved October 9, 1967; IBR approved for § 1910.97(a) and 1910.145(d). Copies available for purchase from the IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 1-877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com.


(66) ANSI Z535.1-2006 (R2011), Safety Colors, reaffirmed July 19, 2011; IBR approved for §§ 1910.97(a) and 1910.145(d). Copies available for purchase from the:


(i) American National Standards Institute’s e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;


(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com; or


(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: 877-699-9277; Web site: www.techstreet.com.


(67) ANSI Z535.2-2011, Environmental and Facility Safety Signs, published September 15, 2011; IBR approved for § 1910.261(c). Copies available for purchase from the:


(i) American National Standards Institute’s e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;


(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com; or


(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: 877-699-9277; Web site: www.techstreet.com.


(68) ANSI Z54.1-63 Safety Standard for Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma Ray Sources, IBR approved for § 1910.252(d) (1)(vii) and (2)(ii).


(69) ANSI/ISEA Z87.1-2010, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices, Approved April 13, 2010; IBR approved for § 1910.133(b). Copies are available for purchase from:


(i) American National Standards Institute’s e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: (212) 642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;


(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: (877) 413-5184; Web site: http://global.ihs.com; or


(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: (877) 699-9277; Web site: http://techstreet.com.


(70) ANSI Z87.1-2003, Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Personal Protection Devices Approved June 19, 2003; IBR approved for §§ 1910.133(b). Copies available for purchase from the:


(i) American National Standards Institute’s e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: (212) 642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;


(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: (877) 413-5184; Web site: http://global.ihs.com; or


(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: (877) 699-9277; Web site: http://techstreet.com.


(71) ANSI Z87.1-1989 (R-1998), Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, Reaffirmation approved January 4, 1999; IBR approved for § 1910.133(b). Copies are available for purchase from:


(i) American National Standards Institute’s e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: (212) 642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;


(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: (877) 413-5184; Web site: http://global.ihs.com; or


(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: (877) 699-9277; Web site: http://techstreet.com.


(72) ANSI Z88.2-1969, Practices for Respiratory Protection; IBR approved for §§ 1910.94(c)(6)(iii)(a), 1910.134(c); and 1910.261(a)(3)(xxvi), (b)(2), (f)(5), (g)(15)(v), (h)(2)(iii), (h)(2)(iv), and (i)(4).


(73) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2009, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection, approved January 26, 2009; IBR approved for § 1910.135(b)(1)(i). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-2009 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.


(74) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2003, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection; IBR approved for § 1910.135(b)(1)(ii). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-2003 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.


(75) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-1997, American National Standard for Personnel Protection – Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers – Requirements; IBR approved for § 1910.135(b)(1)(iii). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-1997 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.


(76) ANSI Z41.1-1967 Men’s Safety Toe Footwear; IBR approved for § 1910.261(i)(4).


(77) ANSI Z87.1-1968 Practice of Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection; IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(xxv), (d)(1)(ii), (f)(5), (g)(1), (g)(15)(v), (g)(18)(ii), and (i)(4).


(78) ANSI Z89.1-1969 Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection; IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(3)(xxvii), (b)(2), (g)(15)(v), and (i)(4).


(79) ANSI Z89.2-1971 Safety Requirements for Industrial Protective Helmets for Electrical Workers, Class B; IBR approved for § 1910.268(i)(1).


(f) The following material is available for purchase from the American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L Street NW, Washington DC 20005:


(1) [Reserved]


(2) API 12B (May 1958) Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, 11th Ed., With Supplement No. 1, Mar. 1962, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).


(3) API 12D (Aug. 1957) Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, 7th Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).


(4) API 12F (Mar. 1961) Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, 5th Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).


(5) API 620, Fourth Ed. (1970) Including appendix R, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large Welded Low Pressure Storage Tanks, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103(c)(1)(i)(a); 1910.106(b)(1)(iv)(b)(1); and 1910.111(d)(1) (ii) and (iii).


(6) API 650 (1966) Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, 3rd Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(2).


(7) API 1104 (1968) Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, IBR approved for § 1910.252(d)(1)(v).


(8) API 2000 (1968) Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage Tanks, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(2)(iv)(b)(1).


(9) API 2201 (1963) Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment Containing Flammables, IBR approved for § 1910.252(d)(1)(vi).


(g) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), United Engineering Center, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017:


(1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, and 1962 Ed., IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(10)(iii) (Table H-26), (d)(2) (Table H-31); (e)(3)(i) (Table H-32), (h)(2) (Table H-34); and 1910.111(b)(2)(vi);


(2) ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, 1968 Ed., IBR approved for §§ 1910.106(i)(3)(i); 1910.110(g)(2)(iii)(b)(2); and 1910.217(b)(12);


(3) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, 1968, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103; 1910.104(b)(4)(ii); 1910.106 (b)(1)(iv)(b)(2) and (i)(3)(ii); 1910.107; 1910.110(b)(11) (i)(b) and (iii)(a)(1); 1910.111(b)(2) (i), (ii), and (iv); and 1910.169(a)(2) (i) and (ii);


(4) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Paragraph UG-84, 1968, IBR approved for § 1910.104 (b)(4)(ii) and (b)(5)(iii);


(5) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Including Addenda (1969), IBR approved for §§ 1910.261; 1910.262; 1910.263(i)(24)(ii);


(6) Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids and Gases of the API and the ASME, 1951 Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(3)(iii); and


(7) ASME B56.6-1992 (with addenda), Safety Standard for Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(4).


(h) Copies of the standards listed below in this paragraph (h) are available for purchase from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959; Telephone: 610-832-9585; Fax: 610-832-9555; Email: seviceastm.org; Web site: http://www.astm.org. Copies of historical standards or standards that ASTM does not have may be purchased from Information Handling Services, Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; Telephone: 1-800-854-7179; Email: [email protected]; Web sites: http://global.ihs.com or http://www.store.ihs.com.


(1) ASTM A 47-68, Malleable Iron Castings, IBR approved for § 1910.111.


(2) ASTM A 53-69, Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe, IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 and 1910.111.


(3) ASTM A 126-66, Gray Iron Casting for Valves, Flanges and Pipe Fitting, IBR approved for § 1910.111.


(4) ASTM A 391-65 (ANSI G61.1-1968), Alloy Steel Chain, IBR approved for § 1910.184.


(5) ASTM A 395-68, Ductile Iron for Use at Elevated Temperatures, IBR approved for § 1910.111.


(6) ASTM B 88-66A, Seamless Copper Water Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.252.


(7) ASTM B 88-69, Seamless Copper Water Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.110.


(8) [Reserved]


(9) ASTM B 210-68, Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes, IBR approved for § 1910.110.


(10) ASTM B 241-69, Standard Specifications for Aluminum-Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube, IBR approved for § 1910.110.


(11) ASTM D 5-65, Test for Penetration by Bituminous Materials, IBR approved for § 1910.106.


(12) ASTM D 56-70, Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester, IBR approved for § 1910.106.


(13) ASTM D 56-05, Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester, Approved May 1, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(14) ASTM D 86-62, Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, IBR approved for §§ 1910.106 and 1910.119.


(15) ASTM D 86-07a, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, Approved April 1, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(16) ASTM D 88-56, Test for Saybolt Viscosity, IBR approved for § 1910.106.


(17) ASTM D 93-71, Test for Flash Point by Pensky Martens, IBR approved for § 1910.106.


(18) ASTM D 93-08, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, Approved Oct. 15, 2008, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(19) ASTM D 240-02 (Reapproved 2007), Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter, Approved May 1, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(20) ASTM D 323-68, Standard Test Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method), IBR approved for § 1910.106.


(21) ASTM D 445-65, Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.106.


(22) ASTM D 1078-05, Standard Test Method for Distillation Range of Volatile Organic Liquids, Approved May 15, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(23) ASTM D 1692-68, Test for Flammability of Plastic Sheeting and Cellular Plastics, IBR approved for § 1910.103.


(24) ASTM D 2161-66, Conversion Tables for SUS, IBR approved for § 1910.106.


(25) ASTM D 3278-96 (Reapproved 2004) E1, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point of Liquids by Small Scale Closed-Cup Apparatus, Approved November 1, 2004, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(26) ASTM D 3828-07a, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester, Approved July 15, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(27) ASTM F-2412-2005, Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection, IBR approved for § 1910.136.


(28) ASTM F-2413-2005, Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Protective Footwear, IBR approved for § 1910.136.


(i) The following material is available at the American Thoracic Society (ATS), 25 Broadway, 18th Floor New York, NY 10004; website: www.atsjournals.org/.


(1) Spirometric Reference Values from a Sample of the General U.S. Population. Hankinson JL, Odencrantz JR, Fedan KB. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159:179-187, 1999, IBR approved for § 1910.1043(h).


(2) [Reserved]


(j) The following material is available for purchase from the American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW, LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami FL 33135:


(1)-(2) [Reserved]


(3) AWS B3.0-41 Standard Qualification Procedure, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(i).


(4) AWS D1.0-1966 Code for Welding in Building Construction, IBR approved for § 1910.27(b)(6).


(5) AWS D2.0-69 Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(iv).


(6) AWS D8.4-61 Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(ii).


(7) AWS D10.9-69 Standard Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders for Piping and Tubing, IBR approved for § 1910.67(c)(5)(iii).


(k) The following material is available for purchase from the Department of Commerce:


(1) [Reserved]


(2) Publication “Model Performance Criteria for Structural Fire Fighters’ Helmets,” IBR approved for § 1910.156(e)(5)(i).


(l) The following material is available for purchase from the Compressed Gas Association (CGA), 1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202:


(1) CGA C-6 (1968) Standards for Visual Inspection of Compressed Gas Cylinders, IBR approved for § 1910.101(a).


(2) CGA C-8 (1962) Standard for Requalification of ICC-3HT Cylinders, IBR approved for § 1910.101(a).


(3) CGA G-1-2009 Acetylene, Twelfth Edition, IBR approved for § 1910.102(a). Copies of CGA Pamphlet G-1-2009 are available for purchase from the: Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 4221 Walney Road, 5th Floor, Chantilly, VA 20151; telephone: (703) 788-2700; fax: (703) 961-1831; email: [email protected]


(4) CGA G-7.1 (1966) Commodity Specification, IBR approved for § 1910.134(d)(1).


(5) CGA G-8.1 (1964) Standard for the Installation of Nitrous Oxide Systems at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for § 1910.105.


(6) CGA P-1 (1965) Safe Handling of Compressed Gases, IBR approved for § 1910.101(b).


(7) CGA P-3 (1963) Specifications, Properties, and Recommendations for Packaging, Transportation, Storage and Use of Ammonium Nitrate, IBR approved for § 1910.109(i)(1)(ii)(b).


(8) CGA S-1.1 (1963) and 1965 Addenda. Safety Release Device Standards – Cylinders for Compressed Gases, IBR approved for §§ 1910.101(c); 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2).


(9) CGA S-1.2 (1963) Safety Release Device Standards, Cargo and Portable Tanks for Compressed Gases, IBR approved for §§ 1910.101(c); 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2).


(10) CGA S-1.3 (1959) Safety Release Device Standards-Compressed Gas Storage Containers, IBR approved for §§ 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2); 1910.104(b)(6)(iii); and 1910.111(d)(4)(ii)(b).


(11) CGA 1957 Standard Hose Connection Standard, IBR approved for § 1910.253(e) (4)(v) and (5)(iii).


(12) CGA and RMA (Rubber Manufacturer’s Association) Specification for Rubber Welding Hose (1958), IBR approved for § 1910.253(e)(5)(i).


(13) CGA 1958 Regulator Connection Standard, IBR approved for § 1910.253(e) (4)(iv) and (6).


(m) The following material is available for purchase from the Crane Manufacturer’s Association of America, Inc. (CMAA), 1 Thomas Circle NW, Washington DC 20005:


(1) CMAA Specification 1B61, Specifications for Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes, IBR approved for § 1910.179(b)(6)(i).


(2) [Reserved]


(n) The following material is available for purchase from the General Services Administration:


(1) GSA Pub. GG-B-0067b, Air Compressed for Breathing Purposes, or Interim Federal Specifications, Apr. 1965, IBR approved for § 1910.134(d)(4).


(2) [Reserved]


(o) The following material is available for purchase from the Department of Health and Human Services:


(1) Publication No. 76-120 (1975), List of Personal Hearing Protectors and Attenuation Data, IBR approved for § 1910.95 App. B.


(2) [Reserved]


(p) The following material is available for purchase from the Institute of Makers of Explosives (IME), 420 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:


(1) IME Pamphlet No. 17, 1960, Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IBR approved for §§ 1910.261 (a)(4)(iii) and (c)(14)(ii).


(2) [Reserved]


(q) The following material is available from the International Labour Organization (ILO), 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Genève 22, Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0) 22 799 6111; fax: +41 (0) 22 798 8685; website: www.ilo.org/.


(1) Guidelines for the Use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, Revised Edition 2011, Occupational safety and health series; 22 (Rev.2011), IBR approved for § 1910.1001.


(2) [Reserved]


(r)(1) The following materials are available for purchase from the International Standards Organization (ISO) through ANSI, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036-7417; Telephone: 212-642-4980; Fax: 212-302-1286; Email: [email protected]; Web site: http://www.ansi.org.


(2) Documents not available in the ANSI store may be purchased from:


(i) Document Center Inc., 111 Industrial Road, Suite 9, Belmont, 94002; Telephone: 650-591-7600; Fax: 650-591-7617; Email: [email protected]; Web site: www.document-center.com.


(ii) DECO – Document Engineering Co., Inc., 15210 Stagg Street, Van Nuys, CA 91405; Telephone: 800-645-7732 or 818-782-1010; Fax: 818-782-2374; Email: [email protected]; Web site: www.doceng.com


(iii) Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; Telephone: 1-800-854-7179 or 303-397-7956; Fax: 303-397-2740; Email: [email protected]; Web sites: http://global.ihs.com or http://www.store.ihs.com;


(iv) ILI Infodisk, Inc., 610 Winters Avenue, Paramus, NJ 07652; Telephone: 201-986-1131; Fax: 201-986-7886; Email: [email protected]; Web site: www.ili-info.com.


(v) Techstreet, a business of Thomson Reuters, 3916 Ranchero Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48108; Telephone: 800-699-9277 or 734-780-8000; Fax: 734-780-2046; Email: [email protected]; Web site: www.Techstreet.com.


(3) ISO 10156:1996 (E), Gases and Gas Mixtures – Determination of Fire Potential and Oxidizing Ability for the Selection of Cylinder Valve Outlets, Second Edition, Feb. 15, 1996, IBR approved for appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(4) ISO 10156-2:2005 (E), Gas cylinders – Gases and Gas Mixtures – Part 2: Determination of Oxidizing Ability of Toxic and Corrosive Gases and Gas Mixtures, First Edition, Aug. 1, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(5) ISO 13943:2000 (E/F), Fire Safety – Vocabulary, First Edition, April, 15, 2000, IBR approved for appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(s) The following material is available for purchase from the National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA):


(1) NEMA EW-1 (1962) Requirements for Electric Arc Welding Apparatus, IBR approved for §§ 1910.254(b)(1).


(2) [Reserved]


(t) The following material is available for purchase from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269; Telephone: 800-344-3555 or 617-770-3000; Fax: 1-800-593-6372 or 1-508-895-8301; Email: [email protected]; Web site: http://www.nfpa.org.


(1) NFPA 30 (1969) Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, IBR approved for § 1910.178(f)(1).


(2) NFPA 32-1970 Standard for Dry Cleaning Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.106(j)(6)(i).


(3) NFPA 33-1969 Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Material, IBR approved for § 1910.94(c)(2).


(4) NFPA 34-1966 Standard for Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(iv).


(5) NFPA 34-1995 Standard for Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.124(b)(4)(ii).


(6) NFPA 35-1970 Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, IBR approved for § 1910.106(j)(6)(ii).


(7) NFPA 36-1967 Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.106(j)(6)(iii).


(8) NFPA 37-1970 Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, IBR approved for §§ 1910.106(j)(6)(iv) and 1910.110 (b)(20)(iv)(c) and (e)(11).


(9) NFPA 51B-1962 Standard for Fire Protection in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes, IBR approved for § 1910.252(a)(1) introductory text.


(10) NFPA 54-1969 Standard for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(a).


(11) NFPA 54A-1969 Standard for the Installation of Gas Piping and Gas Equipment on Industrial Premises and Certain Other Premises, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(b).


(12) NFPA 58-1969 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (ANSI Z106.1-1970), IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) and (i)(3) (i) and (ii); and 1910.178(f)(2).


(13) NFPA 59-1968 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants, IBR approved for §§ 1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) and (i)(2)(iv).


(14) NFPA 62-1967 Standard for the Prevention of Dust Explosions in the Production, Packaging, and Handling of Pulverized Sugar and Cocoa, IBR approved for § 1910.263(k)(2)(i).


(15) NFPA 68-1954 Guide for Explosion Venting, IBR approved for § 1910.94(a)(2)(iii).


(16) [Reserved]


(17) NFPA 78-1968 Lightning Protection Code, IBR approved for § 1910.109(i)(6)(ii).


(18) NFPA 80-1968 Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, IBR approved for § 1910.106(d)(4)(i).


(19) NFPA 80-1970 Standard for the Installation of Fire Doors and Windows, IBR approved for § 1910.253(f)(6)(i)(I).


(20) NFPA 86A-1969 Standard for Oven and Furnaces Design, Location and Equipment, IBR approved for §§ 1910.107 (j)(1) and (l)(3) and 1910.108 (b)(2) and (d)(2).


(21) NFPA 91-1961 Standard for the Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying (ANSI Z33.1-61), IBR approved for § 1910.107(d)(1).


(22) NFPA 91-1969 Standards for Blower and Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for § 1910.108(b)(1).


(23) NFPA 96-1970 Standard for the Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and Grease Laden Vapors from Commercial Cooking Equipment, IBR approved for § 1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(d).


(24) NFPA 101-1970 Code for Life Safety From Fire in Buildings and Structures, IBR approved for § 1910.261(a)(4)(ii).


(25) NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, 2009 edition, IBR approved for §§ 1910.34, 1910.35, 1910.36, and 1910.37.


(26) NFPA 203M-1970 Manual on Roof Coverings, IBR approved for § 1910.109(i)(1)(iii)(c).


(27) NFPA 251-1969 Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, IBR approved for §§ 1910.106 (d)(3)(ii) introductory text and (d)(4)(i).


(28) NFPA 302-1968 Fire Protection Standard for Motor-Craft (Pleasure and Commercial), IBR approved for § 1910.265(d)(2)(iv) introductory text.


(29) NFPA 385-1966 Recommended Regulatory Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(1).


(30) NFPA 496-1967 Standard for Purged Enclosures for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations, IBR approved for § 1910.103(c)(1)(ix)(e)(1).


(31) NFPA 505-1969 Standard for Type Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance, and Operation of Powered Industrial Trucks, IBR approved for § 1910.110(e)(2)(iv).


(32) NFPA 566-1965 Standard for the Installation of Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for §§ 1910.253 (b)(4)(iv) and (c)(2)(v).


(33) NFPA 656-1959 Code for the Prevention of Dust Ignition in Spice Grinding Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.263(k)(2)(i).


(34) NFPA 1971-1975 Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting, IBR approved for § 1910.156(e)(3)(ii) introductory text.


(35) NFPA 51A (2001) Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.102(b) and (c). Copies of NFPA 51A-2001 are available for purchase from the: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471; telephone: 1-800-344-35557; e-mail: [email protected]


(36) NFPA 51A (2006) Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, IBR approved for § 1910.102(b) and (c). Copies of NFPA 51A-2006 are available for purchase from the: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471; telephone: 1-800-344-35557; e-mail: [email protected]


(37) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products, 2007 Edition, Approved August 17, 2006, IBR approved for Appendix B to § 1910.1200.


(u) The following material is available for purchase from the National Food Plant Institute, 1700 K St. NW., Washington, DC 20006:


(1) Definition and Test Procedures for Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer (Nov. 1964), IBR approved for § 1910.109 Table H-22, ftn. 3.


(2) [Reserved]


(v) The following material is available for purchase from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH):


(1) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1978, IBR approved for § 1910.20(c)(13)(i) and appendix B.


(2) Development of Criteria for Fire Fighters Gloves; Vol. II, part II; Test Methods, 1976, IBR approved for § 1910.156(e)(4)(i) introductory text.


(3) NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health Standards (Sept. 1987), IBR approved for § 1910.120 PEL definition.


(w) The following material is available for purchase from the Public Health Service:


(1) U.S. Pharmacopeia, IBR approved for § 1910.134(d)(1).


(2) Publication No. 934 (1962), Food Service Sanitation Ordinance and Code, part V of the Food Service Sanitation Manual, IBR approved for § 1910.142(i)(1).


(x) The following material is available for purchase from the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 485 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:


(1) SAE J185, June 1988, Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(5)(i).


(2) SAE J231, January 1981, Minimum Performance Criteria for Falling Object Protective Structure (FOPS), IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(3)(ii).


(3) SAE J386, June 1985, Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.266(d)(3)(iv).


(4) SAE J397, April 1988, Deflection Limiting Volume-ROPS/FOPS Laboratory Evaluation, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(3)(iv).


(5) SAE 765 (1961) SAE Recommended Practice: Crane Loading Stability Test Code, IBR approved for § 1910.180 (c)(1)(iii) and (e)(2)(iii)(a).


(6) SAE J1040, April 1988, Performance Criteria for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Construction, Earthmoving, Forestry and Mining Machines, IBR approved for § 1910.266(f)(3)(ii).


(y) The following material is available for purchase from the Fertilizer Institute, 1015 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036:


(1) Standard M-1 (1953, 1955, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968), Superseded by ANSI K61.1-1972, IBR approved for § 1910.111(b)(1) (i) and (iii).


(2) [Reserved]


(z) The following material is available for purchase from Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, IL 60611:


(1) UL 58-61 Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 5th Ed., IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).


(2) UL 80-63 Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).


(3) UL 142-68 Steel Above Ground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for § 1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).


(aa) The following material is available for purchase from the: International Code Council, Chicago District Office, 4051 W. Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478; telephone: 708-799-2300, x3-3801; facsimile: 001-708-799-4981; e-mail: [email protected]


(1) IFC-2009, International Fire Code, copyright 2009, IBR approved for §§ 1910.34, 1910.35, 1910.36, and 1910.37.


(2) [Reserved]


(bb)(1) The following document is available for purchase from United Nations Publications, Customer Service, c/o National Book Network, 15200 NBN Way, PO Box 190, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214; telephone: 1-888-254-4286; fax: 1-800-338-4550; email: [email protected] Other distributors of United Nations Publications include:


(i) Bernan, 15200 NBN Way, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214; telephone: 1-800-865-3457; fax: 1-800-865-3450; email: [email protected]; Web site: http://www.bernan.com; and


(ii) Renouf Publishing Co. Ltd., 812 Proctor Avenue, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-2205; telephone: 1-888-551-7470; Fax: 1-888-551-7471; email: [email protected]; Web site: http://www.renoufbooks.com.


(2) UN ST/SG/AC.10/Rev.4, The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria, Fourth Revised Edition, 2003, IBR approved for appendix B to § 1910.1200.


[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974]


Editorial Note:For Federal Register citations affecting § 1910.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§ 1910.7 Definition and requirements for a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(a) Application. This section shall apply only when the term nationally recognized testing laboratory is used in other sections of this part.


(b) Laboratory requirements. The term nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) means an organization which is recognized by OSHA in accordance with appendix A of this section and which tests for safety, and lists or labels or accepts, equipment or materials and which meets all of the following criteria:


(1) For each specified item of equipment or material to be listed, labeled or accepted, the NRTL has the capability (including proper testing equipment and facilities, trained staff, written testing procedures, and calibration and quality control programs) to perform:


(i) Testing and examining of equipment and materials for workplace safety purposes to determine conformance with appropriate test standards; or


(ii) Experimental testing and examining of equipment and materials for workplace safety purposes to determine conformance with appropriate test standards or performance in a specified manner.


(2) The NRTL shall provide, to the extent needed for the particular equipment or materials listed, labeled, or accepted, the following controls or services:


(i) Implements control procedures for identifying the listed and labeled equipment or materials;


(ii) Inspects the run of production of such items at factories for product evaluation purposes to assure conformance with the test standards; and


(iii) Conducts field inspections to monitor and to assure the proper use of its identifying mark or labels on products;


(3) The NRTL is completely independent of employers subject to the tested equipment requirements, and of any manufacturers or vendors of equipment or materials being tested for these purposes; and,


(4) The NRTL maintains effective procedures for:


(i) Producing creditable findings or reports that are objective and without bias; and


(ii) Handling complaints and disputes under a fair and reasonable system.


(c) Test standards. An appropriate test standard referred to in § 1910.7(b)(1) (i) and (ii) is a document which specifies the safety requirements for specific equipment or class of equipment and is:


(1) Recognized in the United States as a safety standard providing an adequate level of safety, and


(2) Compatible with and maintained current with periodic revisions of applicable national codes and installation standards, and


(3) Developed by a standards developing organization under a method providing for input and consideration of views of industry groups, experts, users, consumers, governmental authorities, and others having broad experience in the safety field involved, or


(4) In lieu of paragraphs (c) (1), (2), and (3), the standard is currently designated as an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety-designated product standard or an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test standard used for evaluation of products or materials.


(d) Alternative test standard. If a testing laboratory desires to use a test standard other than one allowed under paragraph (c) of this section, then the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall evaluate the proposed standard to determine that it provides an adequate level of safety before it is used.


(e) Implementation. A testing organization desiring recognition by OSHA as an NRTL shall request that OSHA evaluate its testing and control programs against the requirements in this section for any equipment or material it may specify. The recognition procedure shall be conducted in accordance with appendix A to this section.


(f) Fees. (1) Each applicant for NRTL recognition and each NRTL must pay fees for services provided by OSHA in advance of the provision of those services. OSHA will assess fees for the following services:


(i) Processing of applications for initial recognition, expansion of recognition, or renewal of recognition, including on-site reviews; review and evaluation of the applications; and preparation of reports, evaluations and Federal Register notices; and


(ii) Audits of sites.


(2) The fee schedule established by OSHA reflects the full cost of performing the activities for each service listed in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. OSHA calculates the fees based on either the average or actual time required to perform the work necessary; the staff costs per hour (which include wages, fringe benefits, and expenses other than travel for personnel that perform or administer the activities covered by the fees); and the average or actual costs for travel when on-site reviews are involved. The formula for the fee calculation is as follows:


Activity Fee = [Average (or Actual) Hours to Complete the Activity × Staff Costs per Hour] + Average (or Actual) Travel Costs

(3)(i) OSHA will review the full costs periodically and will propose a revised fee schedule, if warranted. In its review, OSHA will apply the formula established in paragraph (f)(2) of this section to the current estimated full costs for the NRTL Program. If a change is warranted, OSHA will follow the implementation shown in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.


(ii) OSHA will publish all fee schedules in the Federal Register. Once published, a fee schedule remains in effect until it is superseded by a new fee schedule. Any member of the public may request a change to the fees included in the current fee schedule. Such a request must include appropriate documentation in support of the suggested change. OSHA will consider such requests during its annual review of the fee schedule.


(4) OSHA will implement periodic review, and fee assessment, collection, and payment, as follows:


Milestones/Dates
Action required
I. Periodic Review of Fee Schedule
When review completedOSHA will publish any proposed new fee schedule in the Federal Register if OSHA determines that costs warrant changes in the fee schedule.
Fifteen days after publicationComments due on the proposed new fee schedule.
When OSHA approves the fee scheduleOSHA will publish the final fee schedule in the Federal Register, making the fee schedule effective on a specific date.
II. Application Processing Fees
Time of applicationApplicant must pay the applicable fees in the fee schedule that are due when submitting an application; OSHA will not begin processing the application until it receives the fees.
Before assessment performedApplicant must pay the estimated staff time and travel costs for its assessment based on the fees in effect at the time of the assessment. Applicant also must pay the fees for the final report and Federal Register notice, and other applicable fees, as specified in the fee schedule. OSHA may cancel an application if the applicant does not pay these fees, or any balance of these fees, when due.
III. Audit Fees
Before audit performedNRTL must pay the estimated staff time and travel costs for its audit based on the fees in effect at the time of the audit. NRTL also must pay other applicable fees, as specified in the fee schedule. After the audit, OSHA adjusts the audit fees to account for the actual costs for travel and staff time.
On due dateNRTL must pay the estimated audit fees, or any balance due, by the due date established by OSHA; OSHA will assess a late fee if NRTL does not pay audit fees (or any balance of fees due) by the due date. OSHA may still perform the audit when an NRTL does not pay the fees or does not pay them on time.
Thirty days after due date or, if earlier, date NRTL refuses to payOSHA will begin processing a notice for publication in the Federal Register announcing its plan to revoke recognition for NRTLs that do not pay the estimated audit fees and any balance of audit fees due.

Note: For the purposes of 29 CFR 1910.7(f)(4), “days” means “calendar days,” and “applicant” means “the NRTL” or “an applicant for NRTL recognition.”


(5) OSHA will provide details about how to pay the fees through appropriate OSHA Program Directives, which will be available on the OSHA web site.



Appendix A to § 1910.7 – OSHA Recognition Process for Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories

Introduction

This appendix provides requirements and criteria which OSHA will use to evaluate and recognize a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). This process will include the evaluation of the product evaluation and control programs being operated by the NRTL, as well as the NRTL’s testing facilities being used in its program. In the evaluation of the NRTLs, OSHA will use either consensus-based standards currently in use nationally, or other standards or criteria which may be considered appropriate. This appendix implements the definition of NRTL in 29 CFR 1910.7 which sets out the criteria that a laboratory must meet to be recognized by OSHA (initially and on a continuing basis). The appendix is broader in scope, providing procedures for renewal, expansion and revocation of OSHA recognition. Except as otherwise provided, the burden is on the applicant to establish by a preponderance of the evidence that it is entitled to recognition as an NRTL. If further detailing of these requirements and criteria will assist the NRTLs or OSHA in this activity, this detailing will be done through appropriate OSHA Program Directives.


I. Procedures for Initial OSHA Recognition

A. Applications.

1. Eligibility. a. Any testing agency or organization considering itself to meet the definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory as specified in § 1910.7 may apply for OSHA recognition as an NRTL.


b. However, in determining eligibility for a foreign-based testing agency or organization, OSHA shall take into consideration the policy of the foreign government regarding both the acceptance in that country of testing data, equipment acceptances, and listings, and labeling, which are provided through nationally recognized testing laboratories recognized by the Assistant Secretary, and the accessibility to government recognition or a similar system in that country by U.S.-based safety-related testing agencies, whether recognized by the Assistant Secretary or not, if such recognition or a similar system is required by that country.


2. Content of application. a. The applicant shall provide sufficient information and detail demonstrating that it meets the requirements set forth in § 1910.7, in order for an informed decision concerning recognition to be made by the Assistant Secretary.


b. The applicant also shall identify the scope of the NRTL-related activity for which the applicant wishes to be recognized. This will include identifying the testing methods it will use to test or judge the specific equipment and materials for which recognition is being requested, unless such test methods are already specified in the test standard. If requested to do so by OSHA, the applicant shall provide documentation of the efficacy of these testing methods.


c. The applicant may include whatever enclosures, attachments, or exhibits the applicant deems appropriate. The application need not be submitted on a Federal form.


3. Filing office location. The application shall be filed with: NRTL Recognition Program, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210.


4. Amendments and withdrawals. a. An application may be revised by an applicant at any time prior to the completion of activity under paragraph I.B.4. of this appendix.


b. An application may be withdrawn by an applicant, without prejudice, at any time prior to the final decision by the Assistant Secretary in paragraph I.B.7.c. of this appendix.


B. Review and Decision Process; Issuance or Renewal.

1. Acceptance and on-site review. a. Applications submitted by eligible testing agencies will be accepted by OSHA, and their receipt acknowledged in writing. After receipt of an application, OSHA may request additional information if it believes information relevant to the requirements for recognition has been omitted.


b. OSHA shall, as necessary, conduct an on-site review of the testing facilities of the applicant, as well as the applicant’s administrative and technical practices, and, if necessary, review any additional documentation underlying the application.


c. These on-site reviews will be conducted by qualified individuals technically expert in these matters, including, as appropriate, non-Federal consultants/contractors acceptable to OSHA. The protocol for each review will be based on appropriate national consensus standards or international guides, with such additions, changes, or deletions as may be considered necessary and appropriate in each case by OSHA. A written report shall be made of each on-site review and a copy shall be provided to the applicant.


2. Positive finding by staff. If, after review of the application, and additional information, and the on-site review report, the applicant appears to have met the requirements for recognition, a written recommendation shall be submitted by the responsible OSHA personnel to the Assistant Secretary that the application be approved, accompanied by a supporting explanation.


3. Negative finding by staff. – a. Notification to applicant. If, after review of the application, any additional information and the on-site review report, the applicant does not appear to have met the requirements for recognition, the responsible OSHA personnel shall notify the applicant in writing, listing the specific requirements of § 1910.7 and this appendix which the applicant has not met, and allow a reasonable period for response.


b. Revision of application. (i) After receipt of a notification of negative finding (i.e., for intended disapproval of the application), and within the response period provided, the applicant may:


(a) Submit a revised application for further review, which could result in a positive finding by the responsible OSHA personnel pursuant to subsection I.B.2. of this appendix; or


(b) Request that the original application be submitted to the Assistant Secretary with an attached statement of reasons, supplied by the applicant of why the application should be approved.


(ii) This procedure for applicant notification and potential revision shall be used only once during each recognition process.


4. Preliminary finding by Assistant Secretary. a. The Assistant Secretary, or a special designee for this purpose, will make a preliminary finding as to whether the applicant has or has not met the requirements for recognition, based on the completed application file, the written staff recommendation, and the statement of reasons supplied by the applicant if there remains a staff recommendation of disapproval.


b. Notification of this preliminary finding will be sent to the applicant and subsequently published in the Federal Register.


c. This preliminary finding shall not be considered an official decision by the Assistant Secretary or OSHA, and does not confer any change in status or any interim or temporary recognition for the applicant.


5. Public review and comment period – a. The Federal Register notice of preliminary finding will provide a period of not less than 30 calendar days for written comments on the applicant’s fulfillment of the requirements for recognition. The application, supporting documents, staff recommendation, statement of applicant’s reasons, and any comments received, will be available for public inspection in the OSHA Docket Office.


b. Any member of the public, including the applicant, may supply detailed reasons and evidence supporting or challenging the sufficiency of the applicant’s having met the requirements of the definition in 29 CFR § 1910.7 and this appendix. Submission of pertinent documents and exhibits shall be made in writing by the close of the comment period.


6. Action after public comment – a. Final decision by Assistant Secretary. Where the public review and comment record supports the Assistant Secretary’s preliminary finding concerning the application, i.e., absent any serious objections or substantive claims contrary to the preliminary finding having been received in writing from the public during the comment period, the Assistant Secretary will proceed to final written decision on the application. The reasons supporting this decision shall be derived from the evidence available as a result of the full application, the supporting documentation, the staff finding, and the written comments and evidence presented during the public review and comment period.


b. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary’s final decision will be provided to the applicant. Subsequently, a notification of the final decision shall be published in the Federal Register. The publication date will be the effective date of the recognition.


c. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.


7. Action after public objection – a. Review of negative information. At the discretion of the Assistant Secretary or his designee, OSHA may authorize Federal or contract personnel to initiate a special review of any information provided in the public comment record which appears to require resolution, before a final decision can be made.


b. Supplementation of record. The contents and results of special reviews will be made part of this record by the Assistant Secretary by either:


(i) Reopening the written comment period for public comments on these reviews; or


(ii) Convening an informal hearing to accept public comments on these reviews, conducted under applicable OSHA procedures for similar hearings.


c. Final decision by the Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary shall issue a decision as to whether it has been demonstrated, based on a preponderance of the evidence, that the applicant meets the requirements for recognition. The reasons supporting this decision shall be derived from the evidence available as a result of the full application, the supporting documentation, the staff finding, the comments and evidence presented during the public review and comment period, and written to transcribed evidence received during any subsequent reopening of the written comment period or informal public hearing held.


d. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary’s final decision will be provided to the applicant, and a notification will be published in the Federal Register subsequently announcing the decision.


e. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.


C. Terms and Conditions of Recognition.

1. The following terms and conditions shall be part of every recognition:


a. Letter of recognition. The recognition by OSHA of any NRTL will be evidenced by a letter of recognition from OSHA. The letter will provide the specific details of the scope of the OSHA recognition, including the specific equipment or materials for which OSHA recognition has been granted, as well as any specific conditions imposed by OSHA.


b. Period of recognition. The recognition by OSHA of each NRTL will be valid for five years, unless terminated before the expiration of the period. The dates of the period of recognition will be stated in the recognition letter.


c. Constancy in operations. The recognized NRTL shall continue to satisfy all the requirements or limitations in the letter of recognition during the period of recognition.


d. Accurate publicity. The OSHA-recognized NRTL shall not engage in or permit others to engage in misrepresentation of the scope or conditions of its recognition.


2. [Reserved]


II. Supplementary Procedures.

A. Test standard changes.

A recognized NRTL may change a testing standard or elements incorporated in the standard such as testing methods or pass-fail criteria by notifying the Assistant Secretary of the change, certifying that the revised standard will be at least as effective as the prior standard, and providing the supporting data upon which its conclusions are based. The NRTL need not inform the Assistant Secretary of minor deviations from a test standard such as the use of new instrumentation that is more accurate or sensitive than originally called for in the standard. The NRTL also need not inform the Assistant Secretary of its adoption of revisions to third-party testing standards meeting the requirements of § 1910.7(c)(4), if such revisions have been developed by the standards developing organization, or of its adoption of revisions to other third-party test standards which the developing organization has submitted to OSHA. If, upon review, the Assistant Secretary or his designee determines that the proposed revised standard is not “substantially equivalent” to the previous version with regard to the level of safety obtained, OSHA will not accept the proposed testing standard by the recognized NRTL, and will initiate discontinuance of that aspect of OSHA-recognized activity by the NRTL by modification of the official letter of recognition. OSHA will publicly announce this action and the NRTL will be required to communicate this OSHA decision directly to affected manufacturers.


B. Expansion of current recognition

1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may apply to OSHA for an expansion of its current recognition to cover other categories of NRTL testing in addition to those included in the current recognition.


2. Procedure. a. OSHA will act upon and process the application for expansion in accordance with subsection I.B. of this appendix, except that the period for written comments, specified in paragraph 5.a of subsection I.B. of this appendix, will be not less than 15 calendar days.


b. In that process, OSHA may decide not to conduct an on-site review, where the substantive scope of the request to expand recognition is closely related to the current area of recognition.


c. The expiration date for each expansion of recognition shall coincide with the expiration date of the current basic recognition period.


C. Renewal of OSHA recognition

1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may renew its recognition by filing a renewal request at the address in paragraph I.A.3. of this appendix not less than nine months, nor more than one year, before the expiration date of its current recognition.


2. Procedure. a. OSHA will process the renewal request in accordance with subsection I.B. of this appendix, except that the period for written comments, specified in paragraph 5.a of subsection I.B. of this appendix, will be not less than 15 calendar days.


b. In that process, OSHA may determine not to conduct the on-site reviews in I.B.1.a. where appropriate.


c. When a recognized NRTL has filed a timely and sufficient renewal request, its current recognition will not expire until a final decision has been made by OSHA on the request.


d. After the first renewal has been granted to the NRTL, the NRTL shall apply for a continuation of its recognition status every five years by submitting a renewal request. In lieu of submitting a renewal request after the initial renewal, the NRTL may certify its continuing compliance with the terms of its letter of recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7.


3. Alternative procedure. After the initial recognition and before the expiration thereof, OSHA may (for good cause) determine that there is a sufficient basis to dispense with the renewal requirement for a given laboratory and will so notify the laboratory of such a determination in writing. In lieu of submitting a renewal request, any laboratory so notified shall certify its continuing compliance with the terms of its letter of recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7.


D. Voluntary termination of recognition.

At any time, a recognized NRTL may voluntarily terminate its recognition, either in its entirety or with respect to any area covered in its recognition, by giving written notice to OSHA. The written notice shall state the date as of which the termination is to take effect. The Assistant Secretary shall inform the public of any voluntary termination by Federal Register notice.


E. Revocation of recognition by OSHA.

1. Potential causes. If an NRTL either has failed to continue to substantially satisfy the requirements of § 1910.7 or this appendix, or has not been reasonably performing the NRTL testing requirements encompassed within its letter of recognition, or has materially misrepresented itself in its applications or misrepresented the scope or conditions of its recognition, the Assistant Secretary may revoke the recognition of a recognized NRTL, in whole or in part. OSHA may initiate revocation procedures on the basis of information provided by any interested person.


2. Procedure. a. Before proposing to revoke recognition, the Agency will notify the recognized NRTL in writing, giving it the opportunity to rebut or correct the alleged deficiencies which would form the basis of the proposed revocation, within a reasonable period.


b. If the alleged deficiencies are not corrected or reconciled within a reasonable period, OSHA will propose, in writing to the recognized NRTL, to revoke recognition. If deemed appropriate, no other announcement need be made by OSHA.


c. The revocation shall be effective in 60 days unless within that period the recognized NRTL corrects the deficiencies or requests a hearing in writing.


d. If a hearing is requested, it shall be held before an administrative law judge of the Department of Labor pursuant to the rules specified in 29 CFR part 1905, subpart C.


e. The parties shall be OSHA and the recognized NRTL. The Assistant Secretary may allow other interested persons to participate in these hearings if such participation would contribute to the resolution of issues germane to the proceeding and not cause undue delay.


f. The burden of proof shall be on OSHA to demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the recognition should be revoked because the NRTL is not meeting the requirements for recognition, has not been reasonably performing the product testing functions as required by § 1910.7, this appendix A, or the letter of recognition, or has materially misrepresented itself in its applications or publicity.


3. Final decision. a. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge shall issue a decision stating the reasons based on the record as to whether it has been demonstrated, based on a preponderance of evidence, that the applicant does not continue to meet the requirements for its current recognition.


b. Upon issuance of the decision, any party to the hearing may file exceptions within 20 days pursuant to 29 CFR 1905.28. If no exceptions are filed, this decision is the final decision of the Assistant Secretary. If objections are filed, the Administrative Law Judge shall forward the decision, exceptions and record to the Assistant Secretary for the final decision on the proposed revocation.


c. The Assistant Secretary will review the record, the decision by the Administrative Law Judge, and the exceptions filed. Based on this, the Assistant Secretary shall issue the final decision as to whether it has been demonstrated, by a preponderance of evidence, that the recognized NRTL has not continued to meet the requirements for OSHA recognition. If the Assistant Secretary finds that the NRTL does not meet the NRTL recognition requirements, the recognition will be revoked.


4. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary’s final decision will be provided to the applicant, and a notification will be published in the Federal Register announcing the decision, and the availability of the complete record of this proceeding at OSHA. The effective date of any revocation will be the date the final decision copy is sent to the NRTL.


5. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.


[53 FR 12120, Apr. 12, 1988; 53 FR 16838, May 11, 1988, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 65 FR 46818, 46819, July 31, 2000; 76 FR 10515, Feb. 25, 2011; 85 FR 8732, Feb. 18, 2020]


§ 1910.8 OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

The following sections or paragraphs each contain a collection of information requirement which has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the control number listed.


29 CFR citation
OMB control No.
1910.71218-0147
1910.231218-0199
1910.271218-0199
1910.281218-0199

1910.661218-0121
1910.67(b)1218-0230
1910.681218-0226
1910.951218-0048
1910.1111218-0208
1910.1191218-0200
1910.1201218-0202
1910.1321218-0205
1910.1341218-0099
1910.1371218-0190
1910.1421218-0096
1910.1451218-0132
1910.1461218-0203
1910.1471218-0150
1910.1561218-0075
1910.157(e)(3)1218-0210
1910.157(f)(16)1218-0218
1910.177(d)(3)(iv)1218-0219
1910.179(j)(2)(iii) and (iv)1218-0224
1910.179(m)(1) and (m)(2)1218-0224
1910.180(d)(6)1218-0221
1910.180(g)(1) and (g)(2)(ii)1218-0221
1910.181(g)(1) and (g)(3)1218-0222
1910.184(e)(4), (f)(4) and (i)(8)(ii)1218-0223
1910.217(e)(1)(i) and (ii)1218-0229
1910.217(g)1218-0070
1910.217(h)1218-0143
1910.218(a)(2)(i) and (ii)1218-0228
1910.252(a)(2)(xiii)(c)1218-0207
1910.255(e)1218-0207
1910.2661218-0198
1910.2681218-0225
1910.2691218-0190
1910.2721218-0206
1910.3021218-0256
1910.3031218-0256
1910.3041218-0256
1910.3051218-0256
1910.3061218-0256
1910.3071218-0256
1910.3081218-0256
1910.4201218-0069
1910.4211218-0069
1910.4231218-0069
1910.4301218-0069
1910.4401218-0069
1910.10011218-0133
1910.10031218-0085
1910.10041218-0084
1910.10061218-0086
1910.10071218-0083
1910.10081218-0087
1910.10091218-0089
1910.10101218-0082
1910.10111218-0090
1910.10121218-0080
1910.10131218-0079
1910.10141218-0088
1910.10151218-0044
1910.10161218-0081
1910.10171218-0010
1910.10181218-0104
1910.10201218-0065
1910.10241218-0267

1910.10251218-0092
1910.10261218-0252
1910.10271218-0185
1910.10281218-0129
1910.10291218-0128
1910.10301218-0180
1910.10431218-0061
1910.10441218-0101
1910.10451218-0126
1910.10471218-0108
1910.10481218-0145
1910.10501218-0184
1910.10511218-0170
1910.10521218-0179
1910.10531218-0266
1910.10961218-0103
1910.12001218-0072
1910.14501218-0131

[61 FR 5508, Feb. 13, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 29668, June 2, 1997; 62 FR 42666, Aug. 8, 1997; 62 FR 43581, Aug. 14, 1997; 62 FR 65203, Dec. 11, 1997; 63 FR 13340, Mar. 19, 1998; 63 FR 17093, Apr. 8, 1998; 71 FR 38086, July 5, 2006; 72 FR 40075, July 23, 2007; 81 FR 48710, July 26, 2016; 82 FR 31253, July 6, 2017; 83 FR 9702, Mar. 7, 2018]


§ 1910.9 Compliance duties owed to each employee.

(a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee may be considered a separate violation.


(b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive training or that the employer train employees, provide training to employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee may be considered a separate violation.


[73 FR 75583, Dec. 12, 2008]


Subpart B – Adoption and Extension of Established Federal Standards


Authority:Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Walsh-Healey Act, 41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.; Service Contract Act of 1965, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq.; Sec.107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (Construction Safety Act), 40 U.S.C. 333; Sec. 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act, 33 U.S.C. 941; National Foundation of Arts and Humanities Act, 20 U.S.C. 951 et seq.; Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 1911), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), or 6-96 (62 FR 111), as applicable.

§ 1910.11 Scope and purpose.

(a) The provisions of this subpart B adopt and extend the applicability of, established Federal standards in effect on April 28, 1971, with respect to every employer, employee, and employment covered by the Act.


(b) It bears emphasis that only standards (i.e., substantive rules) relating to safety or health are adopted by any incorporations by reference of standards prescribed elsewhere in this chapter or this title. Other materials contained in the referenced parties are not adopted. Illustrations of the types of materials which are not adopted are these. The incorporations by reference of parts 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918 in §§ 1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16 are not intended to include the discussion in those parts of the coverage of the Longshoremen’s and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act or the penalty provisions of the Act. Similarly, the incorporation by reference of part 1926 in § 1910.12 is not intended to include references to interpretative rules having relevance to the application of the Construction Safety Act, but having no relevance to the application to the Occupational Safety and Health Act.


§ 1910.12 Construction work.

(a) Standards. The standards prescribed in part 1926 of this chapter are adopted as occupational safety and health standards under section 6 of the Act and shall apply, according to the provisions thereof, to every employment and place of employment of every employee engaged in construction work. Each employer shall protect the employment and places of employment of each of his employees engaged in construction work by complying with the appropriate standards prescribed in this paragraph.


(b) Definition. For purposes of this section, Construction work means work for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating. See discussion of these terms in § 1926.13 of this title.


(c) Construction Safety Act distinguished. This section adopts as occupational safety and health standards under section 6 of the Act the standards which are prescribed in part 1926 of this chapter. Thus, the standards (substantive rules) published in subpart C and the following subparts of part 1926 of this chapter are applied. This section does not incorporate subparts A and B of part 1926 of this chapter. Subparts A and B have pertinence only to the application of section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (the Construction Safety Act). For example, the interpretation of the term “subcontractor” in paragraph (c) of § 1926.13 of this chapter is significant in discerning the coverage of the Construction Safety Act and duties thereunder. However, the term “subcontractor” has no significance in the application of the Act, which was enacted under the Commerce Clause and which establishes duties for “employers” which are not dependent for their application upon any contractual relationship with the Federal Government or upon any form of Federal financial assistance.


(d) For the purposes of this part, to the extent that it may not already be included in paragraph (b) of this section, “construction work” includes the erection of new electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment, and the alteration, conversion, and improvement of the existing transmission and distribution lines and equipment.


§ 1910.15 Shipyard employment.

(a) Adoption and extension of established safety and health standards for shipyard employment. The standards prescribed by part 1915 (formerly parts 1501-1503) of this title and in effect on April 28, 1971 (as revised), are adopted as occupational safety or health standards under section 6(a) of the Act and shall apply, according to the provisions thereof, to every employment and place of employment of every employee engaged in ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding, or a related employment. Each employer shall protect the employment and places of employment of each of his employees engaged in ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding, or a related employment, by complying with the appropriate standards prescribed by this paragraph.


(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section:


(1) Ship repair means any repair of a vessel, including, but not restricted to, alterations, conversions, installations, cleaning, painting, and maintenance work;


(2) Shipbreaking means any breaking down of a vessel’s structure for the purpose of scrapping the vessel, including the removal of gear, equipment, or any component of a vessel;


(3) Shipbuilding means the construction of a vessel, including the installation of machinery and equipment;


(4) Related employment means any employment performed as an incident to, or in conjunction with, ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding work, including, but not restricted to, inspection, testing, and employment as a watchman; and


(5) Vessel includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for, or used as a means of, transportation on water.


[58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993]


§ 1910.16 Longshoring and marine terminals.

(a) Safety and health standards for longshoring. (1) Part 1918 of this chapter shall apply exclusively, according to the provisions thereof, to all employment of every employee engaged in longshoring operations or related employment aboard any vessel. All cargo transfer accomplished with the use of shore-based material handling devices shall be governed by part 1917 of this chapter.


(2) Part 1910 does not apply to longshoring operations except for the following provisions:


(i) Access to employee exposure and medical records. Subpart Z, § 1910.1020;


(ii) Commercial diving operations. Subpart T;


(iii) Electrical. Subpart S when shore-based electrical installations provide power for use aboard vessels;


(iv) Hazard communication. Subpart Z, § 1910.1200;


(v) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z, § 1910.1096;


(vi) Noise. Subpart G, § 1910.95;


(vii) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G, § 1910.97;



Note to paragraph (a)(2)(vii):

Exposures to nonionizing radiation emissions from commercial vessel transmitters are considered hazardous under the following conditions: (1) where the radar is transmitting, the scanner is stationary, and the exposure distance is 18.7 feet (6 m.) or less; or (2) where the radar is transmitting, the scanner is rotating, and the exposure distance is 5.2 feet (1.8 m.) or less.


(viii) Respiratory protection. Subpart I, § 1910.134;


(ix) Toxic and hazardous substances. Subpart Z applies to marine cargo handling activities except for the following:


(A) When a substance or cargo is contained within a sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with Department of Transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements;
1




1 The International Maritime Organization publishes the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code to aid compliance with the international legal requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960.


(B) Bloodborne pathogens, § 1910.1030;


(C) Carbon monoxide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1918.94 (a)); and


(D) Hydrogen sulfide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1918.94 (f)).


(x) Powered industrial truck operator training, Subpart N, § 1910.178(l).


(b) Safety and health standards for marine terminals. Part 1917 of this chapter shall apply exclusively, according to the provisions thereof, to employment within a marine terminal, except as follows:


(1) The provisions of part 1917 of this chapter do not apply to the following:


(i) Facilities used solely for the bulk storage, handling, and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids and gases.


(ii) Facilities subject to the regulations of the Office of Pipeline Safety of the Research and Special Programs Administration, Department of Transportation (49 CFR chapter I, subchapter D), to the extent such regulations apply to specific working conditions.


(iii) Fully automated bulk coal handling facilities contiguous to electrical power generating plants.


(2) Part 1910 does not apply to marine terminals except for the following:


(i) Abrasive blasting. Subpart G, § 1910.94(a);


(ii) Access to employee exposure and medical records. Subpart Z, § 1910.1020;


(iii) Commercial diving operations. Subpart T;


(iv) Electrical. Subpart S;


(v) Grain handling facilities. Subpart R, § 1910.272;


(vi) Hazard communication. Subpart Z, § 1910.1200;


(vii) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z, § 1910.1096;


(viii) Noise. Subpart G, § 1910.95;


(ix) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G, § 1910.97.


(x) Respiratory protection. Subpart I, § 1910.134.


(xi) Safety requirements for scaffolding. Subpart D, § 1910.28;


(xii) Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels. Subpart N, § 1910.177;


(xiii) Toxic and hazardous substances. Subpart Z applies to marine cargo handling activities except for the following:


(A) When a substance or cargo is contained within a sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with Department of Transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements;
2




2 The International Maritime Organization publishes the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code to aid compliance with the international legal requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960.


(B) Bloodborne pathogens, § 1910.1030;


(C) Carbon monoxide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1917.24(a)); and


(D) Hydrogen sulfide, § 1910.1000 (See § 1917.73(a)(2)); and


(xiv) Powered industrial truck operator training, subpart N, § 1910.178(l).


(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section:


(1) Longshoring operation means the loading, unloading, moving, or handling of, cargo, ship’s stores, gear, etc., into, in, on, or out of any vessel;


(2) Related employment means any employment performed as an incident to or in conjunction with, longshoring operations including, but not restricted to, securing cargo, rigging, and employment as a porter, checker, or watchman; and


(3) Vessel includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for, or used as a means of, transportation on water.


(4) Marine terminal means wharves, bulkheads, quays, piers, docks and other berthing locations and adjacent storage or adjacent areas and structures associated with the primary movement of cargo or materials from vessel to shore or shore to vessel including structures which are devoted to receiving, handling, holding, consolidation and loading or delivery of waterborne shipments or passengers, including areas devoted to the maintenance of the terminal or equipment. The term does not include production or manufacturing areas having their own docking facilities and located at a marine terminal nor does the term include storage facilities directly associated with those production or manufacturing areas.


[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 48 FR 30908, July 5, 1983; 52 FR 36026, Sept. 25, 1987; 62 FR 40195, July 25, 1997; 63 FR 66270, Dec. 1, 1998]


§ 1910.17 Effective dates.

(a)-(b) [Reserved]


(c) Except whenever any employment or place of employment is, or becomes, subject to any safety and health standard prescribed in part 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, or 1926 of this title on a date before August 27, 1971, by virtue of the Construction Safety Act or the Longshoremen’s and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act, that occupational safety and health standard as incorporated by reference in this subpart shall also become effective under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 on that date.


[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]


§ 1910.18 Changes in established Federal standards.

Whenever an occupational safety and health standard adopted and incorporated by reference in this subpart B is changed pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act and the statute under which the standard was originally promulgated, and in accordance with part 1911 of this chapter, the standard shall be deemed changed for purposes of that statute and this subpart B, and shall apply under this subpart B. For the purposes of this section, a change in a standard includes any amendment, addition, or repeal, in whole or in part, of any standard.


§ 1910.19 Special provisions for air contaminants.

(a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust. Section 1910.1001 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.


(b) Vinyl chloride. Section 1910.1017 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to vinyl chloride in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to vinyl chloride which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.


(c) Acrylonitrile. Section 1910.1045 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to acrylonitrile in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to acrylonitrile which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.


(d) [Reserved]


(e) Inorganic arsenic. Section 1910.1018 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to inorganic arsenic in every employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to inorganic arsenic which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.


(f) [Reserved]


(g) Lead. Section 1910.1025 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to lead in every employment and place of employment covered by §§ 1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to lead which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.


(h) Ethylene oxide. Section 1910.1047 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to ethylene oxide in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to ethylene oxide which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.


(i) 4,4′-Methylenedianiline (MDA). Section 1910.1050 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to MDA in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to MDA which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.


(j) Formaldehyde. Section 1910.1048 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to formaldehyde in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15 or § 1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposure to formaldehyde which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.


(k) Cadmium. Section 1910.1027 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to cadmium in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposures to cadmium that would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.


(l) 1,3-Butadiene (BD). Section 1910.1051 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to BD in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.12, § 1910.13, § 1910.14, § 1910.15, or § 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to BD which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.


(m) Methylene chloride (MC). Section 1910.1052 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to MC in every employment and place of employment covered by § 1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposure to MC which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of that section when it is not present in sealed, intact containers.


[43 FR 28473, June 30, 1978, as amended at 43 FR 45809, Oct. 3, 1978; 43 FR 53007, Nov. 14, 1978; 44 FR 5447, Jan. 26, 1979; 46 FR 32022, June 19, 1981; 49 FR 25796, June 22, 1984; 50 FR 51173, Dec. 13, 1985; 52 FR 46291, Dec. 4, 1987; 57 FR 35666, Aug. 10, 1992; 57 FR 42388, Sept. 14, 1992; 59 FR 41057, Aug. 10, 1994; 61 FR 56831, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1600, Jan. 10, 1997]


Subpart C [Reserved]

Subpart D – Walking-Working Surfaces


Authority:29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657; Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), and 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.



Source:81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, unless otherwise noted.

§ 1910.21 Scope and definitions.

(a) Scope. This subpart applies to all general industry workplaces. It covers all walking-working surfaces unless specifically excluded by an individual section of this subpart.


(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply in this subpart:


Alternating tread-type stair means a type of stairway consisting of a series of treads that usually are attached to a center support in an alternating manner such that an employee typically does not have both feet on the same level while using the stairway.


Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for equipment such as lifelines, lanyards, deceleration devices, and rope descent systems.


Authorized means an employee who the employer assigns to perform a specific type of duty, or allows in a specific location or area.


Cage means an enclosure mounted on the side rails of a fixed ladder or fastened to a structure behind the fixed ladder that is designed to surround the climbing space of the ladder. A cage also is called a “cage guard” or “basket guard.”


Carrier means the track of a ladder safety system that consists of a flexible cable or rigid rail attached to the fixed ladder or immediately adjacent to it.


Combination ladder means a portable ladder that can be used as a stepladder, extension ladder, trestle ladder, or stairway ladder. The components of a combination ladder also may be used separately as a single ladder.


Dangerous equipment means equipment, such as vats, tanks, electrical equipment, machinery, equipment or machinery with protruding parts, or other similar units, that, because of their function or form, may harm an employee who falls into or onto the equipment.


Designated area means a distinct portion of a walking-working surface delineated by a warning line in which employees may perform work without additional fall protection.


Dockboard means a portable or fixed device that spans a gap or compensates for a difference in elevation between a loading platform and a transport vehicle. Dockboards include, but are not limited to, bridge plates, dock plates, and dock levelers.


Equivalent means alternative designs, equipment, materials, or methods, that the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees compared to the designs, equipment, materials, or methods specified in this subpart.


Extension ladder means a non-self-supporting portable ladder that is adjustable in length.


Failure means a load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. A load refusal is the point at which the ultimate strength of a component or object is exceeded.


Fall hazard means any condition on a walking-working surface that exposes an employee to a risk of harm from a fall on the same level or to a lower level.


Fall protection means any equipment, device, or system that prevents an employee from falling from an elevation or mitigates the effect of such a fall.


Fixed ladder means a ladder with rails or individual rungs that is permanently attached to a structure, building, or equipment. Fixed ladders include individual-rung ladders, but not ship stairs, step bolts, or manhole steps.


Grab bar means an individual horizontal or vertical handhold installed to provide access above the height of the ladder.


Guardrail system means a barrier erected along an unprotected or exposed side, edge, or other area of a walking-working surface to prevent employees from falling to a lower level.


Handrail means a rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support.


Hoist area means any elevated access opening to a walking-working surface through which equipment or materials are loaded or received.


Hole means a gap or open space in a floor, roof, horizontal walking-working surface, or similar surface that is at least 2 inches (5 cm) in its least dimension.


Individual-rung ladder means a ladder that has rungs individually attached to a building or structure. An individual-rung ladder does not include manhole steps.


Ladder means a device with rungs, steps, or cleats used to gain access to a different elevation.


Ladder safety system means a system designed to eliminate or reduce the possibility of falling from a ladder. A ladder safety system usually consists of a carrier, safety sleeve, lanyard, connectors, and body harness. Cages and wells are not ladder safety systems.


Low-slope roof means a roof that has a slope less than or equal to a ratio of 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal).


Lower level means a surface or area to which an employee could fall. Such surfaces or areas include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, roofs, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, materials, water, equipment, and similar surfaces and structures, or portions thereof.


Manhole steps means steps that are individually attached to, or set into, the wall of a manhole structure.


Maximum intended load means the total load (weight and force) of all employees, equipment, vehicles, tools, materials, and other loads the employer reasonably anticipates to be applied to a walking-working surface at any one time.


Mobile means manually propelled or moveable.


Mobile ladder stand (ladder stand) means a mobile, fixed-height, self-supporting ladder that usually consists of wheels or casters on a rigid base and steps leading to a top step. A mobile ladder stand also may have handrails and is designed for use by one employee at a time.


Mobile ladder stand platform means a mobile, fixed-height, self-supporting unit having one or more standing platforms that are provided with means of access or egress.


Open riser means the gap or space between treads of stairways that do not have upright or inclined members (risers).


Opening means a gap or open space in a wall, partition, vertical walking-working surface, or similar surface that is at least 30 inches (76 cm) high and at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide, through which an employee can fall to a lower level.


Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a walking-working surface. It consists of a body harness, anchorage, and connector. The means of connection may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or a suitable combination of these.


Personal fall protection system means a system (including all components) an employer uses to provide protection from falling or to safely arrest an employee’s fall if one occurs. Examples of personal fall protection systems include personal fall arrest systems, positioning systems, and travel restraint systems.


Platform means a walking-working surface that is elevated above the surrounding area.


Portable ladder means a ladder that can readily be moved or carried, and usually consists of side rails joined at intervals by steps, rungs, or cleats.


Positioning system (work-positioning system) means a system of equipment and connectors that, when used with a body harness or body belt, allows an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall or window sill, and work with both hands free. Positioning systems also are called “positioning system devices” and “work-positioning equipment.”


Qualified describes a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.


Ramp means an inclined walking-working surface used to access another level.


Riser means the upright (vertical) or inclined member of a stair that is located at the back of a stair tread or platform and connects close to the front edge of the next higher tread, platform, or landing.


Rope descent system means a suspension system that allows an employee to descend in a controlled manner and, as needed, stop at any point during the descent. A rope descent system usually consists of a roof anchorage, support rope, a descent device, carabiner(s) or shackle(s), and a chair (seatboard). A rope descent system also is called controlled descent equipment or apparatus. Rope descent systems do not include industrial rope access systems.


Rung, step, or cleat means the cross-piece of a ladder on which an employee steps to climb up and down.


Runway means an elevated walking-working surface, such as a catwalk, a foot walk along shafting, or an elevated walkway between buildings.


Scaffold means any temporary elevated or suspended platform and its supporting structure, including anchorage points, used to support employees, equipment, materials, and other items. For purposes of this subpart, a scaffold does not include a crane-suspended or derrick-suspended personnel platform or a rope descent system.


Ship stair (ship ladder) means a stairway that is equipped with treads, stair rails, and open risers, and has a slope that is between 50 and 70 degrees from the horizontal.


Side-step ladder means a type of fixed ladder that requires an employee to step sideways from it in order to reach a walking-working surface, such as a landing.


Spiral stairs means a series of treads attached to a vertical pole in a winding fashion, usually within a cylindrical space.


Stair rail or stair rail system means a barrier erected along the exposed or open side of stairways to prevent employees from falling to a lower level.


Stairway (stairs) means risers and treads that connect one level with another, and includes any landings and platforms in between those levels. Stairways include standard, spiral, alternating tread-type, and ship stairs.


Standard stairs means a fixed or permanently installed stairway. Ship, spiral, and alternating tread-type stairs are not considered standard stairs.


Step bolt (pole step) means a bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member used for foot placement and as a handhold when climbing or standing.


Stepladder means a self-supporting, portable ladder that has a fixed height, flat steps, and a hinged back.


Stepstool means a self-supporting, portable ladder that has flat steps and side rails. For purposes of the final rule, stepstool includes only those ladders that have a fixed height, do not have a pail shelf, and do not exceed 32 inches (81 cm) in overall height to the top cap, although side rails may extend above the top cap. A stepstool is designed so an employee can climb and stand on all of the steps and the top cap.


Through ladder means a type of fixed ladder that allows the employee to step through the side rails at the top of the ladder to reach a walking-working surface, such as a landing.


Tieback means an attachment between an anchorage (e.g., structural member) and a supporting device (e.g., parapet clamp or cornice hook).


Toeboard means a low protective barrier that is designed to prevent materials, tools, and equipment from falling to a lower level, and protect employees from falling.


Travel restraint system means a combination of an anchorage, anchorage connector, lanyard (or other means of connection), and body support that an employer uses to eliminate the possibility of an employee going over the edge of a walking-working surface.


Tread means a horizontal member of a stair or stairway, but does not include landings or platforms.


Unprotected sides and edges mean any side or edge of a walking-working surface (except at entrances and other points of access) where there is no wall, guardrail system, or stair rail system to protect an employee from falling to a lower level.


Walking-working surface means any horizontal or vertical surface on or through which an employee walks, works, or gains access to a work area or workplace location.


Warning line means a barrier erected to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected side or edge, and which designates an area in which work may take place without the use of other means of fall protection.


Well means a permanent, complete enclosure around a fixed ladder.


§ 1910.22 General requirements.

(a) Surface conditions. The employer must ensure:


(1) All places of employment, passageways, storerooms, service rooms, and walking-working surfaces are kept in a clean, orderly, and sanitary condition.


(2) The floor of each workroom is maintained in a clean and, to the extent feasible, in a dry condition. When wet processes are used, drainage must be maintained and, to the extent feasible, dry standing places, such as false floors, platforms, and mats must be provided.


(3) Walking-working surfaces are maintained free of hazards such as sharp or protruding objects, loose boards, corrosion, leaks, spills, snow, and ice.


(b) Loads. The employer must ensure that each walking-working surface can support the maximum intended load for that surface.


(c) Access and egress. The employer must provide, and ensure each employee uses, a safe means of access and egress to and from walking-working surfaces.


(d) Inspection, maintenance, and repair. The employer must ensure:


(1) Walking-working surfaces are inspected, regularly and as necessary, and maintained in a safe condition;


(2) Hazardous conditions on walking-working surfaces are corrected or repaired before an employee uses the walking-working surface again. If the correction or repair cannot be made immediately, the hazard must be guarded to prevent employees from using the walking-working surface until the hazard is corrected or repaired; and


(3) When any correction or repair involves the structural integrity of the walking-working surface, a qualified person performs or supervises the correction or repair.


§ 1910.23 Ladders.

(a) Application. The employer must ensure that each ladder used meets the requirements of this section. This section covers all ladders, except when the ladder is:


(1) Used in emergency operations such as firefighting, rescue, and tactical law enforcement operations, or training for these operations; or


(2) Designed into or is an integral part of machines or equipment.


(b) General requirements for all ladders. The employer must ensure:


(1) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats are parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use;


(2) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats are spaced not less than 10 inches (25 cm) and not more than 14 inches (36 cm) apart, as measured between the centerlines of the rungs, cleats, and steps, except that:


(i) Ladder rungs and steps in elevator shafts must be spaced not less than 6 inches (15 cm) apart and not more than 16.5 inches (42 cm) apart, as measured along the ladder side rails; and


(ii) Fixed ladder rungs and steps on telecommunication towers must be spaced not more than 18 inches (46 cm) apart, measured between the centerlines of the rungs or steps;


(3) Steps on stepstools are spaced not less than 8 inches (20 cm) apart and not more than 12 inches (30 cm) apart, as measured between the centerlines of the steps;


(4) Ladder rungs, steps, and cleats have a minimum clear width of 11.5 inches (29 cm) on portable ladders and 16 inches (41 cm) (measured before installation of ladder safety systems) for fixed ladders, except that:


(i) The minimum clear width does not apply to ladders with narrow rungs that are not designed to be stepped on, such as those located on the tapered end of orchard ladders and similar ladders;


(ii) Rungs and steps of manhole entry ladders that are supported by the manhole opening must have a minimum clear width of 9 inches (23 cm);


(iii) Rungs and steps on rolling ladders used in telecommunication centers must have a minimum clear width of 8 inches (20 cm); and


(iv) Stepstools have a minimum clear width of 10.5 inches (26.7 cm);


(5) Wooden ladders are not coated with any material that may obscure structural defects;


(6) Metal ladders are made with corrosion-resistant material or protected against corrosion;


(7) Ladder surfaces are free of puncture and laceration hazards;


(8) Ladders are used only for the purposes for which they were designed;


(9) Ladders are inspected before initial use in each work shift, and more frequently as necessary, to identify any visible defects that could cause employee injury;


(10) Any ladder with structural or other defects is immediately tagged “Dangerous: Do Not Use” or with similar language in accordance with § 1910.145 and removed from service until repaired in accordance with § 1910.22(d), or replaced;


(11) Each employee faces the ladder when climbing up or down it;


(12) Each employee uses at least one hand to grasp the ladder when climbing up and down it; and


(13) No employee carries any object or load that could cause the employee to lose balance and fall while climbing up or down the ladder.


(c) Portable ladders. The employer must ensure:


(1) Rungs and steps of portable metal ladders are corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or otherwise treated to minimize the possibility of slipping;


(2) Each stepladder or combination ladder used in a stepladder mode is equipped with a metal spreader or locking device that securely holds the front and back sections in an open position while the ladder is in use;


(3) Ladders are not loaded beyond the maximum intended load;



Note to paragraph (c)(3):

The maximum intended load, as defined in § 1910.21(b), includes the total load (weight and force) of the employee and all tools, equipment, and materials being carried.


(4) Ladders are used only on stable and level surfaces unless they are secured or stabilized to prevent accidental displacement;


(5) No portable single rail ladders are used;


(6) No ladder is moved, shifted, or extended while an employee is on it;


(7) Ladders placed in locations such as passageways, doorways, or driveways where they can be displaced by other activities or traffic:


(i) Are secured to prevent accidental displacement; or


(ii) Are guarded by a temporary barricade, such as a row of traffic cones or caution tape, to keep the activities or traffic away from the ladder;


(8) The cap (if equipped) and top step of a stepladder are not used as steps;


(9) Portable ladders used on slippery surfaces are secured and stabilized;


(10) The top of a non-self-supporting ladder is placed so that both side rails are supported, unless the ladder is equipped with a single support attachment;


(11) Portable ladders used to gain access to an upper landing surface have side rails that extend at least 3 feet (0.9 m) above the upper landing surface (see Figure D-1 of this section);


(12) Ladders and ladder sections are not tied or fastened together to provide added length unless they are specifically designed for such use;


(13) Ladders are not placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.



(d) Fixed ladders. The employer must ensure:


(1) Fixed ladders are capable of supporting their maximum intended load;


(2) The minimum perpendicular distance from the centerline of the steps or rungs, or grab bars, or both, to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder is 7 inches (18 cm), except for elevator pit ladders, which have a minimum perpendicular distance of 4.5 inches (11 cm);


(3) Grab bars do not protrude on the climbing side beyond the rungs of the ladder that they serve;


(4) The side rails of through or side-step ladders extend at least 42 inches (1.1 m) above the top of the access level or landing platform served by the ladder. For parapet ladders, the access level is:


(i) The roof, if the parapet is cut to permit passage through the parapet; or


(ii) The top of the parapet, if the parapet is continuous;


(5) For through ladders, the steps or rungs are omitted from the extensions, and the side rails are flared to provide not less than 24 inches (61cm) and not more than 30 inches (76 cm) of clearance. When a ladder safety system is provided, the maximum clearance between side rails of the extension must not exceed 36 inches (91 cm);


(6) For side-step ladders, the side rails, rungs, and steps must be continuous in the extension (see Figure D-2 of this section);


(7) Grab bars extend 42 inches (1.1 m) above the access level or landing platforms served by the ladder;


(8) The minimum size (cross-section) of grab bars is the same size as the rungs of the ladder.


(9) When a fixed ladder terminates at a hatch (see Figure D-3 of this section), the hatch cover:


(i) Opens with sufficient clearance to provide easy access to or from the ladder; and


(ii) Opens at least 70 degrees from horizontal if the hatch is counterbalanced;


(10) Individual-rung ladders are constructed to prevent the employee’s feet from sliding off the ends of the rungs (see Figure D-4 of this section);


(11) Fixed ladders having a pitch greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal are not used;


(12) The step-across distance from the centerline of the rungs or steps is:


(i) For through ladders, not less than 7 inches (18 cm) and not more than 12 inches (30 cm) to the nearest edge of the structure, building, or equipment accessed from the ladders;


(ii) For side-step ladders, not less than 15 inches (38 cm) and not more than 20 inches (51 cm) to the access points of the platform edge;


(13) Fixed ladders that do not have cages or wells have:


(i) A clear width of at least 15 inches (38 cm) on each side of the ladder centerline to the nearest permanent object; and


(ii) A minimum perpendicular distance of 30 inches (76 cm) from the centerline of the steps or rungs to the nearest object on the climbing side. When unavoidable obstructions are encountered, the minimum clearance at the obstruction may be reduced to 24 inches (61 cm), provided deflector plates are installed (see Figure D-5 of this section).



Note to paragraph (d):

Section 1910.28 establishes the employer’s duty to provide fall protection for employees on fixed ladders, and § 1910.29 specifies the criteria for fall protection systems for fixed ladders.




(e) Mobile ladder stands and mobile ladder stand platforms – (1) General requirements. The employer must ensure:


(i) Mobile ladder stands and platforms have a step width of at least 16 inches (41 cm);


(ii) The steps and platforms of mobile ladder stands and platforms are slip resistant. Slip-resistant surfaces must be either an integral part of the design and construction of the mobile ladder stand and platform, or provided as a secondary process or operation, such as dimpling, knurling, shotblasting, coating, spraying, or applying durable slip-resistant tapes;


(iii) Mobile ladder stands and platforms are capable of supporting at least four times their maximum intended load;


(iv) Wheels or casters under load are capable of supporting their proportional share of four times the maximum intended load, plus their proportional share of the unit’s weight;


(v) Unless otherwise specified in this section, mobile ladder stands and platforms with a top step height of 4 feet (1.2 m) or above have handrails with a vertical height of 29.5 inches (75 cm) to 37 inches (94 cm), measured from the front edge of a step. Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used instead of handrails in special-use applications;


(vi) The maximum work-surface height of mobile ladder stands and platforms does not exceed four times the shortest base dimension, without additional support. For greater heights, outriggers, counterweights, or comparable means that stabilize the mobile ladder stands and platforms and prevent overturning must be used;


(vii) Mobile ladder stands and platforms that have wheels or casters are equipped with a system to impede horizontal movement when an employee is on the stand or platform; and


(viii) No mobile ladder stand or platform moves when an employee is on it.


(2) Design requirements for mobile ladder stands. The employer must ensure:


(i) Steps are uniformly spaced and arranged, with a rise of not more than 10 inches (25 cm) and a depth of not less than 7 inches (18 cm). The slope of the step stringer to which the steps are attached must not be more than 60 degrees, measured from the horizontal;


(ii) Mobile ladder stands with a top step height above 10 feet (3 m) have the top step protected on three sides by a handrail with a vertical height of at least 36 inches (91 cm); and top steps that are 20 inches (51 cm) or more, front to back, have a midrail and toeboard. Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used instead of handrails in special-use applications; and


(iii) The standing area of mobile ladder stands is within the base frame.


(3) Design requirements for mobile ladder stand platforms. The employer must ensure:


(i) Steps of mobile ladder stand platforms meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section. When the employer demonstrates that the requirement is not feasible, steeper slopes or vertical rung ladders may be used, provided the units are stabilized to prevent overturning;


(ii) Mobile ladder stand platforms with a platform height of 4 to 10 feet (1.2 m to 3 m) have, in the platform area, handrails with a vertical height of at least 36 inches (91 cm) and midrails; and


(iii) All ladder stand platforms with a platform height above 10 feet (3 m) have guardrails and toeboards on the exposed sides and ends of the platform.


(iv) Removable gates or non-rigid members, such as chains, may be used on mobile ladder stand platforms instead of handrails and guardrails in special-use applications.


[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68795, Dec. 17, 2019]


§ 1910.24 Step bolts and manhole steps.

(a) Step bolts. The employer must ensure:


(1) Each step bolt installed on or after January 17, 2017 in an environment where corrosion may occur is constructed of, or coated with, material that protects against corrosion;


(2) Each step bolt is designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent the employee’s foot from slipping off the end of the step bolt;


(3) Step bolts are uniformly spaced at a vertical distance of not less than 12 inches (30 cm) and not more than 18 inches (46 cm) apart, measured center to center (see Figure D-6 of this section). The spacing from the entry and exit surface to the first step bolt may differ from the spacing between the other step bolts;


(4) Each step bolt has a minimum clear width of 4.5 inches (11 cm);


(5) The minimum perpendicular distance between the centerline of each step bolt to the nearest permanent object in back of the step bolt is 7 inches (18 cm). When the employer demonstrates that an obstruction cannot be avoided, the distance must be at least 4.5 inches (11 cm);


(6) Each step bolt installed before January 17, 2017 is capable of supporting its maximum intended load;


(7) Each step bolt installed on or after January 17, 2017 is capable of supporting at least four times its maximum intended load;


(8) Each step bolt is inspected at the start of the workshift and maintained in accordance with § 1910.22; and


(9) Any step bolt that is bent more than 15 degrees from the perpendicular in any direction is removed and replaced with a step bolt that meets the requirements of this section before an employee uses it.



(b) Manhole steps. (1) The employer must ensure that each manhole step is capable of supporting its maximum intended load.


(2) The employer must ensure that each manhole step installed on or after January 17, 2017:


(i) Has a corrugated, knurled, dimpled, or other surface that minimizes the possibility of an employee slipping;


(ii) Is constructed of, or coated with, material that protects against corrosion if the manhole step is located in an environment where corrosion may occur;


(iii) Has a minimum clear step width of 10 inches (25 cm);


(iv) Is uniformly spaced at a vertical distance not more than 16 inches (41 cm) apart, measured center to center between steps. The spacing from the entry and exit surface to the first manhole step may differ from the spacing between the other steps.


(v) Has a minimum perpendicular distance between the centerline of the manhole step to the nearest permanent object in back of the step of at least 4.5 inches (11 cm); and


(vi) Is designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent the employee’s foot from slipping or sliding off the end.


(3) The employer must ensure that each manhole step is inspected at the start of the work shift and maintained in accordance with § 1910.22.


§ 1910.25 Stairways.

(a) Application. This section covers all stairways (including standard, spiral, ship, and alternating tread-type stairs), except for articulated stairs (stairs that change pitch due to change in height at the point of attachment) such as those serving floating roof tanks, stairs on scaffolds, stairs designed into machines or equipment, and stairs on self-propelled motorized equipment.


(b) General requirements. The employer must ensure:


(1) Handrails, stair rail systems, and guardrail systems are provided in accordance with § 1910.28;


(2) Vertical clearance above any stair tread to any overhead obstruction is at least 6 feet, 8 inches (203 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the tread. Spiral stairs must meet the vertical clearance requirements in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.


(3) Stairs have uniform riser heights and tread depths between landings;


(4) Stairway landings and platforms are at least the width of the stair and at least 30 inches (76 cm) in depth, as measured in the direction of travel;


(5) When a door or a gate opens directly on a stairway, a platform is provided, and the swing of the door or gate does not reduce the platform’s effective usable depth to:


(i) Less than 20 inches (51 cm) for platforms installed before January 17, 2017; and


(ii) Less than 22 inches (56 cm) for platforms installed on or after January 17, 2017 (see Figure D-7 of this section);


(6) Each stair can support at least five times the normal anticipated live load, but never less than a concentrated load of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) applied at any point;


(7) Standard stairs are used to provide access from one walking-working surface to another when operations necessitate regular and routine travel between levels, including access to operating platforms for equipment. Winding stairways may be used on tanks and similar round structures when the diameter of the tank or structure is at least 5 feet (1.5 m).


(8) Spiral, ship, or alternating tread-type stairs are used only when the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to provide standard stairs.


(9) When paragraph (b)(8) of this section allows the use of spiral, ship, or alternating tread-type stairs, they are installed, used, and maintained in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.



(c) Standard stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure standard stairs:


(1) Are installed at angles between 30 to 50 degrees from the horizontal;


(2) Have a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (24 cm);


(3) Have a minimum tread depth of 9.5 inches (24 cm); and


(4) Have a minimum width of 22 inches (56 cm) between vertical barriers (see Figure D-8 of this section).


(5) Exception to paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) do not apply to standard stairs installed prior to January 17, 2017. OSHA will deem those stairs in compliance if they meet the dimension requirements specified in Table D-1 of this section or they use a combination that achieves the angle requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.




(d) Spiral stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure spiral stairs:


(1) Have a minimum clear width of 26 inches (66 cm);


(2) Have a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (24 cm);


(3) Have a minimum headroom above spiral stair treads of at least 6 feet, 6 inches (2 m), measured from the leading edge of the tread;


(4) Have a minimum tread depth of 7.5 inches (19 cm), measured at a point 12 inches (30 cm) from the narrower edge;


(5) Have a uniform tread size;


(e) Ship stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure ship stairs (see Figure D-9 of this section):


(1) Are installed at a slope of 50 to 70 degrees from the horizontal;


(2) Have open risers with a vertical rise between tread surfaces of 6.5 to 12 inches (17 to 30 cm);


(3) Have minimum tread depth of 4 inches (10 cm); and


(4) Have a minimum tread width of 18 inches (46 cm).



(f) Alternating tread-type stairs. In addition to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer must ensure alternating tread-type stairs:


(1) Have a series of treads installed at a slope of 50 to 70 degrees from the horizontal;


(2) Have a distance between handrails of 17 to 24 inches (51 to 61 cm);


(3) Have a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (22 cm); and


(4) Have open risers if the tread depth is less than 9.5 inches (24 cm);


(5) Have a minimum tread width of 7 inches (18 cm), measured at the leading edge of the tread (i.e., nosing).



[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68795, Dec. 17, 2019]


§ 1910.26 Dockboards.

The employer must ensure that each dockboard used meets the requirements of this section. The employer must ensure:


(a) Dockboards are capable of supporting the maximum intended load in accordance with § 1910.22(b);


(b)(1) Dockboards put into initial service on or after January 17, 2017 are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent transfer vehicles from running off the dockboard edge;


(2) Exception to paragraph (b)(1) of this section. When the employer demonstrates there is no hazard of transfer vehicles running off the dockboard edge, the employer may use dockboards that do not have run-off protection.


(c) Portable dockboards are secured by anchoring them in place or using equipment or devices that prevent the dockboard from moving out of a safe position. When the employer demonstrates that securing the dockboard is not feasible, the employer must ensure there is sufficient contact between the dockboard and the surface to prevent the dockboard from moving out of a safe position;


(d) Measures, such as wheel chocks or sand shoes, are used to prevent the transport vehicle (e.g. a truck, semi-trailer, trailer, or rail car) on which a dockboard is placed, from moving while employees are on the dockboard; and


(e) Portable dockboards are equipped with handholds or other means to permit safe handling of dockboards.


§ 1910.27 Scaffolds and rope descent systems.

(a) Scaffolds. Scaffolds used in general industry must meet the requirements in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L (Scaffolds).


(b) Rope descent systems – (1) Anchorages. (i) Before any rope descent system is used, the building owner must inform the employer, in writing that the building owner has identified, tested, certified, and maintained each anchorage so it is capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (2,268 kg), in any direction, for each employee attached. The information must be based on an annual inspection by a qualified person and certification of each anchorage by a qualified person, as necessary, and at least every 10 years.


(ii) The employer must ensure that no employee uses any anchorage before the employer has obtained written information from the building owner that each anchorage meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. The employer must keep the information for the duration of the job.


(iii) The requirements in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section must be implemented no later than November 20, 2017.


(2) Use of rope descent systems. The employer must ensure:


(i) No rope descent system is used for heights greater than 300 feet (91 m) above grade unless the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible to access such heights by any other means or that those means pose a greater hazard than using a rope descent system;


(ii) The rope descent system is used in accordance with instructions, warnings, and design limitations set by the manufacturer or under the direction of a qualified person;


(iii) Each employee who uses the rope descent system is trained in accordance with § 1910.30;


(iv) The rope descent system is inspected at the start of each workshift that it is to be used. The employer must ensure damaged or defective equipment is removed from service immediately and replaced;


(v) The rope descent system has proper rigging, including anchorages and tiebacks, with particular emphasis on providing tiebacks when counterweights, cornice hooks, or similar non-permanent anchorages are used;


(vi) Each employee uses a separate, independent personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part;


(vii) All components of each rope descent system, except seat boards, are capable of sustaining a minimum rated load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN). Seat boards must be capable of supporting a live load of 300 pounds (136 kg);


(viii) Prompt rescue of each employee is provided in the event of a fall;


(ix) The ropes of each rope descent system are effectively padded or otherwise protected, where they can contact edges of the building, anchorage, obstructions, or other surfaces, to prevent them from being cut or weakened;


(x) Stabilization is provided at the specific work location when descents are greater than 130 feet (39.6 m);


(xi) No employee uses a rope descent system when hazardous weather conditions, such as storms or gusty or excessive wind, are present;


(xii) Equipment, such as tools, squeegees, or buckets, is secured by a tool lanyard or similar method to prevent it from falling; and


(xiii) The ropes of each rope descent system are protected from exposure to open flames, hot work, corrosive chemicals, and other destructive conditions.


[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68796, Dec. 17, 2019]


§ 1910.28 Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection.

(a) General. (1) This section requires employers to provide protection for each employee exposed to fall and falling object hazards. Unless stated otherwise, the employer must ensure that all fall protection and falling object protection required by this section meet the criteria in § 1910.29, except that personal fall protection systems required by this section meet the criteria of § 1910.140.


(2) This section does not apply:


(i) To portable ladders;


(ii) When employers are inspecting, investigating, or assessing workplace conditions or work to be performed prior to the start of work or after all work has been completed. This exemption does not apply when fall protection systems or equipment meeting the requirements of § 1910.29 have been installed and are available for workers to use for pre-work and post-work inspections, investigations, or assessments;


(iii) To fall hazards presented by the exposed perimeters of entertainment stages and the exposed perimeters of rail-station platforms;


(iv) To powered platforms covered by § 1910.66(j);


(v) To aerial lifts covered by § 1910.67(c)(2)(v);


(vi) To telecommunications work covered by § 1910.268(n)(7) and (8); and


(vii) To electric power generation, transmission, and distribution work covered by § 1910.269(g)(2)(i).


(b) Protection from fall hazards – (1) Unprotected sides and edges. (i) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, the employer must ensure that each employee on a walking-working surface with an unprotected side or edge that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by one or more of the following:


(A) Guardrail systems;


(B) Safety net systems; or


(C) Personal fall protection systems, such as personal fall arrest, travel restraint, or positioning systems.


(ii) When the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible or creates a greater hazard to use guardrail, safety net, or personal fall protection systems on residential roofs, the employer must develop and implement a fall protection plan that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.502(k) and training that meets the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.503(a) and (c).



Note to paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section:

There is a presumption that it is feasible and will not create a greater hazard to use at least one of the above-listed fall protection systems specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section. Accordingly, the employer has the burden of establishing that it is not feasible or creates a greater hazard to provide the fall protection systems specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) and that it is necessary to implement a fall protection plan that complies with § 1926.502(k) in the particular work operation, in lieu of implementing any of those systems.


(iii) When the employer can demonstrate that the use of fall protection systems is not feasible on the working side of a platform used at a loading rack, loading dock, or teeming platform, the work may be done without a fall protection system, provided:


(A) The work operation for which fall protection is infeasible is in process;


(B) Access to the platform is limited to authorized employees; and,


(C) The authorized employees are trained in accordance with § 1910.30.


(2) Hoist areas. The employer must ensure:


(i) Each employee in a hoist area is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a lower level by:


(A) A guardrail system;


(B) A personal fall arrest system; or


(C) A travel restraint system.


(ii) When any portion of a guardrail system, gate, or chains is removed, and an employee must lean through or over the edge of the access opening to facilitate hoisting, the employee is protected from falling by a personal fall arrest system.


(iii) If grab handles are installed at hoist areas, they meet the requirements of § 1910.29(l).


(3) Holes. The employer must ensure:


(i) Each employee is protected from falling through any hole (including skylights) that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level by one or more of the following:


(A) Covers;


(B) Guardrail systems;


(C) Travel restraint systems; or


(D) Personal fall arrest systems.


(ii) Each employee is protected from tripping into or stepping into or through any hole that is less than 4 feet (1.2 m) above a lower level by covers or guardrail systems.


(iii) Each employee is protected from falling into a stairway floor hole by a fixed guardrail system on all exposed sides, except at the stairway entrance. However, for any stairway used less than once per day where traffic across the stairway floor hole prevents the use of a fixed guardrail system (e.g., holes located in aisle spaces), the employer may protect employees from falling into the hole by using a hinged floor hole cover that meets the criteria in § 1910.29 and a removable guardrail system on all exposed sides, except at the entrance to the stairway.


(iv) Each employee is protected from falling into a ladderway floor hole or ladderway platform hole by a guardrail system and toeboards erected on all exposed sides, except at the entrance to the hole, where a self-closing gate or an offset must be used.


(v) Each employee is protected from falling through a hatchway and chute-floor hole by:


(A) A hinged floor-hole cover that meets the criteria in § 1910.29 and a fixed guardrail system that leaves only one exposed side. When the hole is not in use, the employer must ensure the cover is closed or a removable guardrail system is provided on the exposed sides;


(B) A removable guardrail system and toeboards on not more than two sides of the hole and a fixed guardrail system on all other exposed sides. The employer must ensure the removable guardrail system is kept in place when the hole is not in use; or


(C) A guardrail system or a travel restraint system when a work operation necessitates passing material through a hatchway or chute floor hole.


(4) Dockboards. (i) The employer must ensure that each employee on a dockboard is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a lower level by a guardrail system or handrails.


(ii) A guardrail system or handrails are not required when:


(A) Dockboards are being used solely for materials-handling operations using motorized equipment;


(B) Employees engaged in these operations are not exposed to fall hazards greater than 10 feet (3 m); and


(C) Those employees have been trained in accordance with § 1910.30.


(5) Runways and similar walkways. (i) The employer must ensure each employee on a runway or similar walkway is protected from falling 4 feet (1.2 m) or more to a lower level by a guardrail system.


(ii) When the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to have guardrails on both sides of a runway used exclusively for a special purpose, the employer may omit the guardrail on one side of the runway, provided the employer ensures:


(A) The runway is at least 18 inches (46 cm) wide; and


(B) Each employee is provided with and uses a personal fall arrest system or travel restraint system.


(6) Dangerous equipment. The employer must ensure:


(i) Each employee less than 4 feet (1.2 m) above dangerous equipment is protected from falling into or onto the dangerous equipment by a guardrail system or a travel restraint system, unless the equipment is covered or guarded to eliminate the hazard.


(ii) Each employee 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above dangerous equipment must be protected from falling by:


(A) Guardrail systems;


(B) Safety net systems;


(C) Travel restraint systems; or


(D) Personal fall arrest systems.


(7) Openings. The employer must ensure that each employee on a walking-working surface near an opening, including one with a chute attached, where the inside bottom edge of the opening is less than 39 inches (99 cm) above that walking-working surface and the outside bottom edge of the opening is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by the use of:


(i) Guardrail systems;


(ii) Safety net systems;


(iii) Travel restraint systems; or,


(iv) Personal fall arrest systems.


(8) Repair pits, service pits, and assembly pits less than 10 feet in depth. The use of a fall protection system is not required for a repair pit, service pit, or assembly pit that is less than 10 feet (3 m) deep, provided the employer:


(i) Limits access within 6 feet (1.8 m) of the edge of the pit to authorized employees trained in accordance with § 1910.30;


(ii) Applies floor markings at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit in colors that contrast with the surrounding area; or places a warning line at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit as well as stanchions that are capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds (71 N) applied horizontally against the stanchion at a height of 30 inches (76 cm); or places a combination of floor markings and warning lines at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the pit. When two or more pits in a common area are not more than 15 feet (4.5m) apart, the employer may comply by placing contrasting floor markings at least 6 feet (1.8 m) from the pit edge around the entire area of the pits; and


(iii) Posts readily visible caution signs that meet the requirements of § 1910.145 and state “Caution – Open Pit.”


(9) Fixed ladders (that extend more than 24 feet (7.3 m) above a lower level). (i) For fixed ladders that extend more than 24 feet (7.3 m) above a lower level, the employer must ensure:


(A) Existing fixed ladders. Each fixed ladder installed before November 19, 2018 is equipped with a personal fall arrest system, ladder safety system, cage, or well;


(B) New fixed ladders. Each fixed ladder installed on and after November 19, 2018, is equipped with a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system;


(C) Replacement. When a fixed ladder, cage, or well, or any portion of a section thereof, is replaced, a personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system is installed in at least that section of the fixed ladder, cage, or well where the replacement is located; and


(D) Final deadline. On and after November 18, 2036, all fixed ladders are equipped with a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system.


(ii) When a one-section fixed ladder is equipped with a personal fall protection or a ladder safety system or a fixed ladder is equipped with a personal fall arrest or ladder safety system on more than one section, the employer must ensure:


(A) The personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system provides protection throughout the entire vertical distance of the ladder, including all ladder sections; and


(B) The ladder has rest platforms provided at maximum intervals of 150 feet (45.7 m).


(iii) The employer must ensure ladder sections having a cage or well:


(A) Are offset from adjacent sections; and


(B) Have landing platforms provided at maximum intervals of 50 feet (15.2 m).


(iv) The employer may use a cage or well in combination with a personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system provided that the cage or well does not interfere with the operation of the system.


(10) Outdoor advertising (billboards). (i) The requirements in paragraph (b)(9) of this section, and other requirements in subparts D and I of this part, apply to fixed ladders used in outdoor advertising activities.


(ii) When an employee engaged in outdoor advertising climbs a fixed ladder before November 19, 2018 that is not equipped with a cage, well, personal fall arrest system, or a ladder safety system the employer must ensure the employee:


(A) Receives training and demonstrates the physical capability to perform the necessary climbs in accordance with § 1910.29(h);


(B) Wears a body harness equipped with an 18-inch (46 cm) rest lanyard;


(C) Keeps both hands free of tools or material when climbing on the ladder; and


(D) Is protected by a fall protection system upon reaching the work position.


(11) Stairways. The employer must ensure:


(i) Each employee exposed to an unprotected side or edge of a stairway landing that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected by a guardrail or stair rail system;


(ii) Each flight of stairs having at least 3 treads and at least 4 risers is equipped with stair rail systems and handrails as follows:



(iii) Each ship stairs and alternating tread type stairs is equipped with handrails on both sides.


(12) Scaffolds and rope descent systems. The employer must ensure:


(i) Each employee on a scaffold is protected from falling in accordance 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L; and


(ii) Each employee using a rope descent system 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by a personal fall arrest system.


(13) Work on low-slope roofs. (i) When work is performed less than 6 feet (1.6 m) from the roof edge, the employer must ensure each employee is protected from falling by a guardrail system, safety net system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest system.


(ii) When work is performed at least 6 feet (1.6 m) but less than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the roof edge, the employer must ensure each employee is protected from falling by using a guardrail system, safety net system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest system. The employer may use a designated area when performing work that is both infrequent and temporary.


(iii) When work is performed 15 feet (4.6 m) or more from the roof edge, the employer must:


(A) Protect each employee from falling by a guardrail system, safety net system, travel restraint system, or personal fall arrest system or a designated area. The employer is not required to provide any fall protection, provided the work is both infrequent and temporary; and


(B) Implement and enforce a work rule prohibiting employees from going within 15 feet (4.6 m) of the roof edge without using fall protection in accordance with paragraphs (b)(13)(i) and (ii) of this section.


(14) Slaughtering facility platforms. (i) The employer must protect each employee on the unprotected working side of a slaughtering facility platform that is 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level from falling by using:


(A) Guardrail systems; or


(B) Travel restraint systems.


(ii) When the employer can demonstrate the use of a guardrail or travel restraint system is not feasible, the work may be done without those systems provided:


(A) The work operation for which fall protection is infeasible is in process;


(B) Access to the platform is limited to authorized employees; and


(C) The authorized employees are trained in accordance with § 1910.30.


(15) Walking-working surfaces not otherwise addressed. Except as provided elsewhere in this section or by other subparts of this part, the employer must ensure each employee on a walking-working surface 4 feet (1.2 m) or more above a lower level is protected from falling by:


(i) Guardrail systems;


(ii) Safety net systems; or


(iii) Personal fall protection systems, such as personal fall arrest, travel restraint, or positioning systems.


(c) Protection from falling objects. When an employee is exposed to falling objects, the employer must ensure that each employee wears head protection that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part. In addition, the employer must protect employees from falling objects by implementing one or more of the following:


(1) Erecting toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems to prevent objects from falling to a lower level;


(2) Erecting canopy structures and keeping potential falling objects far enough from an edge, hole, or opening to prevent them from falling to a lower level; or


(3) Barricading the area into which objects could fall, prohibiting employees from entering the barricaded area, and keeping objects far enough from an edge or opening to prevent them from falling to a lower level.


§ 1910.29 Fall protection systems and falling object protection – criteria and practices.

(a) General requirements. The employer must:


(1) Ensure each fall protection system and falling object protection, other than personal fall protection systems, that this part requires meets the requirements in this section. The employer must ensure each personal fall protection system meets the requirements in subpart I of this part; and


(2) Provide and install all fall protection systems and falling object protection this subpart requires, and comply with the other requirements in this subpart before any employee begins work that necessitates fall or falling object protection.


(b) Guardrail systems. The employer must ensure guardrail systems meet the following requirements:


(1) The top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail system members, are 42 inches (107 cm), plus or minus 3 inches (8 cm), above the walking-working surface. The top edge height may exceed 45 inches (114 cm), provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of paragraph (b) of this section (see Figure D-11 of this section).


(2) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent intermediate members are installed between the walking-working surface and the top edge of the guardrail system as follows when there is not a wall or parapet that is at least 21 inches (53 cm) high:


(i) Midrails are installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking-working surface;


(ii) Screens and mesh extend from the walking-working surface to the top rail and along the entire opening between top rail supports;


(iii) Intermediate vertical members (such as balusters) are installed no more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart; and


(iv) Other equivalent intermediate members (such as additional midrails and architectural panels) are installed so that the openings are not more than 19 inches (48 cm) wide.


(3) Guardrail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in a downward or outward direction within 2 inches (5 cm) of the top edge, at any point along the top rail.


(4) When the 200-pound (890-N) test load is applied in a downward direction, the top rail of the guardrail system must not deflect to a height of less than 39 inches (99 cm) above the walking-working surface.


(5) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and other equivalent intermediate members are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 150 pounds (667 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the intermediate member.


(6) Guardrail systems are smooth-surfaced to protect employees from injury, such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent catching or snagging of clothing.


(7) The ends of top rails and midrails do not overhang the terminal posts, except where the overhang does not pose a projection hazard for employees.


(8) Steel banding and plastic banding are not used for top rails or midrails.


(9) Top rails and midrails are at least 0.25-inches (0.6 cm) in diameter or in thickness.


(10) When guardrail systems are used at hoist areas, a removable guardrail section, consisting of a top rail and midrail, are placed across the access opening between guardrail sections when employees are not performing hoisting operations. The employer may use chains or gates instead of a removable guardrail section at hoist areas if the employer demonstrates the chains or gates provide a level of safety equivalent to guardrails.


(11) When guardrail systems are used around holes, they are installed on all unprotected sides or edges of the hole.


(12) For guardrail systems used around holes through which materials may be passed:


(i) When materials are being passed through the hole, not more than two sides of the guardrail system are removed; and


(ii) When materials are not being passed through the hole, the hole must be guarded by a guardrail system along all unprotected sides or edges or closed over with a cover.


(13) When guardrail systems are used around holes that serve as points of access (such as ladderways), the guardrail system opening:


(i) Has a self-closing gate that slides or swings away from the hole, and is equipped with a top rail and midrail or equivalent intermediate member that meets the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section; or


(ii) Is offset to prevent an employee from walking or falling into the hole;


(14) Guardrail systems on ramps and runways are installed along each unprotected side or edge.


(15) Manila or synthetic rope used for top rails or midrails are inspected as necessary to ensure that the rope continues to meet the strength requirements in paragraphs (b)(3) and (5) of this section.



Note to paragraph (b) of this section:

The criteria and practices requirements for guardrail systems on scaffolds are contained in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L.



(c) Safety net systems. The employer must ensure each safety net system meets the requirements in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart M.


(d) Designated areas. (1) When the employer uses a designated area, the employer must ensure:


(i) Employees remain within the designated area while work operations are underway; and


(ii) The perimeter of the designated area is delineated with a warning line consisting of a rope, wire, tape, or chain that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section.


(2) The employer must ensure each warning line:


(i) Has a minimum breaking strength of 200 pounds (0.89 kN);


(ii) Is installed so its lowest point, including sag, is not less than 34 inches (86 cm) and not more than 39 inches (99 cm) above the walking-working surface;


(iii) Is supported in such a manner that pulling on one section of the line will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections causing the line to fall below the limits specified in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section;


(iv) Is clearly visible from a distance of 25 feet (7.6 m) away, and anywhere within the designated area;


(v) Is erected as close to the work area as the task permits; and


(vi) Is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the roof edge for work that is both temporary and infrequent, or not less than 15 feet (4.6 m) for other work.


(3) When mobile mechanical equipment is used to perform work that is both temporary and infrequent in a designated area, the employer must ensure the warning line is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the unprotected side or edge that is parallel to the direction in which the mechanical equipment is operated, and not less than 10 feet (3 m) from the unprotected side or edge that is perpendicular to the direction in which the mechanical equipment is operated.


(e) Covers. The employer must ensure each cover for a hole in a walking-working surface:


(1) Is capable of supporting without failure, at least twice the maximum intended load that may be imposed on the cover at any one time; and


(2) Is secured to prevent accidental displacement.


(f) Handrails and stair rail systems. The employer must ensure:


(1) Height criteria. (i) Handrails are not less than 30 inches (76 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the handrail (see Figure D-12 of this section).


(ii) The height of stair rail systems meets the following:


(A) The height of stair rail systems installed before January 17, 2017 is not less than 30 inches (76 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail; and


(B) The height of stair rail systems installed on or after January 17, 2017 is not less than 42 inches (107 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail.


(iii) The top rail of a stair rail system may serve as a handrail only when:


(A) The height of the stair rail system is not less than 36 inches (91 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm) as measured at the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail (see Figure D-13 of this section); and


(B) The top rail of the stair rail system meets the other handrail requirements in paragraph (f) of this section.


(2) Finger clearance. The minimum clearance between handrails and any other object is 2.25 inches (5.7 cm).


(3) Surfaces. Handrails and stair rail systems are smooth-surfaced to protect employees from injury, such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent catching or snagging of clothing.


(4) Openings in stair rails. No opening in a stair rail system exceeds 19 inches (48 cm) at its least dimension.


(5) Handhold. Handrails have the shape and dimension necessary so that employees can grasp the handrail firmly.


(6) Projection hazards. The ends of handrails and stair rail systems do not present any projection hazards.


(7) Strength criteria. Handrails and the top rails of stair rail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in any downward or outward direction within 2 inches (5 cm) of any point along the top edge of the rail.





Figure D-13 – Combination Handrail and Stair Rail

(g) Cages, wells, and platforms used with fixed ladders. The employer must ensure:


(1) Cages and wells installed on fixed ladders are designed, constructed, and maintained to permit easy access to, and egress from, the ladder that they enclose (see Figures D-14 and D-15 of this section);


(2) Cages and wells are continuous throughout the length of the fixed ladder, except for access, egress, and other transfer points;


(3) Cages and wells are designed, constructed, and maintained to contain employees in the event of a fall, and to direct them to a lower landing; and


(4) Platforms used with fixed ladders provide a horizontal surface of at least 24 inches by 30 inches (61 cm by 76 cm).



Note to paragraph (g):

Section 1910.28 establishes the requirements that employers must follow on the use of cages and wells as a means of fall protection.




(h) Outdoor advertising. This paragraph (h) applies only to employers engaged in outdoor advertising operations (see § 1910.28(b)(10)). Employers must ensure that each employee who climbs a fixed ladder without fall protection:


(1) Is physically capable, as demonstrated through observations of actual climbing activities or by a physical examination, to perform the duties that may be assigned, including climbing fixed ladders without fall protection;


(2) Has successfully completed a training or apprenticeship program that includes hands-on training on the safe climbing of ladders and is retrained as necessary to maintain the necessary skills;


(3) Has the skill to climb ladders safely, as demonstrated through formal classroom training or on-the-job training, and performance observation; and


(4) Performs climbing duties as a part of routine work activity.


(i) Ladder safety systems. The employer must ensure:


(1) Each ladder safety system allows the employee to climb up and down using both hands and does not require that the employee continuously hold, push, or pull any part of the system while climbing;


(2) The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body harness or belt does not exceed 9 inches (23 cm);


(3) Mountings for rigid carriers are attached at each end of the carrier, with intermediate mountings spaced, as necessary, along the entire length of the carrier so the system has the strength to stop employee falls;


(4) Mountings for flexible carriers are attached at each end of the carrier and cable guides for flexible carriers are installed at least 25 feet (7.6 m) apart but not more than 40 feet (12.2 m) apart along the entire length of the carrier;


(5) The design and installation of mountings and cable guides does not reduce the design strength of the ladder; and


(6) Ladder safety systems and their support systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a drop test consisting of an 18-inch (41-cm) drop of a 500-pound (227-kg) weight.


(j) Personal fall protection systems. Body belts, harnesses, and other components used in personal fall arrest systems, work positioning systems, and travel restraint systems must meet the requirements of § 1910.140.


(k) Protection from falling objects. (1) The employers must ensure toeboards used for falling object protection:


(i) Are erected along the exposed edge of the overhead walking-working surface for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below.


(ii) Have a minimum vertical height of 3.5 inches (9 cm) as measured from the top edge of the toeboard to the level of the walking-working surface.


(iii) Do not have more than a 0.25-inch (0.5-cm) clearance or opening above the walking-working surface.


(iv) Are solid or do not have any opening that exceeds 1 inch (3 cm) at its greatest dimension.


(v) Have a minimum height of 2.5 inches (6 cm) when used around vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits. Toeboards may be omitted around vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits when the employer can demonstrate that a toeboard would prevent access to a vehicle that is over the pit.


(vi) Are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toeboard.


(2) The employer must ensure:


(i) Where tools, equipment, or materials are piled higher than the top of the toeboard, paneling or screening is installed from the toeboard to the midrail of the guardrail system and for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below. If the items are piled higher than the midrail, the employer also must install paneling or screening to the top rail and for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below; and


(ii) All openings in guardrail systems are small enough to prevent objects from falling through the opening.


(3) The employer must ensure canopies used for falling object protection are strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by falling objects.


(l) Grab handles. The employer must ensure each grab handle:


(1) Is not less than 12 inches (30 cm) long;


(2) Is mounted to provide at least 3 inches (8 cm) of clearance from the framing or opening; and


(3) Is capable of withstanding a maximum horizontal pull-out force equal to two times the maximum intended load or 200 pounds (890 N), whichever is greater.


[81 FR 82981, Nov. 18, 2016, as amended at 84 FR 68796, Dec. 17, 2019]


§ 1910.30 Training requirements.

(a) Fall hazards. (1) Before any employee is exposed to a fall hazard, the employer must provide training for each employee who uses personal fall protection systems or who is required to be trained as specified elsewhere in this subpart. Employers must ensure employees are trained in the requirements of this paragraph on or before May 17, 2017.


(2) The employer must ensure that each employee is trained by a qualified person.


(3) The employer must train each employee in at least the following topics:


(i) The nature of the fall hazards in the work area and how to recognize them;


(ii) The procedures to be followed to minimize those hazards;


(iii) The correct procedures for installing, inspecting, operating, maintaining, and disassembling the personal fall protection systems that the employee uses; and


(iv) The correct use of personal fall protection systems and equipment specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, including, but not limited to, proper hook-up, anchoring, and tie-off techniques, and methods of equipment inspection and storage, as specified by the manufacturer.


(b) Equipment hazards. (1) The employer must train each employee on or before May 17, 2017 in the proper care, inspection, storage, and use of equipment covered by this subpart before an employee uses the equipment.


(2) The employer must train each employee who uses a dockboard to properly place and secure it to prevent unintentional movement.


(3) The employer must train each employee who uses a rope descent system in proper rigging and use of the equipment in accordance with § 1910.27.


(4) The employer must train each employee who uses a designated area in the proper set-up and use of the area.


(c) Retraining. The employer must retrain an employee when the employer has reason to believe the employee does not have the understanding and skill required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. Situations requiring retraining include, but are not limited to, the following:


(1) When changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete or inadequate;


(2) When changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be used render previous training obsolete or inadequate; or


(3) When inadequacies in an affected employee’s knowledge or use of fall protection systems or equipment indicate that the employee no longer has the requisite understanding or skill necessary to use equipment or perform the job safely.


(d) Training must be understandable. The employer must provide information and training to each employee in a manner that the employee understands.


Subpart E – Exit Routes and Emergency Planning


Authority:29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), or 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), as applicable; and 29 CFR 1911.

§ 1910.33 Table of contents.

This section lists the sections and paragraph headings contained in §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39.



§ 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.

(a) Every employer is covered.

(b) Exit routes are covered.

(c) Definitions.

§ 1910.35 Compliance with Alternate Exit Route Codes.

§ 1910.36 Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

(a) Basic requirements.

(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate.

(c) Exit discharge.

(d) An exit door must be unlocked.

(e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.

(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate.

(g) An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements.

(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted.

§ 1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

(a) The danger to employees must be minimized.

(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate.

(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained.

(d) Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations.

(e) An employee alarm system must be operable.

§ 1910.38 Emergency action plans.

(a) Application.

(b) Written and oral emergency action plans.

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(d) Employee alarm system.

(e) Training.

(f) Review of emergency action plan.

§ 1910.39 Fire prevention plans.

(a) Application.

(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans.

(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan.

(d) Employee information.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]


§ 1910.34 Coverage and definitions.

(a) Every employer is covered. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 apply to workplaces in general industry except mobile workplaces such as vehicles or vessels.


(b) Exits routes are covered. The rules in §§ 1910.34 through 1910.39 cover the minimum requirements for exit routes that employers must provide in their workplace so that employees may evacuate the workplace safely during an emergency. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 also cover the minimum requirements for emergency action plans and fire prevention plans.


(c) Definitions.


Electroluminescent means a light-emitting capacitor. Alternating current excites phosphor atoms when placed between the electrically conductive surfaces to produce light. This light source is typically contained inside the device.


Exit means that portion of an exit route that is generally separated from other areas to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. An example of an exit is a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that leads from the fifth floor of an office building to the outside of the building.


Exit access means that portion of an exit route that leads to an exit. An example of an exit access is a corridor on the fifth floor of an office building that leads to a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway (the Exit).


Exit discharge means the part of the exit route that leads directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside. An example of an exit discharge is a door at the bottom of a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that discharges to a place of safety outside the building.


Exit route means a continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety (including refuge areas). An exit route consists of three parts: The exit access; the exit; and, the exit discharge. (An exit route includes all vertical and horizontal areas along the route.)


High hazard area means an area inside a workplace in which operations include high hazard materials, processes, or contents.


Occupant load means the total number of persons that may occupy a workplace or portion of a workplace at any one time. The occupant load of a workplace is calculated by dividing the gross floor area of the workplace or portion of the workplace by the occupant load factor for that particular type of workplace occupancy. Information regarding the “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, and in IFC-2009, International Fire Code (incorporated by reference, see § 1910.6).


Refuge area means either:


(1) A space along an exit route that is protected from the effects of fire by separation from other spaces within the building by a barrier with at least a one-hour fire resistance-rating; or


(2) A floor with at least two spaces, separated from each other by smoke-resistant partitions, in a building protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system that complies with § 1910.159 of this part.


Self-luminous means a light source that is illuminated by a self-contained power source (e.g., tritium) and that operates independently from external power sources. Batteries are not acceptable self-contained power sources. The light source is typically contained inside the device.


[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]


§ 1910.35 Compliance with alternate exit-route codes.

OSHA will deem an employer demonstrating compliance with the exit-route provisions of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2009 edition, or the exit-route provisions of the International Fire Code, 2009 edition, to be in compliance with the corresponding requirements in §§ 1910.34, 1910.36, and 1910.37 (incorporated by reference, see section § 1910.6).


[76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]


§ 1910.36 Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

(a) Basic requirements. Exit routes must meet the following design and construction requirements:


(1) An exit route must be permanent. Each exit route must be a permanent part of the workplace.


(2) An exit must be separated by fire resistant materials. Construction materials used to separate an exit from other parts of the workplace must have a one-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects three or fewer stories and a two-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects four or more stories.


(3) Openings into an exit must be limited. An exit is permitted to have only those openings necessary to allow access to the exit from occupied areas of the workplace, or to the exit discharge. An opening into an exit must be protected by a self-closing fire door that remains closed or automatically closes in an emergency upon the sounding of a fire alarm or employee alarm system. Each fire door, including its frame and hardware, must be listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Section 1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(A) of this part defines “listed” and § 1910.7 of this part defines a “nationally recognized testing laboratory.”


(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate – (1) Two exit routes. At least two exit routes must be available in a workplace to permit prompt evacuation of employees and other building occupants during an emergency, except as allowed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. The exit routes must be located as far away as practical from each other so that if one exit route is blocked by fire or smoke, employees can evacuate using the second exit route.


(2) More than two exit routes. More than two exit routes must be available in a workplace if the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would not be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.


(3) A single exit route. A single exit route is permitted where the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.



Note to paragraph (b) of this section:

For assistance in determining the number of exit routes necessary for your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, or IFC-2009, International Fire Code (incorporated by reference, see § 1910.6).


(c) Exit discharge. (1) Each exit discharge must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside.


(2) The street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space to which an exit discharge leads must be large enough to accommodate the building occupants likely to use the exit route.


(3) Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be interrupted at that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel leading to the exit discharge.


(d) An exit door must be unlocked. (1) Employees must be able to open an exit route door from the inside at all times without keys, tools, or special knowledge. A device such as a panic bar that locks only from the outside is permitted on exit discharge doors.


(2) Exit route doors must be free of any device or alarm that could restrict emergency use of the exit route if the device or alarm fails.


(3) An exit route door may be locked from the inside only in mental, penal, or correctional facilities and then only if supervisory personnel are continuously on duty and the employer has a plan to remove occupants from the facility during an emergency.


(e) A side-hinged exit door must be used. (1) A side-hinged door must be used to connect any room to an exit route.


(2) The door that connects any room to an exit route must swing out in the direction of exit travel if the room is designed to be occupied by more than 50 people or if the room is a high hazard area (i.e., contains contents that are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or explode).


(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate. (1) Exit routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served.


(2) The capacity of an exit route may not decrease in the direction of exit route travel to the exit discharge.



Note to paragraph (f) of this section:

Information regarding the “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, and in IFC-2009, International Fire Code (incorporated by reference, see § 1910.6).


(g) An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements. (1) The ceiling of an exit route must be at least seven feet six inches (2.3 m) high. Any projection from the ceiling must not reach a point less than six feet eight inches (2.0 m) from the floor.


(2) An exit access must be at least 28 inches (71.1 cm) wide at all points. Where there is only one exit access leading to an exit or exit discharge, the width of the exit and exit discharge must be at least equal to the width of the exit access.


(3) The width of an exit route must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum permitted occupant load of each floor served by the exit route.


(4) Objects that project into the exit route must not reduce the width of the exit route to less than the minimum width requirements for exit routes.


(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted. Each outdoor exit route must meet the minimum height and width requirements for indoor exit routes and must also meet the following requirements:


(1) The outdoor exit route must have guardrails to protect unenclosed sides if a fall hazard exists;


(2) The outdoor exit route must be covered if snow or ice is likely to accumulate along the route, unless the employer can demonstrate that any snow or ice accumulation will be removed before it presents a slipping hazard;


(3) The outdoor exit route must be reasonably straight and have smooth, solid, substantially level walkways; and


(4) The outdoor exit route must not have a dead-end that is longer than 20 feet (6.2 m).


[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]


§ 1910.37 Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

(a) The danger to employees must be minimized. (1) Exit routes must be kept free of explosive or highly flammable furnishings or other decorations.


(2) Exit routes must be arranged so that employees will not have to travel toward a high hazard area, unless the path of travel is effectively shielded from the high hazard area by suitable partitions or other physical barriers.


(3) Exit routes must be free and unobstructed. No materials or equipment may be placed, either permanently or temporarily, within the exit route. The exit access must not go through a room that can be locked, such as a bathroom, to reach an exit or exit discharge, nor may it lead into a dead-end corridor. Stairs or a ramp must be provided where the exit route is not substantially level.


(4) Safeguards designed to protect employees during an emergency (e.g., sprinkler systems, alarm systems, fire doors, exit lighting) must be in proper working order at all times.


(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate. (1) Each exit route must be adequately lighted so that an employee with normal vision can see along the exit route.


(2) Each exit must be clearly visible and marked by a sign reading “Exit.”


(3) Each exit route door must be free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of the exit route door.


(4) If the direction of travel to the exit or exit discharge is not immediately apparent, signs must be posted along the exit access indicating the direction of travel to the nearest exit and exit discharge. Additionally, the line-of-sight to an exit sign must clearly be visible at all times.


(5) Each doorway or passage along an exit access that could be mistaken for an exit must be marked “Not an Exit” or similar designation, or be identified by a sign indicating its actual use (e.g., closet).


(6) Each exit sign must be illuminated to a surface value of at least five foot-candles (54 lux) by a reliable light source and be distinctive in color. Self-luminous or electroluminescent signs that have a minimum luminance surface value of at least .06 footlamberts (0.21 cd/m
2) are permitted.


(7) Each exit sign must have the word “Exit” in plainly legible letters not less than six inches (15.2 cm) high, with the principal strokes of the letters in the word “Exit” not less than three-fourths of an inch (1.9 cm) wide.


(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained. Fire retardant paints or solutions must be renewed as often as necessary to maintain their fire retardant properties.


(d) Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations. (1) During new construction, employees must not occupy a workplace until the exit routes required by this subpart are completed and ready for employee use for the portion of the workplace they occupy.


(2) During repairs or alterations, employees must not occupy a workplace unless the exit routes required by this subpart are available and existing fire protections are maintained, or until alternate fire protection is furnished that provides an equivalent level of safety.


(3) Employees must not be exposed to hazards of flammable or explosive substances or equipment used during construction, repairs, or alterations, that are beyond the normal permissible conditions in the workplace, or that would impede exiting the workplace.


(e) An employee alarm system must be operable. Employers must install and maintain an operable employee alarm system that has a distinctive signal to warn employees of fire or other emergencies, unless employees can promptly see or smell a fire or other hazard in time to provide adequate warning to them. The employee alarm system must comply with § 1910.165.


[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]


§ 1910.38 Emergency action plans.

(a) Application. An employer must have an emergency action plan whenever an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such emergency action plan.


(b) Written and oral emergency action plans. An emergency action plan must be in writing, kept in the workplace, and available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.


(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan. An emergency action plan must include at a minimum:


(1) Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency;


(2) Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route assignments;


(3) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate;


(4) Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation;


(5) Procedures to be followed by employees performing rescue or medical duties; and


(6) The name or job title of every employee who may be contacted by employees who need more information about the plan or an explanation of their duties under the plan.


(d) Employee alarm system. An employer must have and maintain an employee alarm system. The employee alarm system must use a distinctive signal for each purpose and comply with the requirements in § 1910.165.


(e) Training. An employer must designate and train employees to assist in a safe and orderly evacuation of other employees.


(f) Review of emergency action plan. An employer must review the emergency action plan with each employee covered by the plan:


(1) When the plan is developed or the employee is assigned initially to a job;


(2) When the employee’s responsibilities under the plan change; and


(3) When the plan is changed.


[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]


§ 1910.39 Fire prevention plans.

(a) Application. An employer must have a fire prevention plan when an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such fire prevention plan.


(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans. A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in the workplace, and be made available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.


(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan. A fire prevention plan must include:


(1) A list of all major fire hazards, proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their control, and the type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each major hazard;


(2) Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials;


(3) Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards installed on heat-producing equipment to prevent the accidental ignition of combustible materials;


(4) The name or job title of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition or fires; and


(5) The name or job title of employees responsible for the control of fuel source hazards.


(d) Employee information. An employer must inform employees upon initial assignment to a job of the fire hazards to which they are exposed. An employer must also review with each employee those parts of the fire prevention plan necessary for self-protection.


[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]


Appendix to Subpart E of Part 1910 – Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans

This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers in complying with the appropriate requirements of subpart E.


§ 1910.38 Employee emergency plans.

1. Emergency action plan elements. The emergency action plan should address emergencies that the employer may reasonably expect in the workplace. Examples are: fire; toxic chemical releases; hurricanes; tornadoes; blizzards; floods; and others. The elements of the emergency action plan presented in paragraph 1910.38(c) can be supplemented by the following to more effectively achieve employee safety and health in an emergency. The employer should list in detail the procedures to be taken by those employees who have been selected to remain behind to care for essential plant operations until their evacuation becomes absolutely necessary. Essential plant operations may include the monitoring of plant power supplies, water supplies, and other essential services which cannot be shut down for every emergency alarm. Essential plant operations may also include chemical or manufacturing processes which must be shut down in stages or steps where certain employees must be present to assure that safe shut down procedures are completed.


The use of floor plans or workplace maps which clearly show the emergency escape routes should be included in the emergency action plan. Color coding will aid employees in determining their route assignments.


The employer should also develop and explain in detail what rescue and medical first aid duties are to be performed and by whom. All employees are to be told what actions they are to take in these emergency situations that the employer anticipates may occur in the workplace.


2. Emergency evacuation. At the time of an emergency, employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some cases where the emergency is very grave, total and immediate evacuation of all employees is necessary. In other emergencies, a partial evacuation of nonessential employees with a delayed evacuation of others may be necessary for continued plant operation. In some cases, only those employees in the immediate area of the fire may be expected to evacuate or move to a safe area such as when a local application fire suppression system discharge employee alarm is sounded. Employees must be sure that they know what is expected of them in all such emergency possibilities which have been planned in order to provide assurance of their safety from fire or other emergency.


The designation of refuge or safe areas for evacuation should be determined and identified in the plan. In a building divided into fire zones by fire walls, the refuge area may still be within the same building but in a different zone from where the emergency occurs.


Exterior refuge or safe areas may include parking lots, open fields or streets which are located away from the site of the emergency and which provide sufficient space to accommodate the employees. Employees should be instructed to move away from the exit discharge doors of the building, and to avoid congregating close to the building where they may hamper emergency operations.


3. Emergency action plan training. The employer should assure that an adequate number of employees are available at all times during working hours to act as evacuation wardens so that employees can be swiftly moved from the danger location to the safe areas. Generally, one warden for each twenty employees in the workplace should be able to provide adequate guidance and instruction at the time of a fire emergency. The employees selected or who volunteer to serve as wardens should be trained in the complete workplace layout and the various alternative escape routes from the workplace. All wardens and fellow employees should be made aware of handicapped employees who may need extra assistance, such as using the buddy system, and of hazardous areas to be avoided during emergencies. Before leaving, wardens should check rooms and other enclosed spaces in the workplace for employees who may be trapped or otherwise unable to evacuate the area.


After the desired degree of evacuation is completed, the wardens should be able to account for or otherwise verify that all employees are in the safe areas.


In buildings with several places of employment, employers are encouraged to coordinate their plans with the other employers in the building. A building-wide or standardized plan for the whole building is acceptable provided that the employers inform their respective employees of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. The standardized plan need not be kept by each employer in the multi-employer building, provided there is an accessible location within the building where the plan can be reviewed by affected employees. When multi-employer building-wide plans are not feasible, employers should coordinate their plans with the other employers within the building to assure that conflicts and confusion are avoided during times of emergencies. In multi-story buildings where more than one employer is on a single floor, it is essential that these employers coordinate their plans with each other to avoid conflicts and confusion.


4. Fire prevention housekeeping. The standard calls for the control of accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials.


It is the intent of this standard to assure that hazardous accumulations of combustible waste materials are controlled so that a fast developing fire, rapid spread of toxic smoke, or an explosion will not occur. This does not necessarily mean that each room has to be swept each day. Employers and employees should be aware of the hazardous properties of materials in their workplaces, and the degree of hazard each poses. Certainly oil soaked rags have to be treated differently than general paper trash in office areas. However, large accumulations of waste paper or corrugated boxes, etc., can pose a significant fire hazard. Accumulations of materials which can cause large fires or generate dense smoke that are easily ignited or may start from spontaneous combustion, are the types of materials with which this standard is concerned. Such combustible materials may be easily ignited by matches, welder’s sparks, cigarettes and similar low level energy ignition sources.


5. Maintenance of equipment under the fire prevention plan. Certain equipment is often installed in workplaces to control heat sources or to detect fuel leaks. An example is a temperature limit switch often found on deep-fat food fryers found in restaurants. There may be similar switches for high temperature dip tanks, or flame failure and flashback arrester devices on furnaces and similar heat producing equipment. If these devices are not properly maintained or if they become inoperative, a definite fire hazard exists. Again employees and supervisors should be aware of the specific type of control devices on equipment involved with combustible materials in the workplace and should make sure, through periodic inspection or testing, that these controls are operable. Manufacturers’ recommendations should be followed to assure proper maintenance procedures.


[45 FR 60714, Sept. 12, 1980]


Subpart F – Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms


Authority:29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657; Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

§ 1910.66 Powered platforms for building maintenance.

(a) Scope. This section covers powered platform installations permanently dedicated to interior or exterior building maintenance of a specific structure or group of structures. This section does not apply to suspended scaffolds (swinging scaffolds) used to service buildings on a temporary basis and covered under subpart D of this part, nor to suspended scaffolds used for construction work and covered under subpart L of 29 CFR part 1926. Building maintenance includes, but is not limited to, such tasks as window cleaning, caulking, metal polishing and reglazing.


(b) Application – (1) New installations. This section applies to all permanent installations completed after July 23, 1990. Major modifications to existing installations completed after that date are also considered new installations under this section.


(2) Existing installations. (i) Permanent installations in existence and/or completed before July 23, 1990 shall comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) and appendix C to subpart I of this part.


(ii) In addition, permanent installations completed after August 27, 1971, and in existence and/or completed before July 23, 1990, shall comply with appendix D of this section.


(c) Assurance. (1) Building owners of new installations shall inform the employer before each use in writing that the installation meets the requirements of paragraphs (e)(1) and (f)(1) of this section and the additional design criteria contained in other provisions of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section relating to: required load sustaining capabilities of platforms, building components, hoisting and supporting equipment; stability factors for carriages, platforms and supporting equipment; maximum horizontal force for movement of carriages and davits; design of carriages, hoisting machines, wire rope and stabilization systems; and design criteria for electrical wiring and equipment.


(2) Building owners shall base the information required in paragraph (c)(1) of this section on the results of a field test of the installation before being placed into service and following any major alteration to an existing installation, as required in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. The assurance shall also be based on all other relevant available information, including, but not limited to, test data, equipment specifications and verification by a registered professional engineer.


(3) Building owners of all installations, new and existing, shall inform the employer in writing that the installation has been inspected, tested, and maintained in compliance with the requirements of paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section and that all anchorages meet the requirements of § 1910.140(c)(13).


(4) The employer shall not permit employees to use the installation prior to receiving assurance from the building owner that the installation meets the requirements contained in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(3) of this section.


(d) Definitions.


Anemometer means an instrument for measuring wind velocity.


Angulated roping means a suspension method where the upper point of suspension is inboard from the attachments on the suspended unit, thus causing the suspended unit to bear against the face of the building.


Building face roller means a rotating cylindrical member designed to ride on the face of the building wall to prevent the platform from abrading the face of the building and to assist in stabilizing the platform.


Building maintenance means operations such as window cleaning, caulking, metal polishing, reglazing, and general maintenance on building surfaces.


Cable means a conductor, or group of conductors, enclosed in a weatherproof sheath, that may be used to supply electrical power and/or control current for equipment or to provide voice communication circuits.


Carriage means a wheeled vehicle used for the horizontal movement and support of other equipment.


Certification means a written, signed and dated statement confirming the performance of a requirement of this section.


Combination cable means a cable having both steel structural members capable of supporting the platform, and copper or other electrical conductors insulated from each other and the structural members by nonconductive barriers.


Competent person means a person who, because of training and experience, is capable of identifying hazardous or dangerous conditions in powered platform installations and of training employees to identify such conditions.


Continuous pressure means the need for constant manual actuation for a control to function.


Control means a mechanism used to regulate or guide the operation of the equipment.


Davit means a device, used singly or in pairs, for suspending a powered platform from work, storage and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike outriggers, a davit reacts its operating load into a single roof socket or carriage attachment.


Equivalent means alternative designs, materials or methods which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.


Ground rigging means a method of suspending a working platform starting from a safe surface to a point of suspension above the safe surface.


Ground rigged davit means a davit which cannot be used to raise a suspended working platform above the building face being serviced.


Guide button means a building face anchor designed to engage a guide track mounted on a platform.


Guide roller means a rotating cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide assembly, designed to provide continuous engagement between the platform and the building guides or guideways.


Guide shoe means a device attached to the platform designed to provide a sliding contact between the platform and the building guides.


Hoisting machine means a device intended to raise and lower a suspended or supported unit.


Hoist rated load means the hoist manufacturer’s maximum allowable operating load.


Installation means all the equipment and all affected parts of a building which are associated with the performance of building maintenance using powered platforms.


Interlock means a device designed to ensure that operations or motions occur in proper sequence.


Intermittent stabilization means a method of platform stabilization in which the angulated suspension wire rope(s) are secured to regularly spaced building anchors.


Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope or strap which is used to secure the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline or anchorage.


Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.


Live load means the total static weight of workers, tools, parts, and supplies that the equipment is designed to support.


Obstruction detector means a control that will stop the suspended or supported unit in the direction of travel if an obstruction is encountered, and will allow the unit to move only in a direction away from the obstruction.


Operating control means a mechanism regulating or guiding the operation of equipment that ensures a specific operating mode.


Operating device means a device actuated manually to activate a control.


Outrigger means a device, used singly or in pairs, for suspending a working platform from work, storage, and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike davits, an outrigger reacts its operating moment load as at least two opposing vertical components acting into two or more distinct roof points and/or attachments.


Platform rated load means the combined weight of workers, tools, equipment and other material which is permitted to be carried by the working platform at the installation, as stated on the load rating plate.


Poured socket means the method of providing wire rope terminations in which the ends of the rope are held in a tapered socket by means of poured spelter or resins.


Primary brake means a brake designed to be applied automatically whenever power to the prime mover is interrupted or discontinued.


Prime mover means the source of mechanical power for a machine.


Rated load means the manufacturer’s recommended maximum load.


Rated strength means the strength of wire rope, as designated by its manufacturer or vendor, based on standard testing procedures or acceptable engineering design practices.


Rated working load means the combined static weight of men, materials, and suspended or supported equipment.


Registered professional engineer means a person who has been duly and currently registered and licensed by an authority within the United States or its territories to practice the profession of engineering.


Roof powered platform means a working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is located on the roof.


Roof rigged davit means a davit used to raise the suspended working platform above the building face being serviced. This type of davit can also be used to raise a suspended working platform which has been ground-rigged.


Rope means the equipment used to suspend a component of an equipment installation, i.e., wire rope.


Safe surface means a horizontal surface intended to be occupied by personnel, which is so protected by a fall protection system that it can be reasonably assured that said occupants will be protected against falls.


Secondary brake means a brake designed to arrest the descent of the suspended or supported equipment in the event of an overspeed condition.


Self powered platform means a working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is mounted on the platform.


Speed reducer means a positive type speed reducing machine.


Stability factor means the ratio of the stabilizing moment to the overturning moment.


Stabilizer tie means a flexible line connecting the building anchor and the suspension wire rope supporting the platform.


Supported equipment means building maintenance equipment that is held or moved to its working position by means of attachment directly to the building or extensions of the building being maintained.


Suspended equipment means building maintenance equipment that is suspended and raised or lowered to its working position by means of ropes or combination cables attached to some anchorage above the equipment.


Suspended scaffold (swinging scaffold) means a scaffold supported on wire or other ropes, used for work on, or for providing access to, vertical sides of structures on a temporary basis. Such scaffold is not designed for use on a specific structure or group of structures.


Tail line means the nonsupporting end of the wire rope used to suspend the platform.


Tie-in guides means the portion of a building that provides continuous positive engagement between the building and a suspended or supported unit during its vertical travel on the face of the building.


Traction hoist means a type of hoisting machine that does not accumulate the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum or sheave, and is designed to raise and lower a suspended load by the application of friction forces between the suspension wire rope and the drum or sheave.


Transportable outriggers means outriggers designed to be moved from one work location to another.


Trolley carriage means a carriage suspended from an overhead track structure.


Verified means accepted by design, evaluation, or inspection by a registered professional engineer.


Weatherproof means so constructed that exposure to adverse weather conditions will not affect or interfere with the proper use or functions of the equipment or component.


Winding drum hoist means a type of hoisting machine that accumulates the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum.


Working platform means suspended or supported equipment intended to provide access to the face of a building and manned by persons engaged in building maintenance.


Wrap means one complete turn of the suspension wire rope around the surface of a hoist drum.


(e) Powered platform installations – Affected parts of buildings – (1) General requirements. The following requirements apply to affected parts of buildings which utilize working platforms for building maintenance.


(i) Structural supports, tie-downs, tie-in guides, anchoring devices and any affected parts of the building included in the installation shall be designed by or under the direction of a registered professional engineer experienced in such design;


(ii) Exterior installations shall be capable of withstanding prevailing climatic conditions;


(iii) The building installation shall provide safe access to, and egress from, the equipment and sufficient space to conduct necessary maintenance of the equipment;


(iv) The affected parts of the building shall have the capability of sustaining all the loads imposed by the equipment; and,


(v) The affected parts of the building shall be designed so as to allow the equipment to be used without exposing employees to a hazardous condition.


(2) Tie-in guides. (i) The exterior of each building shall be provided with tie-in guides unless the conditions in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) or (e)(2)(iii) of this section are met.



Note:

See figure 1 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical continuous stabilization system utilizing tie-in guides.


(ii) If angulated roping is employed, tie-in guides required in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section may be eliminated for not more than 75 feet (22.9 m) of the uppermost elevation of the building, if infeasible due to exterior building design, provided an angulation force of at least 10 pounds (44.4 n) is maintained under all conditions of loading.


(iii) Tie-in guides required in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section may be eliminated if one of the guide systems in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A), (e)(2)(iii)(B) or (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section is provided, or an equivalent.


(A) Intermittent stabilization system. The system shall keep the equipment in continuous contact with the building facade, and shall prevent sudden horizontal movement of the platform. The system may be used together with continuous positive building guide systems using tie-in guides on the same building, provided the requirements for each system are met.


(1) The maximum vertical interval between building anchors shall be three floors or 50 feet (15.3 m), whichever is less.


(2) Building anchors shall be located vertically so that attachment of the stabilizer ties will not cause the platform suspension ropes to angulate the platform horizontally across the face of the building. The anchors shall be positioned horizontally on the building face so as to be symmetrical about the platform suspension ropes.


(3) Building anchors shall be easily visible to employees and shall allow a stabilizer tie attachment for each of the platform suspension ropes at each vertical interval. If more than two suspension ropes are used on a platform, only the two building-side suspension ropes at the platform ends shall require a stabilizer attachment.


(4) Building anchors which extend beyond the face of the building shall be free of sharp edges or points. Where cables, suspension wire ropes and lifelines may be in contact with the building face, external building anchors shall not interfere with their handling or operation.


(5) The intermittent stabilization system building anchors and components shall be capable of sustaining without failure at least four times the maximum anticipated load applied or transmitted to the components and anchors. The minimum design wind load for each anchor shall be 300 (1334 n) pounds, if two anchors share the wind load.


(6) The building anchors and stabilizer ties shall be capable of sustaining anticipated horizontal and vertical loads from winds specified for roof storage design which may act on the platform and wire ropes if the platform is stranded on a building face. If the building anchors have different spacing than the suspension wire rope or if the building requires different suspension spacings on one platform, one building anchor and stabilizer tie shall be capable of sustaining the wind loads.



Note:

See figure 2 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.


(B) Button guide stabilization system.


(1) Guide buttons shall be coordinated with platform mounted equipment of paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this section.


(2) Guide buttons shall be located horizontally on the building face so as to allow engagement of each of the guide tracks mounted on the platform.


(3) Guide buttons shall be located in vertical rows on the building face for proper engagement of the guide tracks mounted on the platform.


(4) Two guide buttons shall engage each guide track at all times except for the initial engagement.


(5) Guide buttons which extend beyond the face of the building shall be free of sharp edges or points. Where cables, ropes and lifelines may be in contact with the building face, guide buttons shall not interfere with their handling or operation.


(6) Guide buttons, connections and seals shall be capable of sustaining without damage at least the weight of the platform, or provision shall be made in the guide tracks or guide track connectors to prevent the platform and its attachments from transmitting the weight of the platform to the guide buttons, connections and seals. In either case, the minimum design load shall be 300 pounds (1334 n) per building anchor.



Note:

See paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this section for relevant equipment provisions.



Note:

See figure 3 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.


(C) System utilizing angulated roping and building face rollers. The system shall keep the equipment in continuous contact with the building facade, and shall prevent sudden horizontal movement of the platform. This system is acceptable only where the suspended portion of the equipment in use does not exceed 130 feet (39.6 m) above a safe surface or ground level, and where the platform maintains no less than 10 pounds (44.4 n) angulation force on the building facade.


(iv) Tie-in guides for building interiors (atriums) may be eliminated when a registered professional engineer determines that an alternative stabilization system, including systems in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii) (A), (B) and (C), or a platform tie-off at each work station will provide equivalent safety.


(3) Roof guarding. (i) Employees working on roofs while performing building maintenance shall be protected by a perimeter guarding system which meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of § 1910.23 of this part.


(ii) The perimeter guard shall not be more than six inches (152 mm) inboard of the inside face of a barrier, i.e. the parapet wall, or roof edge curb of the building being serviced; however, the perimeter guard location shall not exceed an 18 inch (457 mm) setback from the exterior building face.


(4) Equipment stops. Operational areas for trackless type equipment shall be provided with structural stops, such as curbs, to prevent equipment from traveling outside its intended travel areas and to prevent a crushing or shearing hazard.


(5) Maintenance access. Means shall be provided to traverse all carriages and their suspended equipment to a safe area for maintenance and storage.


(6) Elevated track. (i) An elevated track system which is located four feet (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface, and traversed by carriage supported equipment, shall be provided with a walkway and guardrail system; or


(ii) The working platform shall be capable of being lowered, as part of its normal operation, to the lower safe surface for access and egress of the personnel and shall be provided with a safe means of access and egress to the lower safe surface.


(7) Tie-down anchors. Imbedded tie-down anchors, fasteners, and affected structures shall be resistant to corrosion.


(8) Cable stabilization. (i) Hanging lifelines and all cables not in tension shall be stabilized at each 200 foot (61 m) interval of vertical travel of the working platform beyond an initial 200 foot (61 m) distance.


(ii) Hanging cables, other than suspended wire ropes, which are in constant tension shall be stabilized when the vertical travel exceeds an initial 600 foot (183 m) distance, and at further intervals of 600 feet (183 m) or less.


(9) Emergency planning. A written emergency action plan shall be developed and implemented for each kind of working platform operation. This plan shall explain the emergency procedures which are to be followed in the event of a power failure, equipment failure or other emergencies which may be encountered. The plan shall also explain that employees inform themselves about the building emergency escape routes, procedures and alarm systems before operating a platform. Upon initial assignment and whenever the plan is changed the employer shall review with each employee those parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect himself or herself in the event of an emergency.


(10) Building maintenance. Repairs or major maintenance of those building portions that provide primary support for the suspended equipment shall not affect the capability of the building to meet the requirements of this standard.


(11) Electrical requirements. The following electrical requirements apply to buildings which utilize working platforms for building maintenance.


(i) General building electrical installations shall comply with §§ 1910.302 through 1910.308 of this part, unless otherwise specified in this section;


(ii) Building electrical wiring shall be of such capacity that when full load is applied to the equipment power circuit not more than a five percent drop from building service-vault voltage shall occur at any power circuit outlet used by equipment regulated by this section;


(iii) The equipment power circuit shall be an independent electrical circuit that shall remain separate from all other equipment within or on the building, other than power circuits used for hand tools that will be used in conjunction with the equipment. If the building is provided with an emergency power system, the equipment power circuit may also be connected to this system;


(iv) The power circuit shall be provided with a disconnect switch that can be locked in the “OFF” and “ON” positions. The switch shall be conveniently located with respect to the primary operating area of the equipment to allow the operators of the equipment access to the switch;


(v) The disconnect switch for the power circuit shall be locked in the “ON” position when the equipment is in use; and


(vi) An effective two-way voice communication system shall be provided between the equipment operators and persons stationed within the building being serviced. The communications facility shall be operable and shall be manned at all times by persons stationed within the building whenever the platform is being used.


(f) Powered platform installations – Equipment – (1) General requirements. The following requirements apply to equipment which are part of a powered platform installation, such as platforms, stabilizing components, carriages, outriggers, davits, hoisting machines, wire ropes and electrical components.


(i) Equipment installations shall be designed by or under the direction of a registered professional engineer experienced in such design;


(ii) The design shall provide for a minimum live load of 250 pounds (113.6 kg) for each occupant of a suspended or supported platform;


(iii) Equipment that is exposed to wind when not in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 100 miles per hour (44.7 m/s) at 30 feet (9.2 m) above grade; and


(iv) Equipment that is exposed to wind when in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 50 miles per hour (22.4 m/s) for all elevations.


(2) Construction requirements. Bolted connections shall be self-locking or shall otherwise be secured to prevent loss of the connections by vibration.


(3) Suspension methods. Elevated building maintenance equipment shall be suspended by a carriage, outriggers, davits or an equivalent method.


(i) Carriages. Carriages used for suspension of elevated building maintenance equipment shall comply with the following:


(A) The horizontal movement of a carriage shall be controlled so as to ensure its safe movement and allow accurate positioning of the platform for vertical travel or storage;


(B) Powered carriages shall not exceed a traversing speed of 50 feet per minute (0.3 m/s);


(C) The initiation of a traversing movement for a manually propelled carriage on a smooth level surface shall not require a person to exert a horizontal force greater than 40 pounds (444.8 n);


(D) Structural stops and curbs shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the carriage beyond its designed limits of travel;


(E) Traversing controls for a powered carriage shall be of a continuous pressure weatherproof type. Multiple controls when provided shall be arranged to permit operation from only one control station at a time. An emergency stop device shall be provided on each end of a powered carriage for interrupting power to the carriage drive motors;


(F) The operating controls(s) shall be so connected that in the case of suspended equipment, traversing of a carriage is not possible until the suspended portion of the equipment is located at its uppermost designed position for traversing; and is free of contact with the face of the building or building guides. In addition, all protective devices and interlocks are to be in the proper position to allow traversing of the carriage;


(G) Stability for underfoot supported carriages shall be obtained by gravity, by an attachment to a structural support, or by a combination of gravity and a structural support. The use of flowing counterweights to achieve stability is prohibited.


(1) The stability factor against overturning shall not be less than two for horizontal traversing of the carriage, including the effects of impact and wind.


(2) The carriages and their anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform, and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the stall capacity of the hoist motor. All parts of the installation shall be capable of withstanding without damage to any part of the installation the forces resulting from the stall load of the hoist and one half the wind load.


(3) Roof carriages which rely on having tie-down devices secured to the building to develop the required stability against overturning shall be provided with an interlock which will prevent vertical platform movement unless the tie-down is engaged;


(H) An automatically applied braking or locking system, or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of power traversed or power assisted carriages;


(I) A manual or automatic braking or locking system or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of manually propelled carriages;


(J) A means to lock out the power supply for the carriage shall be provided;


(K) Safe access to and egress from the carriage shall be provided from a safe surface. If the carriage traverses an elevated area, any operating area on the carriage shall be protected by a guardrail system in compliance with the provisions of paragraph (f)(5)(i)(F) of this section. Any access gate shall be self-closing and self-latching, or provided with an interlock;


(L) Each carriage work station position shall be identified by location markings and/or position indicators; and


(M) The motors shall stall if the load on the hoist motors is at any time in excess of three times that necessary for lifting the working platform with its rated load.


(ii) Transportable outriggers. (A) Transportable outriggers may be used as a method of suspension for ground rigged working platforms where the point of suspension does not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Tie-in guide system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2) of this section.


(B) Transportable outriggers shall be used only with self-powered, ground rigged working platforms.


(C) Each transportable outrigger shall be secured with a tie-down to a verified anchorage on the building during the entire period of its use. The anchorage shall be designed to have a stability factor of not less than four against overturning or upsetting of the outrigger.


(D) Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from and to a safe surface below the point of suspension.


(E) Each transportable outrigger shall be designed for lateral stability to prevent roll-over in the event an accidental lateral load is applied to the outrigger. The accidental lateral load to be considered in this design shall be not less than 70 percent of the rated load of the hoist.


(F) Each transportable outrigger shall be designed to support an ultimate load of not less than four times the rated load of the hoist.


(G) Each transportable outrigger shall be so located that the suspension wire ropes for two point suspended working platforms are hung parallel.


(H) A transportable outrigger shall be tied-back to a verified anchorage on the building with a rope equivalent in strength to the suspension rope.


(I) The tie-back rope shall be installed parallel to the centerline of the outrigger.


(iii) Davits. (A) Every davit installation, fixed or transportable, rotatable or non-rotatable shall be designed and installed to insure that it has a stability factor against overturning of not less than four.


(B) The following requirements apply to roof rigged davit systems:


(1) Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from a safe surface. Access or egress shall not require persons to climb over a building’s parapet or guard railing; and


(2) The working platform shall be provided with wheels, casters or a carriage for traversing horizontally.


(C) The following requirements apply to ground rigged davit systems:


(1) The point of suspension shall not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Guide system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2) of this section;


(2) Access and egress to and from the working platform shall only be from a safe surface below the point of suspension.


(D) A rotating davit shall not require a horizontal force in excess of 40 pounds (177.9 n) per person to initiate a rotating movement.


(E) The following requirements shall apply to transportable davits:


(1) A davit or part of a davit weighing more than 80 pounds (36 kg) shall be provided with a means for its transport, which shall keep the center of gravity of the davit at or below 36 inches (914 mm) above the safe surface during transport;


(2) A davit shall be provided with a pivoting socket or with a base that will allow the insertion or removal of a davit at a position of not more than 35 degrees above the horizontal, with the complete davit inboard of the building face being serviced; and


(3) Means shall be provided to lock the davit to its socket or base before it is used to suspend the platform.


(4) Hoisting machines. (i) Raising and lowering of suspended or supported equipment shall be performed only by a hoisting machine.


(ii) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of arresting any overspeed descent of the load.


(iii) Each hoisting machine shall be powered only by air, electric or hydraulic sources.


(iv) Flammable liquids shall not be carried on the working platform.


(v) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of raising or lowering 125 percent of the rated load of the hoist.


(vi) Moving parts of a hoisting machine shall be enclosed or guarded in compliance with paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of § 1910.212 of this part.


(vii) Winding drums, traction drums and sheaves and directional sheaves used in conjunction with hoisting machines shall be compatible with, and sized for, the wire rope used.


(viii) Each winding drum shall be provided with a positive means of attaching the wire rope to the drum. The attachment shall be capable of developing at least four times the rated load of the hoist.


(ix) Each hoisting machine shall be provided with a primary brake and at least one independent secondary brake, each capable of stopping and holding not less than 125 percent of the lifting capacity of the hoist.


(A) The primary brake shall be directly connected to the drive train of the hoisting machine, and shall not be connected through belts, chains, clutches, or set screw type devices. The brake shall automatically set when power to the prime mover is interrupted.


(B)(1) The secondary brake shall be an automatic emergency type of brake that, if actuated during each stopping cycle, shall not engage before the hoist is stopped by the primary brake.


(2) When a secondary brake is actuated, it shall stop and hold the platform within a vertical distance of 24 inches (609.6 mm).


(x) Any component of a hoisting machine which requires lubrication for its protection and proper functioning shall be provided with a means for that lubrication to be applied.


(5) Suspended equipment – (i) General requirements. (A) Each suspended unit component, except suspension ropes and guardrail systems, shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least four times the maximum intended live load applied or transmitted to that component.


(B) Each suspended unit component shall be constructed of materials that will withstand anticipated weather conditions.


(C) Each suspended unit shall be provided with a load rating plate, conspicuously located, stating the unit weight and rated load of the suspended unit.


(D) When the suspension points on a suspended unit are not at the unit ends, the unit shall be capable of remaining continuously stable under all conditions of use and position of the live load, and shall maintain at least a 1.5 to 1 stability factor against unit upset.


(E) Guide rollers, guide shoes or building face rollers shall be provided, and shall compensate for variations in building dimensions and for minor horizontal out-of-level variations of each suspended unit.


(F) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be secured to the building facade by one or more of the following methods, or by an equivalent method:


(1) Continuous engagement to building anchors as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section;


(2) Intermittent engagement to building anchors as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section;


(3) Button guide engagement as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) of this section; or


(4) Angulated roping and building face rollers as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section.


(G) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be provided with a guardrail system on all sides which shall meet the following requirements:


(1) The system shall consist of a top guardrail, midrail, and a toeboard;


(2) The top guardrail shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall be able to withstand at least a 100-pound (444 n) force in any downward or outward direction;


(3) The midrail shall be able to withstand at least a 75-pound (333 n) force in any downward or outward direction; and


(4) The areas between the guardrail and toeboard on the ends and outboard side, and the area between the midrail and toeboard on the inboard side, shall be closed with a material that is capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds (45.4 KG.) applied horizontally over any area of one square foot (.09 m
2). The material shall have all openings small enough to reject passage of life lines and potential falling objects which may be hazardous to persons below.


(5) Toeboards shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard.


(6) Toeboards shall be three and one-half inches (9 cm) minimum in length from their top edge to the level of the platform floor.


(7) Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have no more than one-half inch (1.3 cm) clearance above the platform floor.


(8) Toeboards shall be solid or with an opening not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the greatest dimension.


(ii) Two and four-point suspended working platforms. (A) The working platform shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide and shall be provided with a minimum of a 12 inch (305 mm) wide passage at or past any obstruction on the platform.


(B) The flooring shall be of a slip-resistant type and shall contain no opening that would allow the passage of life lines, cables and other potential falling objects. If a larger opening is provided, it shall be protected by placing a material under the opening which shall prevent the passage of life lines, cables and potential falling objects.


(C) The working platfrom shall be provided with a means of suspension that will restrict the platform’s inboard to outboard roll about its longitudinal axis to a maximum of 15 degrees from a horizontal plane when moving the live load from the inboard to the outboard side of the platform.


(D) Any cable suspended from above the platform shall be provided with a means for storage to prevent accumulation of the cable on the floor of the platform.


(E) All operating controls for the vertical travel of the platform shall be of the continuous-pressure type, and shall be located on the platform.


(F) Each operating station of every working platform shall be provided with a means of interrupting the power supply to all hoist motors to stop any further powered ascent or descent of the platform.


(G) The maximum rated speed of the platform shall not exceed 50 feet per minute (0.3 ms) with single speed hoists, nor 75 feet per minute (0.4 ms) with multi-speed hoists.


(H) Provisions shall be made for securing all tools, water tanks, and other accessories to prevent their movement or accumulation on the floor of the platform.


(I) Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the provisions of §§ 1910.155 and 1910.157 of this part shall be provided and securely attached on all working platforms.


(J) Access to and egress from a working platfrom, except for those that land directly on a safe surface, shall be provided by stairs, ladders, platforms and runways conforming to the provisions of subpart D of this part. Access gates shall be self-closing and self-latching.


(K) Means of access to or egress from a working platform which is 48 inches (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface shall be provided with a guardrail system or ladder handrails that conform to the provisions of subpart D of this part.


(L) The platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the emergency egress of employees. A horizontal lifeline or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided as part of a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part for each employee on such a platform.


(M) A vertical lifeline shall be provided as part of a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part for each employee on a working platform suspended by two or more wire ropes, if the failure of one wire rope or suspension attachment will cause the platform to upset. If a secondary wire rope suspension is used, vertical lifelines are not required for the personal fall arrest system, provided that each employee is attached to a horizontal lifeline anchored to the platform.


(N) An emergency electric operating device shall be provided on roof powered platforms near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device located on the working platform, or failure of the cable connected to the platform. The emergency electric operating device shall be mounted in a secured compartment, and the compartment shall be labeled with instructions for use. A means for opening the compartment shall be mounted in a break-glass receptable located near the emergency electric operating device or in an equivalent secure and accessible location.


(iii) Single point suspended working platforms. (A) The requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (K) of this section shall also apply to a single point working platform.


(B) Each single point suspended working platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system which will prevent the working platform from falling should there be a failure of the primary means of support, or if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the egress of the employees. A horizontal life line or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided as part of a personal fall arrest system that meets the requirements of subpart I of this part for each employee on the platform.


(iv) Ground-rigged working platforms. (A) Groundrigged working platforms shall comply with all the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of this section.


(B) After each day’s use, the power supply within the building shall be disconnected from a ground-rigged working platform, and the platform shall be either disengaged from its suspension points or secured and stored at grade.


(v) Intermittently stabilized platforms. (A) The platform shall comply with paragraphs (F)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of this section.


(B) Each stabilizer tie shall be equipped with a “quick connect-quick disconnect” device which cannot be accidently disengaged, for attachment to the building anchor, and shall be resistant to adverse environmental conditions.


(C) The platform shall be provided with a stopping device that will interrupt the hoist power supply in the event the platform contacts a stabilizer tie during its ascent.


(D) Building face rollers shall not be placed at the anchor setting if exterior anchors are used on the building face.


(E) Stabilizer ties used on intermittently stabilized platforms shall allow for the specific attachment length needed to effect the predetermined angulation of the suspended wire rope. The specific attachment length shall be maintained at all building anchor locations.


(F) The platform shall be in continuous contact with the face of the building during ascent and descent.


(G) The attachment and removal of stabilizer ties shall not require the horizontal movement of the platform.


(H) The platform-mounted equipment and its suspension wire ropes shall not be physically damaged by the loads from the stabilizer tie or its building anchor. The platform, platform mounted equipment and wire ropes shall be able to withstand a load that is at least twice the ultimate strength of the stabilizer tie.



Note:

See figure II in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.


(vi) Button-guide stabilized platforms. (A) The platform shall comply with paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of this section.


(B) Each guide track on the platform shall engage a minimum of two guide buttons during any vertical travel of the platform following the initial button engagement.


(C) Each guide track on a platform that is part of a roof rigged system shall be provided with a storage position on the platform.


(D) Each guide track on the platform shall be sufficiently maneuverable by platform occupants to permit easy engagement of the guide buttons, and easy movement into and out of its storage position on the platform.


(E) Two guide tracks shall be mounted on the platform and shall provide continuous contact with the building face.


(F) The load carrying components of the button guide stabilization system which transmit the load into the platform shall be capable of supporting the weight of the platform, or provision shall be made in the guide track connectors or platform attachments to prevent the weight of the platform from being transmitted to the platform attachments.



Note:

See figure III in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.


(6) Supported equipment. (i) Supported equipment shall maintain a vertical position in respect to the face of the building by means other than friction.


(ii) Cog wheels or equivalent means shall be incorporated to provide climbing traction between the supported equipment and the building guides. Additional guide wheels or shoes shall be incorporated as may be necessary to ensure that the drive wheels are continuously held in positive engagement with the building guides.


(iii) Launch guide mullions indexed to the building guides and retained in alignment with the building guides shall be used to align drive wheels entering the building guides.


(iv) Manned platforms used on supported equipment shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii)(A), (f)(5)(ii)(B), and (f)(5)(ii) (D) through (K) of this section covering suspended equipment.


(7) Suspension wire ropes and rope connections. (i) Each specific installation shall use suspension wire ropes or combination cable and connections meeting the specification recommended by the manufacturer of the hoisting machine used. Connections shall be capable of developing at least 80 percent of the rated breaking strength of the wire rope.


(ii) Each suspension rope shall have a “Design Factor” of at least 10. The “Design Factor” is the ratio of the rated strength of the suspension wire rope to the rated working load, and shall be calculated using the following formula:





Where:

F = Design factor

S = Manufacturer’s rated strength of one suspension rope

N = Number of suspension ropes under load

W = Rated working load on all ropes at any point of travel

(iii) Suspension wire rope grade shall be at least improved plow steel or equivalent.


(iv) Suspension wire ropes shall be sized to conform with the required design factor, but shall not be less than
5/16 inch (7.94 mm) in diameter.


(v) No more than one reverse bend in six wire rope lays shall be permitted.


(vi) A corrosion-resistant tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings when a suspension wire rope is to be used at a specific location and will remain in that location. This tag shall bear the following wire rope data:


(A) The diameter (inches and/or mm);


(B) Construction classification;


(C) Whether non-preformed or preformed;


(D) The grade of material;


(E) The manufacturer’s rated strength;


(F) The manufacturer’s name;


(G) The month and year the ropes were installed; and


(H) The name of the person or company which installed the ropes.


(vii) A new tag shall be installed at each rope renewal.


(viii) The original tag shall be stamped with the date of the resocketing, or the original tag shall be retained and a supplemental tag shall be provided when ropes are resocketed. The supplemental tag shall show the date of resocketing and the name of the person or company that resocketed the rope.


(ix) Winding drum type hoists shall contain at least three wraps of the suspension wire rope on the drum when the suspended unit has reached the lowest possible point of its vertical travel.


(x) Traction drum and sheave type hoists shall be provided with a wire rope of sufficient length to reach the lowest possible point of vertical travel of the suspended unit, and an additional length of the wire rope of at least four feet (1.2 m).


(xi) The lengthening or repairing of suspension wire ropes is prohibited.


(xii) Babbitted fastenings for suspension wire rope are prohibited.


(8) Control circuits, power circuits and their components. (i) Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with subpart S of this part, except as otherwise required by this section.


(ii) Electrical runway conductor systems shall be of a type designed for use in exterior locations, and shall be located so that they do not come into contact with accumulated snow or water.


(iii) Cables shall be protected against damage resulting from overtensioning or from other causes.


(iv) Devices shall be included in the control system for the equipment which will provide protection against electrical overloads, three phase reversal and phase failure. The control system shall have a separate method, independent of the direction control circuit, for breaking the power circuit in case of an emergency or malfunction.


(v) Suspended or supported equipment shall have a control system which will require the operator of the equipment to follow predetermined procedures.


(vi) The following requirements shall apply to electrical protection devices:


(A) On installations where the carriage does not have a stability factor of at least four against overturning, electrical contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the suspended or supported equipment shall be operative only when the carriage is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.


(B) Overload protection shall be provided in the hoisting or suspension system to protect against the equipment operating in the “up” direction with a load in excess of 125 percent of the rated load of the platform; and


(C) An automatic detector shall be provided for each suspension point that will interrupt power to all hoisting motors for travel in the “down” direction, and apply the primary brakes if any suspension wire rope becomes slack. A continuous-pressure rigging-bypass switch designed for use during rigging is permitted. This switch shall only be used during rigging.


(vii) Upper and lower directional switches designed to prevent the travel of suspended units beyond safe upward and downward levels shall be provided.


(viii) Emergency stop switches shall be provided on remote controlled, roof-powered manned platforms adjacent to each control station on the platform.


(ix) Cables which are in constant tension shall have overload devices which will prevent the tension in the cable from interfering with the load limiting device required in paragraph (f)(8)(vi)(B) of this section, or with the platform roll limiting device required in paragraph (f)(5)(ii)(C) of this section. The setting of these devices shall be coordinated with other overload settings at the time of design of the system, and shall be clearly indicated on or near the device. The device shall interrupt the equipment travel in the “down” direction.


(g) Inspection and tests – (1) Installations and alterations. All completed building maintenance equipment installations shall be inspected and tested in the field before being placed in initial service to determine that all parts of the installation conform to applicable requirements of this standard, and that all safety and operating equipment is functioning as required. A similar inspection and test shall be made following any major alteration to an existing installation. No hoist in an installation shall be subjected to a load in excess of 125 percent of its rated load.


(2) Periodic inspections and tests. (i) Related building supporting structures shall undergo periodic inspection by a competent person at intervals not exceeding 12 months.


(ii) All parts of the equipment including control systems shall be inspected, and, where necessary, tested by a competent person at intervals specified by the manufacturer/supplier, but not to exceed 12 months, to determine that they are in safe operating condition. Parts subject to wear, such as wire ropes, bearings, gears, and governors shall be inspected and/or tested to determine that they have not worn to such an extent as to affect the safe operation of the installation.


(iii) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each inspection and test required under paragraphs (g)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section. The certification record shall include the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and the number, or other identifier, of the building support structure and equipment which was inspected. This certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary’s representative and by the employer.


(iv) Working platforms and their components shall be inspected by the employer for visible defects before every use and after each occurrence which could affect the platform’s structural integrity.


(3) Maintenance inspections and tests. (i) A maintenance inspection and, where necessary, a test shall be made of each platform installation every 30 days, or where the work cycle is less than 30 days such inspection and/or test shall be made prior to each work cycle. This inspection and test shall follow procedures recommended by the manufacturer, and shall be made by a competent person.


(ii) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each inspection and test performed under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section. The certification record shall include the date of the inspection and test, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and/or test, and an identifier for the platform installation which was inspected. The certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary’s representative and by the employer.


(4) Special inspection of governors and secondary brakes. (i) Governors and secondary brakes shall be inspected and tested at intervals specified by the manufacturer/supplier but not to exceed every 12 months.


(ii) The results of the inspection and test shall confirm that the initiating device for the secondary braking system operates at the proper overspeed.


(iii) The results of the inspection and test shall confirm that the secondary brake is functioning properly.


(iv) If any hoisting machine or initiating device for the secondary brake system is removed from the equipment for testing, all reinstalled and directly related components shall be reinspected prior to returning the equipment installation to service.


(v) Inspection of governors and secondary brakes shall be performed by a competent person.


(vi) The secondary brake governor and actuation device shall be tested before each day’s use. Where testing is not feasible, a visual inspection of the brake shall be made instead to ensure that it is free to operate.


(5) Suspension wire rope maintenance, inspection and replacement. (i) Suspension wire rope shall be maintained and used in accordance with procedures recommended by the wire rope manufacturer.


(ii) Suspension wire rope shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects and gross damage to the rope before every use and after each occurrence which might affect the wire rope’s integrity.


(iii) A thorough inspection of suspension wire ropes in service shall be made once a month. Suspension wire ropes that have been inactive for 30 days or longer shall have a thorough inspection before they are placed into service. These thorough inspections of suspension wire ropes shall be performed by a competent person.


(iv) The need for replacement of a suspension wire rope shall be determined by inspection and shall be based on the condition of the wire rope. Any of the following conditions or combination of conditions will be cause for removal of the wire rope:


(A) Broken wires exceeding three wires in one strand or six wires in one rope lay;


(B) Distortion of rope structure such as would result from crushing or kinking;


(C) Evidence of heat damage;


(D) Evidence of rope deterioration from corrosion;


(E) A broken wire within 18 inches (460.8 mm) of the end attachments;


(F) Noticeable rusting and pitting;


(G) Evidence of core failure (a lengthening of rope lay, protrusion of the rope core and a reduction in rope diameter suggests core failure); or


(H) More than one valley break (broken wire).


(I) Outer wire wear exceeds one-third of the original outer wire diameter.


(J) Any other condition which the competent person determines has significantly affected the integrity of the rope.


(v) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each monthly inspection of a suspension wire rope as required in paragraph (g)(5)(iii) of this section. The record shall include the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and a number, or other identifier, of the wire rope which was inspected. This record of inspection shall be made available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary’s representative and by the employer.


(6) Hoist inspection. Before lowering personnel below the top elevation of the building, the hoist shall be tested each day in the lifting direction with the intended load to make certain it has sufficient capacity to raise the personnel back to the boarding level.


(h) Maintenance – (1) General maintenance. All parts of the equipment affecting safe operation shall be maintained in proper working order so that they may perform the functions for which they were intended. The equipment shall be taken out of service when it is not in proper working order.


(2) Cleaning. (i) Control or power contactors and relays shall be kept clean.


(ii) All other parts shall be kept clean if their proper functioning would be affected by the presence of dirt or other contaminants.


(3) Periodic resocketing of wire rope fastenings. (i) Hoisting ropes utilizing poured socket fastenings shall be resocketed at the non-drum ends at intervals not exceeding 24 months. In resocketing the ropes, a sufficient length shall be cut from the end of the rope to remove damaged or fatigued portions.


(ii) Resocketed ropes shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (f)(7) of this section.


(iii) Limit switches affected by the resocketed ropes shall be reset, if necessary.


(4) Periodic reshackling of suspension wire ropes. The hoisting ropes shall be reshackled at the nondrum ends at intervals not exceeding 24 months. When reshackling the ropes, a sufficient length shall be cut from the end of the rope to remove damaged or fatigued portions.


(5) Roof systems. Roof track systems, tie-downs, or similar equipment shall be maintained in proper working order so that they perform the function for which they were intended.


(6) Building face guiding members. T-rails, indented mullions, or equivalent guides located in the face of a building shall be maintained in proper working order so that they perform the functions for which they were intended. Brackets for cable stabilizers shall similarly be maintained in proper working order.


(7) Inoperative safety devices. No person shall render a required safety device or electrical protective device inoperative, except as necessary for tests, inspections, and maintenance. Immediately upon completion of such tests, inspections and maintenance, the device shall be restored to its normal operating condition.


(i) Operations – (1) Training. (i) Working platforms shall be operated only by persons who are proficient in the operation, safe use and inspection of the particular working platform to be operated.


(ii) All employees who operate working platforms shall be trained in the following:


(A) Recognition of, and preventive measures for, the safety hazards associated with their individual work tasks.


(B) General recognition and prevention of safety hazards associated with the use of working platforms, including the provisions in the section relating to the particular working platform to be operated.


(C) Emergency action plan procedures required in paragraph (e)(9) of this section.


(D) Work procedures required in paragraph (i)(1)(iv) of this section.


(E) Personal fall arrest system inspection, care, use and system performance.


(iii) Training of employees in the operation and inspection of working platforms shall be done by a competent person.


(iv) Written work procedures for the operation, safe use and inspection of working platforms shall be provided for employee training. Pictorial methods of instruction, may be used, in lieu of written work procedures, if employee communication is improved using this method. The operating manuals supplied by manufacturers for platform system components can serve as the basis for these procedures.


(v) The employer shall certify that employees have been trained in operating and inspecting a working platform by preparing a certification record which includes the identity of the person trained, the signature of the employer or the person who conducted the training and the date that training was completed. The certification record shall be prepared at the completion of the training required in paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, and shall be maintained in a file for the duration of the employee’s employment. The certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary’s representative.


(2) Use. (i) Working platforms shall not be loaded in excess of the rated load, as stated on the platform load rating plate.


(ii) Employees shall be prohibited from working on snow, ice, or other slippery material covering platforms, except for the removal of such materials.


(iii) Adequate precautions shall be taken to protect the platform, wire ropes and life lines from damage due to acids or other corrosive substances, in accordance with the recommendations of the corrosive substance producer, supplier, platform manufacturer or other equivalent information sources. Platform members which have been exposed to acids or other corrosive substances shall be washed down with a neutralizing solution, at a frequency recommended by the corrosive substance producer or supplier.


(iv) Platform members, wire ropes and life lines shall be protected when using a heat producing process. Wire ropes and life lines which have been contacted by the heat producing process shall be considered to be permanently damaged and shall not be used.


(v) The platform shall not be operated in winds in excess of 25 miles per hour (40.2 km/hr) except to move it from an operating to a storage position. Wind speed shall be determined based on the best available information, which includes on-site anemometer readings and local weather forecasts which predict wind velocities for the area.


(vi) On exterior installations, an anemometer shall be mounted on the platform to provide information of on-site wind velocities prior to and during the use of the platform. The anemometer may be a portable (hand held) unit which is temporarily mounted during platform use.


(vii) Tools, materials and debris not related to the work in progress shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms. Stabilizer ties shall be located so as to allow unencumbered passage along the full length of the platform and shall be of such length so as not to become entangled in rollers, hoists or other machinery.


(j) Personal fall protection. Employees on working platforms shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system meeting the requirements of subpart I of this part and as otherwise provided by this standard.



Appendix A to § 1910.66, Guidelines (Advisory)

1. Use of the Appendix. Appendix A provides examples of equipment and methods to assist the employer in meeting the requirements of the indicated provision of the standard. Employers may use other equipment or procedures which conform to the requirements of the standard. This appendix neither adds to nor detracts from the mandatory requirements set forth in § 1910.66.


2. Assurance. Paragraph (c) of the standard requires the building owner to inform the employer in writing that the powered platform installation complies with certain requirements of the standard, since the employer may not have the necessary information to make these determinations. The employer, however, remains responsible for meeting these requirements which have not been set off in paragraph (c)(1).


3. Design Requirements. The design requirements for each installation should be based on the limitations (stresses, deflections, etc.), established by nationally recognized standards as promulgated by the following organizations, or to equivalent standards:


AA – The Aluminum Association, 818 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Washington, DC, 20006

Aluminum Construction Manual

Specifications For Aluminum Structures

Aluminum Standards and Data

AGMA – American Gear Manufacturers Association, 101 North Fort Meyer Dr., Suite 1000, Arlington, VA 22209

AISC – American Institute of Steel Construction, 400 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611

ANSI – American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018

ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017

ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017

ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103

AWS – American Welding Society, Inc., Box 351040, 550 NW. LeJeunne Road, Miami, FL 33126

JIC – Joint Industrial Council, 2139 Wisconsin Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20007

NEMA – National Electric Manufacturers Association, 2101 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20037

4. Tie-in-guides. Indented mullions, T-rails or other equivalent guides are acceptable as tie-in guides in a building face for a continuous stabilization system. Internal guides are embedded in other building members with only the opening exposed (see Figure 1 of appendix B). External guides, however, are installed external to the other building members and so are fully exposed. The minimum opening for tie-in guides is three-quarters of an inch (19 mm), and the minimum inside dimensions are one-inch (25 mm) deep and two inches (50 mm) wide.


Employers should be aware of the hazards associated with tie-in guides in a continuous stabilization system which was not designed properly. For example, joints in these track systems may become extended or discontinuous due to installation or building settlement. If this alignment problem is not corrected, the system could jam when a guide roller or guide shoe strikes a joint and this would cause a hazardous situation for employees. In another instance, faulty design will result in guide rollers being mounted in a line so they will jam in the track at the slightest misalignment.


5. Building anchors (intermittent stabilization system). In the selection of the vertical distance between building anchors, certain factors should be given consideration. These factors include building height and architectural design, platform length and weight, wire rope angulation, and the wind velocities in the building area. Another factor to consider is the material of the building face, since this material may be adversely affected by the building rollers.


External or indented type building anchors are acceptable. Receptacles in the building facade used for the indented type should be kept clear of extraneous materials which will hinder their use. During the inspection of the platform installation, evidence of a failure or abuse of the anchors should be brought to the attention of the employer.


6. Stabilizer tie length. A stabilizer tie should be long enough to provide for the planned angulation of the suspension cables. However, the length of the tie should not be excessive and become a problem by possibly becoming entangled in the building face rollers or parts of the platform machinery.


The attachment length may vary due to material elongation and this should be considered when selecting the material to be used. Consideration should also be given to the use of ties which are easily installed by employees, since this will encourage their use.


7. Intermittent stabilization system. Intermittent stabilization systems may use different equipment, tie-in devices and methods to restrict the horizontal movement of a powered platform with respect to the face of the building. One acceptable method employs corrosion-resistant building anchors secured in the face of the building in vertical rows every third floor or 50 feet (15.3 m), whichever is less. The anchors are spaced horizontally to allow a stabilization attachment (stabilizer tie) for each of the two platform suspension wire ropes. The stabilizer tie consists of two parts. One part is a quick connect-quick disconnect device which utilizes a corrosion-resistant yoke and retainer spring that is designed to fit over the building anchors. The second part of the stabilizer tie is a lanyard which is used to maintain a fixed distance between the suspension wire rope and the face of the building.


In this method, as the suspended powered platform descends past the elevation of each anchor, the descent is halted and each of the platform occupants secures a stabilizer tie between a suspension wire rope and a building anchor. The procedure is repeated as each elevation of a building anchor is reached during the descent of the powered platform.


As the platform ascends, the procedure is reversed; that is, the stabilizer ties are removed as each elevation of a building anchor is reached. The removal of each stabilizer tie is assured since the platform is provided with stopping devices which will interrupt power to its hoist(s) in the event either stopping device contacts a stabilizer during the ascent of the platform.


Figure 2 of appendix B illustrates another type of acceptable intermittent stabilization system which utilizes retaining pins as the quick connect-quick disconnect device in the stabilizer tie.


8. Wire Rope Inspection. The inspection of the suspension wire rope is important since the rope gradually loses strength during its useful life. The purpose of the inspection is to determine whether the wire rope has sufficient integrity to support a platform with the required design factor.


If there is any doubt concerning the condition of a wire rope or its ability to perform the required work, the rope should be replaced. The cost of wire rope replacement is quite small if compared to the cost in terms of human injuries, equipment down time and replacement.


No listing of critical inspection factors, which serve as a basis for wire rope replacement in the standard, can be a substitute for an experienced inspector of wire rope. The listing serves as a user’s guide to the accepted standards by which ropes must be judged.


Rope life can be prolonged if preventive maintenance is performed regularly. Cutting off an appropriate length of rope at the end termination before the core degrades and valley breaks appear minimizes degradation at these sections.


9. General Maintenance. In meeting the general maintenance requirement in paragraph (h)(1) of the standard, the employer should undertake the prompt replacement of broken, worn and damaged parts, switch contacts, brushes, and short flexible conductors of electrical devices. The components of the electrical service system and traveling cables should be replaced when damaged or significantly abraded. In addition, gears, shafts, bearings, brakes and hoisting drums should be kept in proper alignment.


10. Training. In meeting the training requirement of paragraph (i)(1) of the standard, employers should use both on the job training and formal classroom training. The written work procedures used for this training should be obtained from the manufacturer, if possible, or prepared as necessary for the employee’s information and use.


Employees who will operate powered platforms with intermittent stabilization systems should receive instruction in the specific ascent and descent procedures involving the assembly and disassembly of the stabilizer ties.


An acceptable training program should also include employee instruction in basic inspection procedures for the purpose of determining the need for repair and replacement of platform equipment. In addition, the program should cover the inspection, care and use of the personal fall protection equipment required in paragraph (j)(1) of the standard.


In addition, the training program should also include emergency action plan elements. OSHA brochure #1B3088 (Rev.) 1985, “How to Prepare for Workplace Emergencies,” details the basic steps needed to prepare to handle emergencies in the workplace.


Following the completion of a training program, the employee should be required to demonstrate competency in operating the equipment safely. Supplemental training of the employee should be provided by the employer, as necessary, if the equipment used or other working conditions should change.


An employee who is required to work with chemical products on a platform should receive training in proper cleaning procedures, and in the hazards, care and handling of these products. In addition, the employee should be supplied with the appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves and eye and face protection.


11. Suspension and Securing of Powered Platforms (Equivalency). One acceptable method of demonstrating the equivalency of a method of suspending or securing a powered platform, as required in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii), (f)(3) and (f)(5)(i)(F), is to provide an engineering analysis by a registered professional engineer. The analysis should demonstrate that the proposed method will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than any one of the methods specified in the standard.



Appendix B to § 1910.66 – Exhibits (Advisory)

The three drawings in appendix B illustrate typical platform stabilization systems which are addressed in the standard. The drawings are to be used for reference purposes only, and do not illustrate all the mandatory requirements for each system.






Appendix C to § 1910.66 [Reserved]


Appendix D to § 1910.66 – Existing Installations (Mandatory)

Use of the Appendix

Appendix D sets out the mandatory building and equipment requirements for applicable permanent installations completed after August 27, 1971, and no later than July 23, 1990 which are exempt from the paragraphs (a), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this standard. The requirements in appendix D are essentially the same as unrevised building and equipment provisions which previously were designated as 29 CFR 1910.66 (a), (b), (c) and (d) and which were effective on August 27, 1971.



Note:

All existing installations subject to this appendix shall also comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) and appendix C of the standard 29 CFR 1910.66.


(a) Definitions applicable to this appendix – (1) Angulated roping. A system of platform suspension in which the upper wire rope sheaves or suspension points are closer to the plane of the building face than the corresponding attachment points on the platform, thus causing the platform to press against the face of the building during its vertical travel.


(2) ANSI. American National Standards Institute.


(3) Babbitted fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the ends of the wire strands are bent back and are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten babbitt metal.


(4) Brake – disc type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by frictional resistance between one or more faces of discs keyed to the rotating member to be held and fixed discs keyed to the stationary or housing member (pressure between the discs being applied axially).


(5) Brake – self-energizing band type. An essentially undirectional brake in which the holding effect is obtained by the snubbing action of a flexible band wrapped about a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held, the connections and linkages being so arranged that the motion of the brake wheel or drum will act to increase the tension or holding force of the band.


(6) Brake – shoe type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by applying the direct pressure of two or more segmental friction elements held to a stationary member against a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held.


(7) Building face rollers. A specialized form of guide roller designed to contact a portion of the outer face or wall structure of the building, and to assist in stabilizing the operators’ platform during vertical travel.


(8) Continuous pressure. Operation by means of buttons or switches, any one of which may be used to control the movement of the working platform or roof car, only as long as the button or switch is manually maintained in the actuating position.


(9) Control. A system governing starting, stopping, direction, acceleration, speed, and retardation of moving members.


(10) Controller. A device or group of devices, usually contained in a single enclosure, which serves to control in some predetermined manner the apparatus to which it is connected.


(11) Electrical ground. A conducting connection between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or some conducting body which serves in place of the earth.


(12) Guide roller. A rotating, bearing-mounted, generally cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide shoe assembly, attached to the platform, and providing rolling contact with building guideways, or other building contact members.


(13) Guide shoe. An assembly of rollers, slide members, or the equivalent, attached as a unit to the operators’ platform, and designed to engage with the building members provided for the vertical guidance of the operators’ platform.


(14) Interlock. A device actuated by the operation of some other device with which it is directly associated, to govern succeeding operations of the same or allied devices.


(15) Operating device. A pushbutton, lever, or other manual device used to actuate a control.


(16) Powered platform. Equipment to provide access to the exterior of a building for maintenance, consisting of a suspended power-operated working platform, a roof car, or other suspension means, and the requisite operating and control devices.


(17) Rated load. The combined weight of employees, tools, equipment, and other material which the working platform is designed and installed to lift.


(18) Relay, direction. An electrically energized contactor responsive to an initiating control circuit, which in turn causes a moving member to travel in a particular direction.


(19) Relay, potential for vertical travel. An electrically energized contactor responsive to initiating control circuit, which in turn controls the operation of a moving member in both directions. This relay usually operates in conjunction with direction relays, as covered under the definition, “relay, direction.”


(20) Roof car. A structure for the suspension of a working platform, providing for its horizontal movement to working positions.


(21) Roof-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on a roof car.


(22) Self-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on the working platform.


(23) Traveling cable. A cable made up of electrical or communication conductors or both, and providing electrical connection between the working platform and the roof car or other fixed point.


(24) Weatherproof. Equipment so constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with its proper operation.


(25) Working platform. The suspended structure arranged for vertical travel which provides access to the exterior of the building or structure.


(26) Yield point. The stress at which the material exhibits a permanent set of 0.2 percent.


(27) Zinced fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the splayed or fanned wire ends are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten zinc.


(b) General requirements. (1) Design requirements. All powered platform installations for exterior building maintenance completed as of August 27, 1971, but no later than [insert date, 180 days after the effective date], shall meet all of the design, construction and installation requirements of part II and III of the “American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance ANSI A120.1-1970” and of this appendix. References shall be made to appropriate parts of ANSI A120.1-1970 for detail specifications for equipment and special installations.


(2) Limitation. The requirements of this appendix apply only to electric powered platforms. It is not the intent of this appendix to prohibit the use of other types of power. Installation of powered platforms using other types of power is permitted, provided such platforms have adequate protective devices for the type of power used, and otherwise provide for reasonable safety of life and limb to users of equipment and to others who may be exposed.


(3) Types of powered platforms. (i) For the purpose of applying this appendix, powered platforms are divided into two basic types, Type F and Type T.


(ii) Powered platforms designated as Type F shall meet all the requirements in part II of ANSI A 120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance. A basic requirement of Type F equipment is that the work platform is suspended by at least four wire ropes and designed so that failure of any one wire rope will not substantially alter the normal position of the working platform. Another basic requirement of Type F equipment is that only one layer of hoisting rope is permitted on winding drums. Type F powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.


(iii) Powered platforms designated as Type T shall meet all the requirements in part III of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance, except for section 28, Safety Belts and Life Lines. A basic requirement of Type T equipment is that the working platform is suspended by at least two wire ropes. Failure of one wire rope would not permit the working platform to fall to the ground, but would upset its normal position. Type T powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.


(iv) The requirements of this section apply to powered platforms with winding drum type hoisting machines. It is not the intent of this section to prohibit powered platforms using other types of hoisting machines such as, but not limited to, traction drum hoisting machines, air powered machines, hydraulic powered machines, and internal combustion machines. Installation of powered platforms with other types of hoisting machines is permitted, provided adequate protective devices are used, and provided reasonable safety of life and limb to users of the equipment and to others who may be exposed is assured.


(v) Both Type F and Type T powered platforms shall comply with the requirements of appendix C of this standard.


(c) Type F powered platforms – (1) Roof car, general. (i) A roof car shall be provided whenever it is necessary to move the working platform horizontally to working or storage positions.


(ii) The maximum rated speed at which a power traversed roof car may be moved in a horizontal direction shall be 50 feet per minute.


(2) Movement and positioning of roof car. (i) Provision shall be made to protect against having the roof car leave the roof or enter roof areas not designed for travel.


(ii) The horizontal motion of the roof cars shall be positively controlled so as to insure proper movement and positioning of the roof car.


(iii) Roof car positioning devices shall be provided to insure that the working platform is placed and retained in proper position for vertical travel and during storage.


(iv) Mechanical stops shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the roof car beyond its normal limits of travel. Such stops shall be capable of withstanding a force equal to 100 percent of the inertial effect of the roof car in motion with traversing power applied.


(v)(a) The operating device of a power-operated roof car for traversing shall be located on the roof car, the working platform, or both, and shall be of the continuous pressure weather-proof electric type. If more than one operating device is provided, they shall be so arranged that traversing is possible only from one operating device at a time.


(b) The operating device shall be so connected that it is not operable until:


(1) The working platform is located at its uppermost position of travel and is not in contact with the building face or fixed vertical guides in the face of the building; and


(2) All protective devices and interlocks are in a position for traversing.


(3) Roof car stability. Roof car stability shall be determined by either paragraph (c)(3) (i) or (ii) of this appendix, whichever is greater.


(i) The roof car shall be continuously stable, considering overturning moment as determined by 125 percent rated load, plus maximum dead load and the prescribed wind loading.


(ii) The roof car and its anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the value. For this calculation, the simultaneous effect of one-half wind load shall be included, and the design stresses shall not exceed those referred to in paragraph (b)(1) of this appendix.


(iii) If the load on the motors is at any time in excess of three times that required for lifting the working platform with its rated load the motor shall stall.


(4) Access to the roof car. Safe access to the roof car and from the roof car to the working platform shall be provided. If the access to the roof car at any point of its travel is not over the roof area or where otherwise necessary for safety, then self-closing, self-locking gates shall be provided. Access to and from roof cars must comply with the requirements of subpart D of this part.


(5) Means for maintenance, repair, and storage. Means shall be provided to run the roof car away from the roof perimeter, where necessary, and to provide a safe area for maintenance, repairs, and storage. Provisions shall be made to secure the machine in the stored position. For stored machines subject to wind forces, see special design and anchorage requirements for “wind forces” in part II, section 10.5.1.1 of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.


(6) General requirements for working platforms. The working platform shall be of girder or truss construction and shall be adequate to support its rated load under any position of loading, and comply with the provisions set forth in section 10 of ANSI A120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.


(7) Load rating plate. Each working platform shall bear a manufacturer’s load rating plate, conspicuously posted; stating the maximum permissible rated load. Load rating plates shall be made of noncorrosive material and shall have letters and figures stamped, etched, or cast on the surface. The minimum height of the letters and figures shall be one-fourth inch.


(8) Minimum size. The working platform shall have a minimum net width of 24 inches.


(9) Guardrails. Working platforms shall be furnished with permanent guard rails not less than 36 inches high, and not more than 42 inches high at the front (building side). At the rear, and on the sides, the rail shall not be less than 42 inches high. An intermediate guardrail shall be provided around the entire platform between the top guardrail and the toeboard.


(10) Toeboards. A four-inch toeboard shall be provided along all sides of the working platform.


(11) Open spaces between guardrails and toeboards. The spaces between the intermediate guardrail and platform toeboard on the building side of the working platform, and between the top guardrail and the toeboard on other sides of the platform, shall be filled with metalic mesh or similar material that will reject a ball one inch in diameter. The installed mesh shall be capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds applied horizontally over any area of 144 square inches. If the space between the platform and the building face does not exceed eight inches, and the platform is restrained by guides, the mesh may be omitted on the front side.


(12) Flooring. The platform flooring shall be of the nonskid type, and if of open construction, shall reject a
9/16-inch diameter ball, or be provided with a screen below the floor to reject a
9/16-inch diameter ball.


(13) Access gates. Where access gates are provided, they shall be self-closing and self-locking.


(14) Operating device for vertical movement of the working platform. (i) The normal operating device for the working platform shall be located on the working platform and shall be of the continuous pressure weatherproof electric type.


(ii) The operating device shall be operable only when all electrical protective devices and interlocks on the working platform are in position for normal service and, the roof car, if provided, is at an established operating point.


(15) Emergency electric operative device. (i) In addition, on roof-powered platforms, an emergency electric operating device shall be provided near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device for the working platform, or failure of the traveling cable system. The emergency operating device shall be mounted in a locked compartment and shall have a legend mounted thereon reading: “For Emergency Operation Only. Establish Communication With Personnel on Working Platform Before Use.”


(ii) A key for unlocking the compartment housing the emergency operating device shall be mounted in a break-glass receptacle located near the emergency operating device.


(16) Manual cranking for emergency operation. Emergency operation of the main drive machine may be provided to allow manual cranking. This provision for manual operation shall be designed so that not more than two persons will be required to perform this operation. The access to this provision shall include a means to automatically make the machine inoperative electrically while under the emergency manual operation. The design shall be such that the emergency brake is operative at or below governor tripping speed during manual operation.


(17) Arrangement and guarding of hoisting equipment. (i) Hoisting equipment shall consist of a power-driven drum or drum contained in the roof car (roof-powered platforms) or contained on the working platform (self-powered platform).


(ii) The hoisting equipment shall be power-operated in both up and down directions.


(iii) Guard or other protective devices shall be installed wherever rotating shafts or other mechanisms or gears may expose personnel to a hazard.


(iv) Friction devices or clutches shall not be used for connecting the main driving mechanism to the drum or drums. Belt or chain-driven machines are prohibited.


(18) Hoisting motors. (i) Hoisting motors shall be electric and of weather-proof construction.


(ii) Hoisting motors shall be in conformance with applicable provisions of paragraph (c)(22) of this appendix, Electric Wiring and Equipment.


(iii) Hoisting motors shall be directly connected to the hoisting machinery. Motor couplings, if used, shall be of steel construction.


(19) Brakes. The hoisting machine(s) shall have two independent braking means, each designed to stop and hold the working platform with 125 percent of rated load.


(20) Hoisting ropes and rope connections. (i) Working platforms shall be suspended by wire ropes of either 6 × 19 or 6 × 37 classification, preformed or nonpreformed.


(ii) [Reserved]


(iii) The minimum factor of safety shall be 10, and shall be calculated by the following formula:


F = S × N/W

Where

S = Manufacturer’s rated breaking strength of one rope.

N = Number of ropes under load.

W = Maximum static load on all ropes with the platform and its rated load at any point of its travel.

(iv) Hoisting ropes shall be sized to conform with the required factor of safety, but in no case shall the size be less than
5/16 inch diameter.


(v) Winding drums shall have at least three turns of rope remaining when the platform has landed at the lowest possible point of its travel.


(vi) The lengthening or repairing of wire rope by the joining of two or more lengths is prohibited.


(vii) The nondrum ends of the hoisting ropes shall be provided with individual shackle rods which will permit individual adjustment of rope lengths, if required.


(viii) More than two reverse bends in each rope is prohibited.


(21) Rope tag data. (i) A metal data tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings. This data tag shall bear the following wire rope data:


(a) The diameter in inches.


(b) Construction classification.


(c) Whether nonpreformed or preformed.


(d) The grade of material used.


(e) The manufacturer’s rated breaking strength.


(f) Name of the manufacturer of the rope.


(g) The month and year the ropes were installed.


(22) Electrical wiring and equipment. (i) All electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to the requirements of subpart S of this Part, except as modified by ANSI A120.1 – 1970 “American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance” (see § 1910.6). For detail design specifications for electrical equipment, see part 2, ANSI A120.1-1970.


(ii) All motors and operation and control equipment shall be supplied from a single power source.


(iii) The power supply for the powered platform shall be an independent circuit supplied through a fused disconnect switch.


(iv) Electrical conductor parts of the power supply system shall be protected against accidental contact.


(v) Electrical grounding shall be provided.


(a) Provisions for electrical grounding shall be included with the power-supply system.


(b) Controller cabinets, motor frames, hoisting machines, the working platform, roof car and roof car track system, and noncurrent carrying parts of electrical equipment, where provided, shall be grounded.


(c) The controller, where used, shall be so designed and installed that a single ground or short circuit will not prevent both the normal and final stopping device from stopping the working platform.


(d) Means shall be provided on the roof car and working platform for grounding portable electric tools.


(e) The working platform shall be grounded through a grounding connection in a traveling cable. Electrically powered tools utilized on the working platform shall be grounded.


(vi) Electrical receptacles located on the roof or other exterior location shall be of a weatherproof type and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The receptacles shall be grounded and the electric cable shall include a grounding conductor. The receptacle and plug shall be a type designed to avoid hazard to persons inserting or withdrawing the plug. Provision shall be made to prevent application of cable strain directly to the plug and receptacle.


(vii) Electric runway conductor systems shall be of the type designed for use in exterior locations and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The conductors, collectors, and disconnecting means shall conform to the same requirements as those for cranes and hoists in subpart S of this Part. A grounded conductor shall parallel the power conductors and be so connected that it cannot be opened by the disconnecting means. The system shall be designed to avoid hazard to persons in the area.


(viii) Electrical protective devices and interlocks of the weatherproof type shall be provided.


(ix) Where the installation includes a roof car, electric contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the working platform shall be operative only when the roof car is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.


(x) Where the powered platform includes a powered-operated roof car, the operating device for the roof car shall be inoperative when the roof car is mechanically retained at an established operating point.


(xi) An electric contact shall be provided and so connected that it will cause the down direction relay for vertical travel to open if the tension in the traveling cable exceeds safe limits.


(xii) An automatic overload device shall be provided to cut off the electrical power to the circuit in all hoisting motors for travel in the up direction, should the load applied to the hoisting ropes at either end of the working platform exceed 125 percent of its normal tension with rated load, as shown on the manufacturer’s data plate on the working platform.


(xiii) An automatic device shall be provided for each hoisting rope which will cut off the electrical power to the hoisting motor or motors in the down direction and apply the brakes if any hoisting rope becomes slack.


(xiv) Upper and lower directional limit devices shall be provided to prevent the travel of the working platform beyond the normal upper and lower limits of travel.


(xv) Operation of a directional limit device shall prevent further motion in the appropriate direction, if the normal limit of travel has been reached.


(xvi) Directional limit devices, if driven from the hoisting machine by chains, tapes, or cables, shall incorporate a device to disconnect the electric power from the hoisting machine and apply both the primary and secondary brakes in the event of failure of the driving means.


(xvii) Final terminal stopping devices of the working platform:


(a) Final terminal stopping devices for the working platform shall be provided as a secondary means of preventing the working platform from over-traveling at the terminals.


(b) The device shall be set to function as close to each terminal landing as practical, but in such a way that under normal operating conditions it will not function when the working platform is stopped by the normal terminal stopping device.


(c) Operation of the final terminal stopping device shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine, and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.


(d) The final terminal stopping device for the upper limit of travel shall be mounted so that it is operated directly by the motion of the working platform itself.


(xviii) Emergency stop switches shall be provided in or adjacent to each operating device.


(xix) Emergency stop switches shall:


(a) Have red operating buttons or handles.


(b) Be conspicuously and permanently marked “Stop.”


(c) Be the manually opened and manually closed type.


(d) Be positively opened with the opening not solely dependent on springs.


(xx) The manual operation of an emergency stop switch associated with an operating device for the working platform shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.


(xxi) The manual operation of the emergency stop switch associated with the operating device for a power-driven roof car shall cause the electrical power to the traverse machine to be interrupted, and the traverse machine brake to apply.


(23) Requirements for emergency communications. (i) Communication equipment shall be provided for each powered platform for use in an emergency.


(ii) Two-way communication shall be established between personnel on the roof and personnel on the stalled working platform before any emergency operation of the working platform is undertaken by personnel on the roof.


(iii) The equipment shall permit two-way voice communication between the working platform and


(a) Designated personnel continuously available while the powered platform is in use; and


(b) Designated personnel on roof-powered platforms, undertaking emergency operation of the working platform by means of the emergency operating device located near the hoisting machine.


(iv) The emergency communication equipment shall be one of the following types:


(a) Telephone connected to the central telephone exchange system; or


(b) Telephones on a limited system or an approved two-way radio system, provided designated personnel are available to receive a message during the time the powered platform is in use.


(d) Type T powered platforms – (1) Roof car. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(5) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.


(2) Working platform. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(6) through (c)(16) of this appendix apply to Type T powered platforms.


(i) The working platform shall be suspended by at least two wire ropes.


(ii) The maximum rated speed at which the working platform of self-powered platforms may be moved in a vertical direction shall not exceed 35 feet per minute.


(3) Hoisting equipment. The requirements of paragraphs (c) (17) and (18) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.


(4) Brakes. Brakes requirements of paragraph (c)(19) of this appendix shall apply.


(5) Hoisting ropes and rope connections. (i) Paragraphs (c)(20) (i) through (vi) and (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.


(ii) Adjustable shackle rods in subparagraph (c)(20)(vii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms, if the working platform is suspended by more than two wire ropes.


(6) Electrical wiring and equipment. (i) The requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (vi) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. “Circuit protection limitation,” “powered platform electrical service system,” all operating services and control equipment shall comply with the specifications contained in part 2, section 26, ANSI A120.1-1970.


(ii) For electrical protective devices the requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. Requirements for the “circuit potential limitation” shall be in accordance with specifications contained in part 2, section 26, of ANSI A120.1-1970.


(7) Emergency communications. All the requirements of paragraph (c)(23) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.


[54 FR 31456, July 28, 1989, as amended at 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 72 FR 7190, Feb. 14, 2007; 81 FR 82998, Nov. 18, 2016]


§ 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

(a) Definitions applicable to this section – (1) Aerial device. Any vehicle – mounted device, telescoping or articulating, or both, which is used to position personnel.


(2) Aerial ladder. An aerial device consisting of a single- or multiple-section extensible ladder.


(3) Articulating boom platform. An aerial device with two or more hinged boom sections.


(4) Extensible boom platform. An aerial device (except ladders) with a telescopic or extensible boom. Telescopic derricks with personnel platform attachments shall be considered to be extensible boom platforms when used with a personnel platform.


(5) Insulated aerial device. An aerial device designed for work on energized lines and apparatus.


(6) Mobile unit. A combination of an aerial device, its vehicle, and related equipment.


(7) Platform. Any personnel-carrying device (basket or bucket) which is a component of an aerial device.


(8) Vehicle. Any carrier that is not manually propelled.


(9) Vertical tower. An aerial device designed to elevate a platform in a substantially vertical axis.


(b) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided in this section, aerial devices (aerial lifts) acquired on or after July 1, 1975, shall be designed and constructed in conformance with the applicable requirements of the American National Standard for “Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms,” ANSI A92.2 – 1969, including appendix, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6. Aerial lifts acquired for use before July 1, 1975 which do not meet the requirements of ANSI A92.2 – 1969, may not be used after July 1, 1976, unless they shall have been modified so as to conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A92.2 – 1969. Aerial devices include the following types of vehicle-mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel to jobsites above ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms, (ii) aerial ladders, (iii) articulating boom platforms, (iv) vertical towers, and (v) a combination of any of the above. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or other material; may be powered or manually operated; and are deemed to be aerial lifts whether or not they are capable of rotating about a substantially vertical axis.


(2) Aerial lifts may be “field modified” for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer, provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformity with all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.2 – 1969 and this section, and to be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification.


(3) The requirements of this section do not apply to firefighting equipment or to the vehicles upon which aerial devices are mounted, except with respect to the requirement that a vehicle be a stable support for the aerial device.


(4) For operations near overhead electric lines, see § 1910.333(c)(3).


(c) Specific requirements – (1) Ladder trucks and tower trucks. Before the truck is moved for highway travel, aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device above the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder, or by other equally effective means (e.g., cradles which prevent rotation of the ladder in combination with positive acting linear actuators).


(2) Extensible and articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition.


(ii) Only trained persons shall operate an aerial lift.


(iii) Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted.


(iv) Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.


(v) A personal fall arrest or travel restraint system that meets the requirements in subpart I of this part shall be worn and attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift.


(vi) Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded.


(vii) The brakes shall be set and outriggers, when used, shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline.


(viii) An aerial lift truck may not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except for equipment which is specifically designed for this type of operation in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.


(ix) Articulating boom and extensible boom platforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shall be in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the upper controls. Controls shall be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency.


(x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial lift.


(xi) The insulated portion of an aerial lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value.


(xii) Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(viii) of this section.


(3) Electrical tests. Electrical tests shall be made in conformance with the requirements of ANSI A92.2 – 1969, Section 5. However, equivalent DC voltage tests may be used in lieu of the AC voltage test specified in A92.2 – 1969. DC voltage tests which are approved by the equipment manufacturer or equivalent entity shall be considered an equivalent test for the purpose of this paragraph (c)(3).


(4) Bursting safety factor. All critical hydraulic and pneumatic components shall comply with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute standard, ANSI A92.2 – 1969, Section 4.9 Bursting Safety Factor. Critical components are those in which a failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom. All noncritical components shall have a bursting safety factor of at least two to one.


(5) “Welding standards.” All welding shall conform to the following American Welding Society (AWS) Standards which are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, as applicable:


(i) Standard Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0 – 41.


(ii) Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS D8.4-61.


(iii) Standard Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders for Piping and Tubing, AWS D10.9-69.


(iv) Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, AWS D2.0-69.


[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 13439, Mar. 26, 1975; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 79 FR 37190, July 1, 2014; 81 FR 82999, Nov. 18, 2016]


§ 1910.68 Manlifts.

(a) Definitions applicable to this section – (1) Handhold (Handgrip). A handhold is a device attached to the belt which can be grasped by the passenger to provide a means of maintaining balance.


(2) Open type. One which has a handgrip surface fully exposed and capable of being encircled by the passenger’s fingers.


(3) Closed type. A cup-shaped device, open at the top in the direction of travel of the step for which it is to be used, and closed at the bottom, into which the passenger may place his fingers.


(4) Limit switch. A device, the purpose of which is to cut off the power to the motor and apply the brake to stop the carrier in the event that a loaded step passes the terminal landing.


(5) Manlift. A device consisting of a power-driven endless belt moving in one direction only, and provided with steps or platforms and handholds attached to it for the transportation of personnel from floor to floor.


(6) Rated speed. Rated speed is the speed for which the device is designed and installed.


(7) Split-rail switch. An electric limit switch operated mechanically by the rollers on the manlift steps. It consists of an additional hinged or “split” rail, mounted on the regular guide rail, over which the step rollers pass. It is springloaded in the “split” position. If the step supports no load, the rollers will “bump” over the switch; if a loaded step should pass over the section, the split rail will be forced straight, tripping the switch and opening the electrical circuit.


(8) Step (platform). A step is a passenger carrying unit.


(9) Travel. The travel is the distance between the centers of the top and bottom pulleys.


(b) General requirements – (1) Application. This section applies to the construction, maintenance, inspection, and operation of manlifts in relation to accident hazards. Manlifts covered by this section consist of platforms or brackets and accompanying handholds mounted on, or attached to an endless belt, operating vertically in one direction only and being supported by, and driven through pulleys, at the top and bottom. These manlifts are intended for conveyance of persons only. It is not intended that this section cover moving stairways, elevators with enclosed platforms (“Paternoster” elevators), gravity lifts, nor conveyors used only for conveying material. This section applies to manlifts used to carry only personnel trained and authorized by the employer in their use.


(2) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to provide reasonable safety for life and limb.


(3) Design requirements. All new manlift installations and equipment installed after the effective date of these regulations shall meet the design requirements of the “American National Safety Standard for Manlifts ANSI A90.1-1969”, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, and the requirements of this section.


(4) Reference to other codes and subparts. The following codes and subparts of this part are applicable to this section: Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, ANSI B15.1-1953 (R 1958); Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956; and subparts D, O, and S. The preceding ANSI standards are incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.


(5) Floor openings – (i) Allowable size. Floor openings for both the “up” and “down” runs shall be not less than 28 inches nor more than 36 inches in width for a 12-inch belt; not less than 34 inches nor more than 38 inches for a 14-inch belt; and not less than 36 inches nor more than 40 inches for a 16-inch belt and shall extend not less than 24 inches, nor more than 28 inches from the face of the belt.


(ii) Uniformity. All floor openings for a given manlift shall be uniform in size and shall be approximately circular, and each shall be located vertically above the opening below it.


(6) Landing – (i) Vertical clearance. The clearanace between the floor or mounting platform and the lower edge for the conical guard above it required by subparagraph (7) of this paragraph shall not be less than 7 feet 6 inches. Where this clearance cannot be obtained no access to the manlift shall be provided and the manlift runway shall be enclosed where it passes through such floor.


(ii) Clear landing space. The landing space adjacent to the floor openings shall be free from obstruction and kept clear at all times. This landing space shall be at least 2 feet in width from the edge of the floor opening used for mounting and dismounting.


(iii) Lighting and landing. Adequate lighting, not less than 5-foot candles, shall be provided at each floor landing at all times when the lift is in operation.


(iv) Landing surface. The landing surfaces at the entrances and exits to the manlift shall be constructed and maintained as to provide safe footing at all times.


(v) Emergency landings. Where there is a travel of 50 feet or more between floor landings, one or more emergency landings shall be provided so that there will be a landing (either floor or emergency) for every 25 feet or less of manlift travel.


(a) Emergency landings shall be accessible from both the “up” and “down” rungs of the manlift and shall give access to the ladder required in subparagraph (12) of this paragraph.


(b) Emergency landings shall be completely enclosed with a standard railing and toeboard.


(c) Platforms constructed to give access to bucket elevators or other equipment for the purpose of inspection, lubrication, and repair may also serve as emergency landings under this rule. All such platforms will then be considered part of the emergency landing and shall be provided with standard railings and toeboards.


(7) Guards on underside of floor openings – (i) Fixed type. On the ascending side of the manlift floor openings shall be provided with a bevel guard or cone meeting the following requirements:


(a) The cone shall make an angle of not less than 45° with the horizontal. An angle of 60° or greater shall be used where ceiling heights permit.


(b) The lower edge of this guard shall extend at least 42 inches outward from any handhold on the belt. It shall not extend beyond the upper surface of the floor above.


(c) The cone shall be made of not less than No. 18 U.S. gauge sheet steel or material of equivalent strength or stiffness. The lower edge shall be rolled to a minimum diameter of one-half inch and the interior shall be smooth with no rivets, bolts or screws protruding.


(ii) Floating type. In lieu of the fixed guards specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph a floating type safety cone may be used, such floating cones to be mounted on hinges at least 6 inches below the underside of the floor and so constructed as to actuate a limit switch should a force of 2 pounds be applied on the edge of the cone closest to the hinge. The depth of this floating cone need not exceed 12 inches.


(8) Protection of entrances and exits – (i) Guard rail requirement. The entrances and exits at all floor landings affording access to the manlift shall be guarded by a maze (staggered railing) or a handrail equipped with self-closing gates.


(ii) Construction. The rails shall be standard guardrails with toeboards that meet the requirements in subpart D of this part.


(iii) Gates. Gates, if used, shall open outward and shall be self-closing. Corners of gates shall be rounded.


(iv) Maze. Maze or staggered openings shall offer no direct passage between enclosure and outer floor space.


(v) Except where building layout prevents, entrances at all landings shall be in the same relative position.


(9) Guards for openings – (i) Construction. The floor opening at each landing shall be guarded on sides not used for entrance or exit by a wall, a railing and toeboard or by panels of wire mesh of suitable strength.


(ii) Height and location. Such rails or guards shall be at least 42 inches in height on the up-running side and 66 inches on the down-running side.


(10) Bottom arrangement – (i) Bottom landing. At the bottom landing the clear area shall be not smaller than the area enclosed by the guardrails on the floors above, and any wall in front of the down-running side of the belt shall be not less than 48 inches from the face of the belt. This space shall not be encroached upon by stairs or ladders.


(ii) Location of lower pulley. The lower (boot) pulley shall be installed so that it is supported by the lowest landing served. The sides of the pulley support shall be guarded to prevent contact with the pulley or the steps.


(iii) Mounting platform. A mounting platform shall be provided in front or to one side of the uprun at the lowest landing, unless the floor level is such that the following requirement can be met: The floor or platform shall be at or above the point at which the upper surface of the ascending step completes its turn and assumes a horizontal position.


(iv) Guardrails. To guard against persons walking under a descending step, the area on the downside of the manlift shall be guarded in accordance with subparagraph (8) of this paragraph. To guard against a person getting between the mounting platform and an ascending step, the area between the belt and the platform shall be protected by a guardrail.


(11) Top arrangements – (i) Clearance from floor. A top clearance shall be provided of at least 11 feet above the top terminal landing. This clearance shall be maintained from a plane through each face of the belt to a vertical cylindrical plane having a diameter 2 feet greater than the diameter of the floor opening, extending upward from the top floor to the ceiling on the up-running side of the belt. No encroachment of structural or machine supporting members within this space will be permitted.


(ii) Pulley clearance. (a) There shall be a clearance of at least 5 feet between the center of the head pulley shaft and any ceiling obstruction.


(b) The center of the head pulley shaft shall be not less than 6 feet above the top terminal landing.


(iii) Emergency grab rail. An emergency grab bar or rail and platform shall be provided at the head pulley when the distance to the head pulley is over 6 feet above the top landing, otherwise only a grab bar or rail is to be provided to permit the rider to swing free should the emergency stops become inoperative.


(12) Emergency exit ladder. A fixed metal ladder accessible from both the “up” and “down” run of the manlift shall be provided for the entire travel of the manlift. Such ladders shall meet the requirements in subpart D of this part.


(13) Superstructure bracing. Manlift rails shall be secured in such a manner as to avoid spreading, vibration, and misalinement.


(14) Illumination – (i) General. Both runs of the manlift shall be illuminated at all times when the lift is in operation. An intensity of not less than 1-foot candle shall be maintained at all points. (However, see subparagraph (6)(iii) of this paragraph for illumination requirements at landings.)


(ii) Control of illumination. Lighting of manlift runways shall be by means of circuits permanently tied in to the building circuits (no switches), or shall be controlled by switches at each landing. Where separate switches are provided at each landing, any switch shall turn on all lights necessary to illuminate the entire runway.


(15) Weather protection. The entire manlift and its driving mechanism shall be protected from the weather at all times.


(c) Mechanical requirements – (1) Machines, general – (i) Brakes. Brakes provided for stopping and holding a manlift shall be inherently self-engaging, by requiring power or force from an external source to cause disengagement. The brake shall be electrically released, and shall be applied to the motor shaft for direct-connected units or to the input shaft for belt-driven units. The brake shall be capable of stopping and holding the manlift when the descending side is loaded with 250 lb on each step.


(ii) Belt. (a) The belts shall be of hard-woven canvas, rubber-coated canvas, leather, or other material meeting the strength requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and having a coefficient of friction such that when used in conjunction with an adequate tension device it will meet the brake test specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.


(b) The width of the belt shall be not less than 12 inches for a travel not exceeding 100 feet, not less than 14 inches for a travel greater than 100 feet but not exceeding 150 feet and 16 inches for a travel exceeding 150 feet.


(c) A belt that has become torn while in use on a manlift shall not be spliced and put back in service.


(2) Speed – (i) Maximum speed. No manlift designed for a speed in excess of 80 feet per minute shall be installed.


(ii) [Reserved]


(3) Platforms or steps – (i) Minimum depth. Steps or platforms shall be not less than 12 inches nor more than 14 inches deep, measured from the belt to the edge of the step or platform.


(ii) Width. The width of the step or platform shall be not less than the width of the belt to which it is attached.


(iii) Distance between steps. The distance between steps shall be equally spaced and not less than 16 feet measured from the upper surface of one step to the upper surface of the next step above it.


(iv) Angle of step. The surface of the step shall make approximately a right angle with the “up” and “down” run of the belt, and shall travel in the approximate horizontal position with the “up” and “down” run of the belt.


(v) Surfaces. The upper or working surfaces of the step shall be of a material having inherent nonslip characteristics (coefficient of friction not less than 0.5) or shall be covered completely by a nonslip tread securely fastened to it.


(vi) Strength of step supports. When subjected to a load of 400 pounds applied at the approximate center of the step, step frames, or supports and their guides shall be of adequate strength to:


(a) Prevent the disengagement of any step roller.


(b) Prevent any appreciable misalinement.


(c) Prevent any visible deformation of the steps or its support.


(vii) Prohibition of steps without handholds. No steps shall be provided unless there is a corresponding handhold above or below it meeting the requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section. If a step is removed for repairs or permanently, the handholds immediately above and below it shall be removed before the lift is again placed in service.


(4) Handholds – (i) Location. Handholds attached to the belt shall be provided and installed so that they are not less than 4 feet nor more than 4 feet 8 inches above the step tread. These shall be so located as to be available on the both “up” and “down” run of the belt.


(ii) Size. The grab surface of the handhold shall be not less than 4
1/2 inches in width, not less than 3 inches in depth, and shall provide 2 inches of clearance from the belt. Fastenings for handholds shall be located not less than 1 inch from the edge of the belt.


(iii) Strength. The handhold shall be capable of withstanding, without damage, a load of 300 pounds applied parallel to the run of the belt.


(iv) Prohibition of handhold without steps. No handhold shall be provided without a corresponding step. If a handhold is removed permanently or temporarily, the corresponding step and handhold for the opposite direction of travel shall also be removed before the lift is again placed in service.


(v) Type. All handholds shall be of the closed type.


(5) Up limit stops – (i) Requirements. Two separate automatic stop devices shall be provided to cut off the power and apply the brake when a loaded step passes the upper terminal landing. One of these shall consist of a split-rail switch mechanically operated by the step roller and located not more than 6 inches above the top terminal landing. The second automatic stop device may consist of any of the following:


(a) Any split-rail switch placed 6 inches above and on the side opposite the first limit switch.


(b) An electronic device.


(c) A switch actuated by a lever, rod, or plate, the latter to be placed on the “up” side of the head pulley so as to just clear a passing step.


(ii) Manual reset location. After the manlift has been stopped by a stop device it shall be necessary to reset the automatic stop manually. The device shall be so located that a person resetting it shall have a clear view of both the “up” and “down” runs of the manlift. It shall not be possible to reset the device from any step or platform.


(iii) Cut-off point. The initial limit stop device shall function so that the manlift will be stopped before the loaded step has reached a point 24 inches above the top terminal landing.


(iv) Electrical requirements. (a) Where such switches open the main motor circuit directly they shall be of the multipole type.


(b) Where electronic devices are used they shall be so designed and installed that failure will result in shutting off the power to the driving motor.


(c) Where flammable vapors or combustible dusts may be present, electrical installations shall be in accordance with the requirements of subpart S of this part for such locations.


(d) Unless of the oil-immersed type controller contacts carrying the main motor current shall be copper to carbon or equal, except where the circuit is broken at two or more points simultaneously.


(6) Emergency stop – (i) General. An emergency stop means shall be provided.


(ii) Location. This stop means shall be within easy reach of the ascending and descending runs of the belt.


(iii) Operation. This stop means shall be so connected with the control lever or operating mechanism that it will cut off the power and apply the brake when pulled in the direction of travel.


(iv) Rope. If rope is used, it shall be not less than three-eights inch in diameter. Wire rope, unless marlin-covered, shall not be used.


(7) Instruction and warning signs – (i) Instruction signs at landings or belts. Signs of conspicuous and easily read style giving instructions for the use of the manlift shall be posted at each landing or stenciled on the belt.


(a) [Reserved]


(b) The instructions shall read approximately as follows:



Face the Belt.

Use the Handholds.

To Stop – Pull Rope.

(ii) Top floor warning sign and light. (a) At the top floor an illuminated sign shall be displayed bearing the following wording:



“TOP FLOOR – GET OFF”

Signs shall be in block letters not less than 2 inches in height. This sign shall be located within easy view of an ascending passenger and not more than 2 feet above the top terminal landing.

(b) In addition to the sign required by paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(a) of this section, a red warning light of not less than 40- watt rating shall be provided immediately below the upper landing terminal and so located as to shine in the passenger’s face.


(iii) Visitor warning. A conspicuous sign having the following legend – AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY – shall be displayed at each landing.


(d) Operating rules – (1) Proper use of manlifts. No freight, packaged goods, pipe, lumber, or construction materials of any kind shall be handled on any manlift.


(2) [Reserved]


(e) Periodic inspection – (1) Frequency. All manlifts shall be inspected by a competent designated person at intervals of not more than 30 days. Limit switches shall be checked weekly. Manlifts found to be unsafe shall not be operated until properly repaired.


(2) Items covered. This periodic inspection shall cover but is not limited to the following items:



Steps.

Step Fastenings.

Rails.

Rail Supports and Fastenings.

Rollers and Slides.

Belt and Belt Tension.

Handholds and Fastenings.

Floor Landings.

Guardrails.

Lubrication.

Limit Switches.

Warning Signs and Lights.

Illumination.

Drive Pulley.

Bottom (boot) Pulley and Clearance.

Pulley Supports.

Motor.

Driving Mechanism.

Brake.

Electrical Switches.

Vibration and Misalignment.

“Skip” on up or down run when mounting step (indicating worn gears).

(3) Inspection record. A certification record shall be kept of each inspection which includes the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the serial number, or other identifier, of the manlift which was inspected. This record of inspection shall be made available to the Assistant Secretary of Labor or a duly authorized representative.


[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 51 FR 34560, Sept. 29, 1986; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 72 FR 71068, Dec. 14, 2007; 81 FR 82999, Nov. 18, 2016]


Subpart G – Occupational Health and Environmental Control


Authority:29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor’s Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 50017), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

§ 1910.94 Ventilation.

(a) Abrasive blasting – (1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph – (i) Abrasive. A solid substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.


(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirator. A respirator constructed so that it covers the wearer’s head, neck, and shoulders to protect the wearer from rebounding abrasive.


(iii) Blast cleaning barrel. A complete enclosure which rotates on an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast spray.


(iv) Blast cleaning room. A complete enclosure in which blasting operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.


(v) Blasting cabinet. An enclosure where the operator stands outside and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.


(vi) Clean air. Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.


(vii) Dust collector. A device or combination of devices for separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.


(viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for removing contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements (a) enclosure or hood, (b) duct work, (c) dust collecting equipment, (d) exhauster, and (e) discharge stack.


(ix) Particulate-filter respirator. An air purifying respirator, commonly referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.


(x) Respirable dust. Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.


(xi) Rotary blast cleaning table. An enclosure where the pieces to be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically through a series of blast sprays.


(xii) Abrasive blasting. The forcible application of an abrasive to a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.


(2) Dust hazards from abrasive blasting. (i) Abrasives and the surface coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized during blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirable size. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources shall be considered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.


(ii) The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing zone of the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept below the levels specified in § 1910.1000.


(iii) Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only in automatic systems. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system and all electric wiring, shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, and subpart S of this part. The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the build up of static charges. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collector shall be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located on sides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case of explosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire Protection Association Explosion Venting Guide, NFPA 68-1954, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.


(3) Blast-cleaning enclosures. (i) Blast-cleaning enclosures shall be exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will be maintained at all openings in the enclosure during the blasting operation.


(a) All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so arranged that by the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive or dust particules into an adjacent work area will be minimized and visible spurts of dust will not be observed.


(b) The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation of blasting.


(c) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off and the exhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to remove the dusty air within the enclosure.


(d) Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observation windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.


(e) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple sets at all small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be inspected regularly and replaced when needed.


(1) Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed.


(2) Doors on blast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside and outside, except that where there is a small operator access door, the large work access door may be closed or opened from the outside only.


(ii) [Reserved]


(4) Exhaust ventilation systems. (i) The construction, installation, inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to the principles and requirements set forth in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.


(a) When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as possible.


(b) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipment shall be checked when the installation is completed and periodically thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. Whenever an appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, the system shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating condition.


(ii) In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaust ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon for the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasive separator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.


(iii) The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be discharged through dust collecting equipment. Dust collectors shall be set up so that the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating other working areas.


(5) Personal protective equipment. (i) Employers must use only respirators approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 CFR part 84 to protect employees from dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.


(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-blasting operators:


(a) When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or


(b) When using silica sand in manual blasting operations where the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or


(c) Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive blasting may exceed the limits set in § 1910.1000 and the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.


(iii) Properly fitted particulate-filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter respirators, may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means. The respirators used must be approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.


(a) Dust-filter respirators may be used to protect the operator of outside abrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materials having low toxicities.


(b) Dust-filter respirators shall not be used for continuous protection where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or toxic materials are blasted.


(iv) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.


(v) Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives. Safety shoes shall be worn to protect against foot injury where heavy pieces of work are handled.


(a) Protective footwear must comply with the requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.136(b)(1).


(b) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face shall be supplied to the operator when the respirator design does not provide such protection and to any other personnel working in the vicinity of abrasive blasting operations. This equipment shall conform to the requirements of § 1910.133.


(6) Air supply and air compressors. Air for abrasive-blasting respirators must be free of harmful quantities of dusts, mists, or noxious gases, and must meet the requirements for supplied-air quality and use specified in 29 CFR 1910.134(i).


(7) Operational procedures and general safety. Dust shall not be permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive-blasting enclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up promptly. Aisles and walkways shall be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create a slipping hazard.


(8) Scope. This paragraph (a) applies to all operations where an abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or by centrifugal force. It does not apply to steam blasting, or steam cleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done without the aid of abrasives.


(b) Grinding, polishing, and buffing operations – (1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph – (i) Abrasive cutting-off wheels. Organic-bonded wheels, the thickness of which is not more than one forty-eighth of their diameter for those up to, and including, 20 inches in diameter, and not more than one-sixtieth of their diameter for those larger than 20 inches in diameter, used for a multitude of operations variously known as cutting, cutting off, grooving, slotting, coping, and jointing, and the like. The wheels may be “solid” consisting of organic-bonded abrasive material throughout, “steel centered” consisting of a steel disc with a rim of organic-bonded material moulded around the periphery, or of the “inserted tooth” type consisting of a steel disc with organic-bonded abrasive teeth or inserts mechanically secured around the periphery.


(ii) Belts. All power-driven, flexible, coated bands used for grinding, polishing, or buffing purposes.


(iii) Branch pipe. The part of an exhaust system piping that is connected directly to the hood or enclosure.


(iv) Cradle. A movable fixture, upon which the part to be ground or polished is placed.


(v) Disc wheels. All power-driven rotatable discs faced with abrasive materials, artificial or natural, and used for grinding or polishing on the side of the assembled disc.


(vi) Entry loss. The loss in static pressure caused by air flowing into a duct or hood. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.


(vii) Exhaust system. A system consisting of branch pipes connected to hoods or enclosures, one or more header pipes, an exhaust fan, means for separating solid contaminants from the air flowing in the system, and a discharge stack to outside.


(viii) Grinding wheels. All power-driven rotatable grinding or abrasive wheels, except disc wheels as defined in this standard, consisting of abrasive particles held together by artificial or natural bonds and used for peripheral grinding.


(ix) Header pipe (main pipe). A pipe into which one or more branch pipes enter and which connects such branch pipes to the remainder of the exhaust system.


(x) Hoods and enclosures. The partial or complete enclosure around the wheel or disc through which air enters an exhaust system during operation.


(xi) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine carrying two power-driven, rotatable, coaxial, horizontal spindles upon the inside ends of which are mounted abrasive disc wheels used for grinding two surfaces simultaneously.


(xii) Horizontal single-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine carrying an abrasive disc wheel upon one or both ends of a power-driven, rotatable single horizontal spindle.


(xiii) Polishing and buffing wheels. All power-driven rotatable wheels composed all or in part of textile fabrics, wood, felt, leather, paper, and may be coated with abrasives on the periphery of the wheel for purposes of polishing, buffing, and light grinding.


(xiv) Portable grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such manner that it may be manually manipulated.


(xv) Scratch brush wheels. All power-driven rotatable wheels made from wire or bristles, and used for scratch cleaning and brushing purposes.


(xvi) Swing-frame grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such a manner that the wheel with its supporting framework can be manipulated over stationary objects.


(xvii) Velocity pressure (vp). The kinetic pressure in the direction of flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.


(xviii) Vertical spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine having a vertical, rotatable power-driven spindle carrying a horizontal abrasive disc wheel.


(2) Application. Wherever dry grinding, dry polishing or buffing is performed, and employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limits prescribed in § 1910.1000 or other sections of this part, a local exhaust ventilation system shall be provided and used to maintain employee exposures within the prescribed limits.


(3) Hood and branch pipe requirements. (i) Hoods connected to exhaust systems shall be used, and such hoods shall be designed, located, and placed so that the dust or dirt particles shall fall or be projected into the hoods in the direction of the air flow. No wheels, discs, straps, or belts shall be operated in such manner and in such direction as to cause the dust and dirt particles to be thrown into the operator’s breathing zone.


(ii) Grinding wheels on floor stands, pedestals, benches, and special-purpose grinding machines and abrasive cutting-off wheels shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volumes shown in Table G-4 with a recommended minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per minute in the branch and 3,500 feet per minute in the main. The entry losses from all hoods except the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 velocity pressure for a straight takeoff and 0.45 velocity pressure for a tapered takeoff. The entry loss for the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood is shown in figure G-1 (following § 1910.94(b)).


Table G-4 – Grinding and Abrasive Cutting-Off Wheels

Wheel diameter (inches)
Wheel width (inches)
Minimum exhaust volume (feet
3/min.)
To 91
1/2
220
Over 9 to 162390
Over 16 to 193500
Over 19 to 244610
Over 24 to 305880
Over 30 to 3661,200

For any wheel wider than wheel diameters shown in Table G-4, increase the exhaust volume by the ratio of the new width to the width shown.


Example:If wheel width = 4
1/2 inches, then

4.5 ÷ 4 × 610 = 686 (rounded to 690).

(iii) Scratch-brush wheels and all buffing and polishing wheels mounted on floor stands, pedestals, benches, or special-purpose machines shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volume shown in Table G-5.


Table G-5 – Buffing and Polishing Wheels

Wheel diameter (inches)
Wheel width (inches)
Minimum exhaust volume (feet
3/min.)
To 92300
Over 9 to 163500
Over 16 to 194610
Over 19 to 245740
Over 24 to 3061,040
Over 30 to 3661,200

(iv) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be hooded to collect the dust or dirt generated by the grinding operation and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-6.


Table G-6 – Horizontal Single-Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches)
Exhaust volume (ft.
3/min.)
Up to 12220
Over 12 to 19390
Over 19 to 30610
Over 30 to 36880

(v) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood enclosing the grinding chamber and the hood shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-7.


Table G-7 – Horizontal Double-Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches)
Exhaust volume (ft.
3/min.)
Up to 19610
Over 19 to 25880
Over 25 to 301,200
Over 30 to 531,770
Over 53 to 726,280

(vi) Grinding wheels or discs for vertical single-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with hoods to remove the dust generated in the operation. The hoods shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-8.


Table G-8 – Vertical Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches)
One-half or more of disc covered
Disc not covered
Number
1
Exhaust foot
3/min.)
Number
1
Exhaust foot
3/min.
Up to 2015002780
Over 20 to 30278021,480
Over 30 to 5321,77043,530
Over 53 to 7223,14056,010


1 Number of exhaust outlets around periphery of hood, or equal distribution provided by other means.


(vii) Grinding and polishing belts shall be provided with hoods to remove dust and dirt generated in the operations and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-9.


Table G-9 – Grinding and Polishing Belts

Belts width (inches)
Exhaust volume (ft.
3/min.)
Up to 3220
Over 3 to 5300
Over 5 to 7390
Over 7 to 9500
Over 9 to 11610
Over 11 to 13740

(viii) Cradles and swing-frame grinders. Where cradles are used for handling the parts to be ground, polished, or buffed, requiring large partial enclosures to house the complete operation, a minimum average air velocity of 150 feet per minute shall be maintained over the entire opening of the enclosure. Swing-frame grinders shall also be exhausted in the same manner as provided for cradles. (See fig. G-3)


(ix) Where the work is outside the hood, air volumes must be increased as shown in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960 (section 4, exhaust hoods).


(4) Exhaust systems. (i) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations should be designed in accordance with American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.


(ii) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations shall be tested in the manner described in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.


(iii) All exhaust systems shall be provided with suitable dust collectors.


(5) Hood and enclosure design. (i)(a) It is the dual function of grinding and abrasive cutting-off wheel hoods to protect the operator from the hazards of bursting wheels, as well as to provide a means for the removal of dust and dirt generated. All hoods shall be not less in structural strength than specified in Tables O-1 and O-9 of § 1910.215.


(b) Due to the variety of work and types of grinding machines employed, it is necessary to develop hoods adaptable to the particular machine in question, and such hoods shall be located as close as possible to the operation.


(ii) Exhaust hoods for floor stands, pedestals, and bench grinders shall be designed in accordance with figure G-2. The adjustable tongue shown in the figure shall be kept in working order and shall be adjusted within one-fourth inch of the wheel periphery at all times.


(iii) Swing-frame grinders shall be provided with exhaust booths as indicated in figure G-3.


(iv) Portable grinding operations, whenever the nature of the work permits, shall be conducted within a partial enclosure. The opening in the enclosure shall be no larger than is actually required in the operation and an average face air velocity of not less than 200 feet per minute shall be maintained.


(v) Hoods for polishing and buffing and scratch-brush wheels shall be constructed to conform as closely to figure G-4 as the nature of the work will permit.


(vi) Cradle grinding and polishing operations shall be performed within a partial enclosure similar to figure G-5. The operator shall be positioned outside the working face of the opening of the enclosure. The face opening of the enclosure should not be any greater in area than that actually required for the performance of the operation and the average air velocity into the working face of the enclosure shall not be less than 150 feet per minute.


(vii) Hoods for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be constructed to conform as closely as possible to the hood shown in figure G-6. It is essential that there be a space between the back of the wheel and the hood, and a space around the periphery of the wheel of at least 1 inch in order to permit the suction to act around the wheel periphery. The opening on the side of the disc shall be no larger than is required for the grinding operation, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlet.


(viii) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood encircling the wheels and grinding chamber similar to that illustrated in figure G-7. The openings for passing the work into the grinding chamber should be kept as small as possible, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlets.


(ix) Vertical-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with a hood so constructed that the heavy dust is drawn off a surface of the disc and the lighter dust exhausted through a continuous slot at the top of the hood as shown in figure G-1.


(x) Grinding and polishing belt hoods shall be constructed as close to the operation as possible. The hood should extend almost to the belt, and 1-inch wide openings should be provided on either side. Figure G-8 shows a typical hood for a belt operation.



Dia D. inches
Exhaust E
Volume Exhausted at 4,500 ft/min ft
3/min
Note
Min.
Max.
No Pipes
Dia.
2014
1/4
500When one-half or more of the disc can be hooded, use exhaust ducts as shown at the left.
Over 203024780
Over 3072261,770
Over 5372283,140
2024780When no hood can be used over disc, use exhaust ducts as shown at left.
Over 202024780
Over 303025
1/2
1,480
Over 5353463,530
72576,010

Entry loss = 1.0 slot velocity pressure + 0.5 branch velocity pressure.

Minimum slot velocity = 2,000 ft/min –
1/2-inch slot width.



Wheel dimension, inches
Exhaust outlet, inches E
Volume of air at 4,500 ft/min
Diameter
Width, Max
Min=d
Max=D
91
1/2
3220
Over 91624390
Over 161934
1/2
500
Over 192445610
Over 243056880
Over 3036671,200

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.




Standard Buffing and Polishing Hood

Wheel dimension, inches
Exhaust outlet, inches E
Volume of air at 4,500 ft/min
Diameter
Width, Max
Min=d
Max=D
923
1/2
300
Over 91634500
Over 161945610
Over 192455
1/2
740
Over 243066
1/2
1.040
Over 3036671.200

Entry loss = 0.15 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.




Dia D, inches
Exhaust E, dia. inches
Volume exhausted at 4,500 ft/min ft
3/min
Min.
Max.
123220
Over 12194390
Over 19305610
Over 30366880

Note: If grinding wheels are used for disc grinding purposes, hoods must conform to structural strength and materials as described in 9.1.

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.



Disc dia. inches
Exhaust E
Volume exhaust at 4,500 ft/min. ft
3/min
Note
Min.
Max.
No Pipes
Dia.
1915610
Over 192516880When width “W” permits, exhaust ducts should be as near heaviest grinding as possible.
Over 2530171,200
Over 3053261,770
Over 5372486,280

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.



Belt width W. Inches
Exhaust volume. ft.
1/min
Up to 3220
3 to 5300
5 to 7390
7 to 9500
9 to 11610
11 to 13740

Minimum duct velocity = 4,500 ft/min branch, 3,500 ft/min main.

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.


(6) Scope. This paragraph (b), prescribes the use of exhaust hood enclosures and systems in removing dust, dirt, fumes, and gases generated through the grinding, polishing, or buffing of ferrous and nonferrous metals.


(c) Spray finishing operations – (1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph – (i) Spray-finishing operations. Spray-finishing operations are employment of methods wherein organic or inorganic materials are utilized in dispersed form for deposit on surfaces to be coated, treated, or cleaned. Such methods of deposit may involve either automatic, manual, or electrostatic deposition but do not include metal spraying or metallizing, dipping, flow coating, roller coating, tumbling, centrifuging, or spray washing and degreasing as conducted in self-contained washing and degreasing machines or systems.


(ii) Spray booth. Spray booths are defined and described in § 1910.107(a).


(iii) Spray room. A spray room is a room in which spray-finishing operations not conducted in a spray booth are performed separately from other areas.


(iv) Minimum maintained velocity. Minimum maintained velocity is the velocity of air movement which must be maintained in order to meet minimum specified requirements for health and safety.


(2) Location and application. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all operations. Spray-finishing operations shall be located as provided in sections 201 through 206 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.


(3) Design and construction of spray booths. (i) Spray booths shall be designed and constructed in accordance with § 1910.107(b)(1) through (b)(4) and (b)(6) through (b)(10). For a more detailed discussion of fundamentals relating to this subject, see ANSI Z9.2-1960, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.


(a) Lights, motors, electrical equipment, and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of § 1910.107(b)(10) and (c).


(b) In no case shall combustible material be used in the construction of a spray booth and supply or exhaust duct connected to it.


(ii) Unobstructed walkways shall not be less than 6
1/2 feet high and shall be maintained clear of obstruction from any work location in the booth to a booth exit or open booth front. In booths where the open front is the only exit, such exits shall be not less than 3 feet wide. In booths having multiple exits, such exits shall not be less than 2 feet wide, provided that the maximum distance from the work location to the exit is 25 feet or less. Where booth exits are provided with doors, such doors shall open outward from the booth.


(iii) Baffles, distribution plates, and dry-type overspray collectors shall conform to the requirements of § 1910.107(b)(4) and (b)(5).


(a) Overspray filters shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the requirements of § 1910.107(b)(5), and shall only be in a location easily accessible for inspection, cleaning, or replacement.


(b) Where effective means, independent of the overspray filters, are installed which will result in design air distribution across the booth cross section, it is permissible to operate the booth without the filters in place.


(iv) (a) For wet or water-wash spray booths, the water-chamber enclosure, within which intimate contact of contaminated air and cleaning water or other cleaning medium is maintained, if made of steel, shall be 18 gage or heavier and adequately protected against corrosion.


(b) Chambers may include scrubber spray nozzles, headers, troughs, or other devices. Chambers shall be provided with adequate means for creating and maintaining scrubbing action for removal of particulate matter from the exhaust air stream.


(v) Collecting tanks shall be of welded steel construction or other suitable non-combustible material. If pits are used as collecting tanks, they shall be concrete, masonry, or other material having similar properties.


(a) Tanks shall be provided with weirs, skimmer plates, or screens to prevent sludge and floating paint from entering the pump suction box. Means for automatically maintaining the proper water level shall also be provided. Fresh water inlets shall not be submerged. They shall terminate at least one pipe diameter above the safety overflow level of the tank.


(b) Tanks shall be so constructed as to discourage accumulation of hazardous deposits.


(vi) Pump manifolds, risers, and headers shall be adequately sized to insure sufficient water flow to provide efficient operation of the water chamber.


(4) Design and construction of spray rooms. (i) Spray rooms, including floors, shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, or other noncombustible material.


(ii) Spray rooms shall have noncombustible fire doors and shutters.


(iii) Spray rooms shall be adequately ventilated so that the atmosphere in the breathing zone of the operator shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this section.


(iv) Spray rooms used for production spray-finishing operations shall conform to the requirements for spray booths.


(5) Ventilation. (i) Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with provisions of § 1910.107(d), and in accordance with the following:


(a) Where a fan plenum is used to equalize or control the distribution of exhaust air movement through the booth, it shall be of sufficient strength or rigidity to withstand the differential air pressure or other superficially imposed loads for which the equipment is designed and also to facilitate cleaning. Construction specifications shall be at least equivalent to those of paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section.


(b) [Reserved]


(ii) Inlet or supply ductwork used to transport makeup air to spray booths or surrounding areas shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.


(a) If negative pressure exists within inlet ductwork, all seams and joints shall be sealed if there is a possibility of infiltration of harmful quantities of noxious gases, fumes, or mists from areas through which ductwork passes.


(b) Inlet ductwork shall be sized in accordance with volume flow requirements and provide design air requirements at the spray booth.


(c) Inlet ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain at least its own weight plus any negative pressure which is exerted upon it under normal operating conditions.


(iii)(a) Exhaust ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain its weight plus any normal accumulation in interior during normal operating conditions and any negative pressure exerted upon it.


(b) Exhaust ductwork shall be sized in accordance with good design practice which shall include consideration of fan capacity, length of duct, number of turns and elbows, variation in size, volume, and character of materials being exhausted. See American National Standard Z9.2-1960 for further details and explanation concerning elements of design.


(c) Longitudinal joints in sheet steel ductwork shall be either lock-seamed, riveted, or welded. For other than steel construction, equivalent securing of joints shall be provided.


(d) Circumferential joints in ductwork shall be substantially fastened together and lapped in the direction of airflow. At least every fourth joint shall be provided with connecting flanges, bolted together, or of equivalent fastening security.


(e) Inspection or clean-out doors shall be provided for every 9 to 12 feet of running length for ducts up to 12 inches in diameter, but the distance between cleanout doors may be greater for larger pipes. A clean-out door or doors shall be provided for servicing the fan, and where necessary, a drain shall be provided.


(f) Where ductwork passes through a combustible roof or wall, the roof or wall shall be protected at the point of penetration by open space or fire-resistive material between the duct and the roof or wall. When ducts pass through firewalls, they shall be provided with automatic fire dampers on both sides of the wall, except that three-eighth-inch steel plates may be used in lieu of automatic fire dampers for ducts not exceeding 18 inches in diameter.


(g) Ductwork used for ventilating any process covered in this standard shall not be connected to ducts ventilating any other process or any chimney or flue used for conveying any products of combustion.


(6) Velocity and air flow requirements. (i) Except where a spray booth has an adequate air replacement system, the velocity of air into all openings of a spray booth shall be not less than that specified in Table G-10 for the operating conditions specified. An adequate air replacement system is one which introduces replacement air upstream or above the object being sprayed and is so designed that the velocity of air in the booth cross section is not less than that specified in Table G-10 when measured upstream or above the object being sprayed.


Table G-10 – Minimum Maintained Velocities Into Spray Booths

Operating conditions for objects completely inside booth
Crossdraft, f.p.m.
Airflow velocities, f.p.m.
Design
Range
Electrostatic and automatic airless operation contained in booth without operatorNegligible50 large booth50-75
100 small booth75-125
Air-operated guns, manual or automaticUp to 50100 large booth75-125
150 small booth125-175
Air-operated guns, manual or automaticUp to 100150 large booth125-175
200 small booth150-250

Notes:

(1) Attention is invited to the fact that the effectiveness of the spray booth is dependent upon the relationship of the depth of the booth to its height and width.

(2) Crossdrafts can be eliminated through proper design and such design should be sought. Crossdrafts in excess of 100fpm (feet per minute) should not be permitted.

(3) Excessive air pressures result in loss of both efficiency and material waste in addition to creating a backlash that may carry overspray and fumes into adjacent work areas.

(4) Booths should be designed with velocities shown in the column headed “Design.” However, booths operating with velocities shown in the column headed “Range” are in compliance with this standard.


(ii) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section the total air volume exhausted through a spray booth shall be such as to dilute solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of the lower explosive limit of the solvent being sprayed. An example of the method of calculating this volume is given below.



Example:To determine the lower explosive limits of the most common solvents used in spray finishing, see Table G-11. Column 1 gives the number of cubic feet of vapor per gallon of solvent and column 2 gives the lower explosive limit (LEL) in percentage by volume of air. Note that the quantity of solvent will be diminished by the quantity of solids and nonflammables contained in the finish.

To determine the volume of air in cubic feet necessary to dilute the vapor from 1 gallon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower explosive limit, apply the following formula:


Dilution volume required per gallon of solvent = 4 (100−LEL) (cubic feet of vapor per gallon) ÷ LEL

Using toluene as the solvent.
(1) LEL of toluene from Table G-11, column 2, is 1.4 percent.

(2) Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from Table G-11, column 1, is 30.4 cubic feet per gallon.

(3) Dilution volume required=


4 (100−1.4) 30.4 ÷ 1.4 = 8,564 cubic feet.
(4) To convert to cubic feet per minute of required ventilation, multiply the dilution volume required per gallon of solvent by the number of gallons of solvent evaporated per minute.

Table G-11 – Lower Explosive Limit of Some Commonly Used Solvents

Solvent
Cubic feet per gallon of vapor of liquid at 70 °F.
Lower explosive limit in percent by volume of air at 70 °F
Column 1Column 2
Acetone44.02.6
Amyl Acetate (iso)21.6
1 1.0
Amyl Alcohol (n)29.61.2
Amyl Alcohol (iso)29.61.2
Benzene36.8
1 1.4
Butyl Acetate (n)24.81.7
Butyl Alcohol (n)35.21.4
Butyl Cellosolve24.81.1
Cellosolve33.61.8
Cellosolve Acetate23.21.7
Cyclohexanone31.2
1 1.1
1,1 Dichloroethylene42.45.9
1,2 Dichloroethylene42.49.7
Ethyl Acetate32.82.5
Ethyl Alcohol55.24.3
Ethyl Lactate28.0
1 1.5
Methyl Acetate40.03.1
Methyl Alcohol80.87.3
Methyl Cellosolve40.82.5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone36.01.8
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone30.41.5
Naphtha (VM&P) (76° Naphtha)22.40.9
Naphtha (100 °Flash) Safety Solvent – Stoddard Solvent23.21.0
Propyl Acetate (n)27.22.8
Propyl Acetate (iso)28.01.1
Propyl Alcohol (n)44.82.1
Propyl Alcohol (iso)44.02.0
Toluene30.41.4
Turpentine20.80.8
Xylene (o)26.41.0


1 At 212 °F.


(iii)(a) When an operator is in a booth downstream from the object being sprayed, an air-supplied respirator or other type of respirator must be used by employees that has been approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for the material being sprayed.


(b) Where downdraft booths are provided with doors, such doors shall be closed when spray painting.


(7) Make-up air. (i) Clean fresh air, free of contamination from adjacent industrial exhaust systems, chimneys, stacks, or vents, shall be supplied to a spray booth or room in quantities equal to the volume of air exhausted through the spray booth.


(ii) Where a spray booth or room receives make-up air through self-closing doors, dampers, or louvers, they shall be fully open at all times when the booth or room is in use for spraying. The velocity of air through such doors, dampers, or louvers shall not exceed 200 feet per minute. If the fan characteristics are such that the required air flow through the booth will be provided, higher velocities through the doors, dampers, or louvers may be used.


(iii)(a) Where the air supply to a spray booth or room is filtered, the fan static pressure shall be calculated on the assumption that the filters are dirty to the extent that they require cleaning or replacement.


(b) The rating of filters shall be governed by test data supplied by the manufacturer of the filter. A pressure gage shall be installed to show the pressure drop across the filters. This gage shall be marked to show the pressure drop at which the filters require cleaning or replacement. Filters shall be replaced or cleaned whenever the pressure drop across them becomes excessive or whenever the air flow through the face of the booth falls below that specified in Table G-10.


(iv)(a) Means for heating make-up air to any spray booth or room, before or at the time spraying is normally performed, shall be provided in all places where the outdoor temperature may be expected to remain below 55 °F. for appreciable periods of time during the operation of the booth except where adequate and safe means of radiant heating for all operating personnel affected is provided. The replacement air during the heating seasons shall be maintained at not less than 65 °F. at the point of entry into the spray booth or spray room. When otherwise unheated make-up air would be at a temperature of more than 10 °F. below room temperature, its temperature shall be regulated as provided in section 3.6.3 of ANSI Z9.2-1960.


(b) As an alternative to an air replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray room or booth is located may be employed provided that all occupied parts of the building are maintained at not less than 65 °F. when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system supplemented by other sources of heat may be employed to meet this requirement.


(c) No means of heating make-up air shall be located in a spray booth.


(d) Where make-up air is heated by coal or oil, the products of combustion shall not be allowed to mix with the make-up air, and the products of combustion shall be conducted outside the building through a flue terminating at a point remote from all points where make-up air enters the building.


(e) Where make-up air is heated by gas, and the products of combustion are not mixed with the make-up air but are conducted through an independent flue to a point outside the building remote from all points where make-up air enters the building, it is not necessary to comply with paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(f) of this section.


(f) Where make-up air to any manually operated spray booth or room is heated by gas and the products of combustion are allowed to mix with the supply air, the following precautions must be taken:


(1) The gas must have a distinctive and strong enough odor to warn workmen in a spray booth or room of its presence if in an unburned state in the make-up air.


(2) The maximum rate of gas supply to the make-up air heater burners must not exceed that which would yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts per million) of carbon monoxide or 2,000 p.p.m. of total combustible gases in the mixture if the unburned gas upon the occurrence of flame failure were mixed with all of the make-up air supplied.


(3) A fan must be provided to deliver the mixture of heated air and products of combustion from the plenum chamber housing the gas burners to the spray booth or room.


(8) Scope. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all spray finishing operations covered by this paragraph (c). This paragraph does not apply to the spraying of the exteriors of buildings, fixed tanks, or similar structures, nor to small portable spraying apparatus not used repeatedly in the same location.


[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 40 FR 24522, June 9, 1975; 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9236, Mar. 7, 1996; 63 FR 1269, Jan. 8, 1998; 64 FR 13909, Mar. 23, 1999; 72 FR 71069, Dec. 14, 2007; 74 FR 46356, Sept. 9, 2009]


§ 1910.95 Occupational noise exposure.

(a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table G-16 when measured on the A scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response. When noise levels are determined by octave band analysis, the equivalent A-weighted sound level may be determined as follows:



Figure G-9

Equivalent sound level contours. Octave band sound pressure levels may be converted to the equivalent A-weighted sound level by plotting them on this graph and noting the A-weighted sound level corresponding to the point of highest penetration into the sound level contours. This equivalent A-weighted sound level, which may differ from the actual A-weighted sound level of the noise, is used to determine exposure limits from Table 1.G-16.

(b)(1) When employees are subjected to sound exceeding those listed in Table G-16, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of Table G-16, personal protective equipment shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table.


(2) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less, it is to be considered continuous.


Table G-16 – Permissible Noise Exposures
1

Duration per day, hours
Sound level dBA slow response
890
692
495
397
2100
1
1/2
102
1105

1/2
110

1/4 or less
115


1 When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined effect should be considered, rather than the individual effect of each. If the sum of the following fractions: C1/T1 + C2/T2Cn/Tn exceeds unity, then, the mixed exposure should be considered to exceed the limit value. Cn indicates the total time of exposure at a specified noise level, and Tn indicates the total time of exposure permitted at that level.

Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level.


(c) Hearing conservation program. (1) The employer shall administer a continuing, effective hearing conservation program, as described in paragraphs (c) through (o) of this section, whenever employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or, equivalently, a dose of fifty percent. For purposes of the hearing conservation program, employee noise exposures shall be computed in accordance with appendix A and Table G-16a, and without regard to any attenuation provided by the use of personal protective equipment.


(2) For purposes of paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section, an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or a dose of fifty percent shall also be referred to as the action level.


(d) Monitoring. (1) When information indicates that any employee’s exposure may equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels, the employer shall develop and implement a monitoring program.


(i) The sampling strategy shall be designed to identify employees for inclusion in the hearing conservation program and to enable the proper selection of hearing protectors.


(ii) Where circumstances such as high worker mobility, significant variations in sound level, or a significant component of impulse noise make area monitoring generally inappropriate, the employer shall use representative personal sampling to comply with the monitoring requirements of this paragraph unless the employer can show that area sampling produces equivalent results.


(2)(i) All continuous, intermittent and impulsive sound levels from 80 decibels to 130 decibels shall be integrated into the noise measurements.


(ii) Instruments used to measure employee noise exposure shall be calibrated to ensure measurement accuracy.


(3) Monitoring shall be repeated whenever a change in production, process, equipment or controls increases noise exposures to the extent that:


(i) Additional employees may be exposed at or above the action level; or


(ii) The attenuation provided by hearing protectors being used by employees may be rendered inadequate to meet the requirements of paragraph (j) of this section.


(e) Employee notification. The employer shall notify each employee exposed at or above an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels of the results of the monitoring.


(f) Observation of monitoring. The employer shall provide affected employees or their representatives with an opportunity to observe any noise measurements conducted pursuant to this section.


(g) Audiometric testing program. (1) The employer shall establish and maintain an audiometric testing program as provided in this paragraph by making audiometric testing available to all employees whose exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels.


(2) The program shall be provided at no cost to employees.


(3) Audiometric tests shall be performed by a licensed or certified audiologist, otolaryngologist, or other physician, or by a technician who is certified by the Council of Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation, or who has satisfactorily demonstrated competence in administering audiometric examinations, obtaining valid audiograms, and properly using, maintaining and checking calibration and proper functioning of the audiometers being used. A technician who operates microprocessor audiometers does not need to be certified. A technician who performs audiometric tests must be responsible to an audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician.


(4) All audiograms obtained pursuant to this section shall meet the requirements of appendix C: Audiometric Measuring Instruments.


(5) Baseline audiogram. (i) Within 6 months of an employee’s first exposure at or above the action level, the employer shall establish a valid baseline audiogram against which subsequent audiograms can be compared.


(ii) Mobile test van exception. Where mobile test vans are used to meet the audiometric testing obligation, the employer shall obtain a valid baseline audiogram within 1 year of an employee’s first exposure at or above the action level. Where baseline audiograms are obtained more than 6 months after the employee’s first exposure at or above the action level, employees shall wearing hearing protectors for any period exceeding six months after first exposure until the baseline audiogram is obtained.


(iii) Testing to establish a baseline audiogram shall be preceded by at least 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise. Hearing protectors may be used as a substitute for the requirement that baseline audiograms be preceded by 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise.


(iv) The employer shall notify employees of the need to avoid high levels of non-occupational noise exposure during the 14-hour period immediately preceding the audiometric examination.


(6) Annual audiogram. At least annually after obtaining the baseline audiogram, the employer shall obtain a new audiogram for each employee exposed at or above an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels.


(7) Evaluation of audiogram. (i) Each employee’s annual audiogram shall be compared to that employee’s baseline audiogram to determine if the audiogram is valid and if a standard threshold shift as defined in paragraph (g)(10) of this section has occurred. This comparison may be done by a technician.


(ii) If the annual audiogram shows that an employee has suffered a standard threshold shift, the employer may obtain a retest within 30 days and consider the results of the retest as the annual audiogram.


(iii) The audiologist, otolaryngologist, or physician shall review problem audiograms and shall determine whether there is a need for further evaluation. The employer shall provide to the person performing this evaluation the following information:


(A) A copy of the requirements for hearing conservation as set forth in paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section;


(B) The baseline audiogram and most recent audiogram of the employee to be evaluated;


(C) Measurements of background sound pressure levels in the audiometric test room as required in appendix D: Audiometric Test Rooms.


(D) Records of audiometer calibrations required by paragraph (h)(5) of this section.


(8) Follow-up procedures. (i) If a comparison of the annual audiogram to the baseline audiogram indicates a standard threshold shift as defined in paragraph (g)(10) of this section has occurred, the employee shall be informed of this fact in writing, within 21 days of the determination.


(ii) Unless a physician determines that the standard threshold shift is not work related or aggravated by occupational noise exposure, the employer shall ensure that the following steps are taken when a standard threshold shift occurs:


(A) Employees not using hearing protectors shall be fitted with hearing protectors, trained in their use and care, and required to use them.


(B) Employees already using hearing protectors shall be refitted and retrained in the use of hearing protectors and provided with hearing protectors offering greater attenuation if necessary.


(C) The employee shall be referred for a clinical audiological evaluation or an otological examination, as appropriate, if additional testing is necessary or if the employer suspects that a medical pathology of the ear is caused or aggravated by the wearing of hearing protectors.


(D) The employee is informed of the need for an otological examination if a medical pathology of the ear that is unrelated to the use of hearing protectors is suspected.


(iii) If subsequent audiometric testing of an employee whose exposure to noise is less than an 8-hour TWA of 90 decibels indicates that a standard threshold shift is not persistent, the employer:


(A) Shall inform the employee of the new audiometric interpretation; and


(B) May discontinue the required use of hearing protectors for that employee.


(9) Revised baseline. An annual audiogram may be substituted for the baseline audiogram when, in the judgment of the audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician who is evaluating the audiogram:


(i) The standard threshold shift revealed by the audiogram is persistent; or


(ii) The hearing threshold shown in the annual audiogram indicates significant improvement over the baseline audiogram.


(10) Standard threshold shift. (i) As used in this section, a standard threshold shift is a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in either ear.


(ii) In determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred, allowance may be made for the contribution of aging (presbycusis) to the change in hearing level by correcting the annual audiogram according to the procedure described in appendix F: Calculation and Application of Age Correction to Audiograms.


(h) Audiometric test requirements. (1) Audiometric tests shall be pure tone, air conduction, hearing threshold examinations, with test frequencies including as a minimum 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz. Tests at each frequency shall be taken separately for each ear.


(2) Audiometric tests shall be conducted with audiometers (including microprocessor audiometers) that meet the specifications of, and are maintained and used in accordance with, American National Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.6-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.


(3) Pulsed-tone and self-recording audiometers, if used, shall meet the requirements specified in appendix C: Audiometric Measuring Instruments.


(4) Audiometric examinations shall be administered in a room meeting the requirements listed in appendix D: Audiometric Test Rooms.


(5) Audiometer calibration. (i) The functional operation of the audiometer shall be checked before each day’s use by testing a person with known, stable hearing thresholds, and by listening to the audiometer’s output to make sure that the output is free from distorted or unwanted sounds. Deviations of 10 decibels or greater require an acoustic calibration.


(ii) Audiometer calibration shall be checked acoustically at least annually in accordance with appendix E: Acoustic Calibration of Audiometers. Test frequencies below 500 Hz and above 6000 Hz may be omitted from this check. Deviations of 15 decibels or greater require an exhaustive calibration.


(iii) An exhaustive calibration shall be performed at least every two years in accordance with sections 4.1.2; 4.1.3.; 4.1.4.3; 4.2; 4.4.1; 4.4.2; 4.4.3; and 4.5 of the American National Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.6-1969. Test frequencies below 500 Hz and above 6000 Hz may be omitted from this calibration.


(i) Hearing protectors. (1) Employers shall make hearing protectors available to all employees exposed to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or greater at no cost to the employees. Hearing protectors shall be replaced as necessary.


(2) Employers shall ensure that hearing protectors are worn:


(i) By an employee who is required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section to wear personal protective equipment; and


(ii) By any employee who is exposed to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or greater, and who:


(A) Has not yet had a baseline audiogram established pursuant to paragraph (g)(5)(ii); or


(B) Has experienced a standard threshold shift.


(3) Employees shall be given the opportunity to select their hearing protectors from a variety of suitable hearing protectors provided by the employer.


(4) The employer shall provide training in the use and care of all hearing protectors provided to employees.


(5) The employer shall ensure proper initial fitting and supervise the correct use of all hearing protectors.


(j) Hearing protector attenuation. (1) The employer shall evaluate hearing protector attenuation for the specific noise environments in which the protector will be used. The employer shall use one of the evaluation methods described in appendix B: Methods for Estimating the Adequacy of Hearing Protection Attenuation.


(2) Hearing protectors must attenuate employee exposure at least to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 90 decibels as required by paragraph (b) of this section.


(3) For employees who have experienced a standard threshold shift, hearing protectors must attenuate employee exposure to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or below.


(4) The adequacy of hearing protector attenuation shall be re-evaluated whenever employee noise exposures increase to the extent that the hearing protectors provided may no longer provide adequate attenuation. The employer shall provide more effective hearing protectors where necessary.


(k) Training program. (1) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to noise at or above an 8-hour time weighted average of 85 decibels in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the program.


(2) The training program shall be repeated annually for each employee included in the hearing conservation program. Information provided in the training program shall be updated to be consistent with changes in protective equipment and work processes.


(3) The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed of the following:


(i) The effects of noise on hearing;


(ii) The purpose of hearing protectors, the advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of various types, and instructions on selection, fitting, use, and care; and


(iii) The purpose of audiometric testing, and an explanation of the test procedures.


(l) Access to information and training materials. (1) The employer shall make available to affected employees or their representatives copies of this standard and shall also post a copy in the workplace.


(2) The employer shall provide to affected employees any informational materials pertaining to the standard that are supplied to the employer by the Assistant Secretary.


(3) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials related to the employer’s training and education program pertaining to this standard to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.


(m) Recordkeeping – (1) Exposure measurements. The employer shall maintain an accurate record of all employee exposure measurements required by paragraph (d) of this section.


(2) Audiometric tests. (i) The employer shall retain all employee audiometric test records obtained pursuant to paragraph (g) of this section:


(ii) This record shall include:


(A) Name and job classification of the employee;


(B) Date of the audiogram;


(C) The examiner’s name;


(D) Date of the last acoustic or exhaustive calibration of the audiometer; and


(E) Employee’s most recent noise exposure assessment.


(F) The employer shall maintain accurate records of the measurements of the background sound pressure levels in audiometric test rooms.


(3) Record retention. The employer shall retain records required in this paragraph (m) for at least the following periods.


(i) Noise exposure measurement records shall be retained for two years.


(ii) Audiometric test records shall be retained for the duration of the affected employee’s employment.


(4) Access to records. All records required by this section shall be provided upon request to employees, former employees, representatives designated by the individual employee, and the Assistant Secretary. The provisions of 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i) apply to access to records under this section.


(5) Transfer of records. If the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer to the successor employer all records required to be maintained by this section, and the successor employer shall retain them for the remainder of the period prescribed in paragraph (m)(3) of this section.


(n) Appendices. (1) Appendices A, B, C, D, and E to this section are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.


(2) Appendices F and G to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.


(o) Exemptions. Paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section shall not apply to employers engaged in oil and gas well drilling and servicing operations.



Appendix A to § 1910.95 – Noise Exposure Computation

This appendix is Mandatory

I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure

(1) Noise dose is computed using Table G-16a as follows:


(i) When the sound level, L, is constant over the entire work shift, the noise dose, D, in percent, is given by: D = 100 C/T where C is the total length of the work day, in hours, and T is the reference duration corresponding to the measured sound level, L, as given in Table G-16a or by the formula shown as a footnote to that table.


(ii) When the workshift noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise at different levels, the total noise dose over the work day is given by:


D = 100(C1 / T1 + C2 / T2 + Cn / Tn),

where Cn indicates the total time of exposure at a specific noise level, and Tn indicates the reference duration for that level as given by Table G-16a.

(2) The eight-hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA), in decibels, may be computed from the dose, in percent, by means of the formula: TWA = 16.61 log10 (D/100) + 90. For an eight-hour workshift with the noise level constant over the entire shift, the TWA is equal to the measured sound level.


(3) A table relating dose and TWA is given in Section II.


Table G-16a

A-weighted sound level, L (decibel)
Reference duration, T (hour)
8032
8127.9
8224.3
8321.1
8418.4
8516
8613.9
8712.1
8810.6
899.2
908
917.0
926.1
935.3
944.6
954
963.5
973.0
982.6
992.3
1002
1011.7
1021.5
1031.3
1041.1
1051
1060.87
1070.76
1080.66
1090.57
1100.5
1110.44
1120.38
1130.33
1140.29
1150.25
1160.22
1170.19
1180.16
1190.14
1200.125
1210.11
1220.095
1230.082
1240.072
1250.063
1260.054
1270.047
1280.041
1290.036
1300.031

In the above table the reference duration, T, is computed by




where L is the measured A-weighted sound level.

II. Conversion Between “Dose” and “8-Hour Time-Weighted Average” Sound Level

Compliance with paragraphs (c)-(r) of this regulation is determined by the amount of exposure to noise in the workplace. The amount of such exposure is usually measured with an audiodosimeter which gives a readout in terms of “dose.” In order to better understand the requirements of the amendment, dosimeter readings can be converted to an “8-hour time-weighted average sound level.” (TWA).


In order to convert the reading of a dosimeter into TWA, see Table A-1, below. This table applies to dosimeters that are set by the manufacturer to calculate dose or percent exposure according to the relationships in Table G-16a. So, for example, a dose of 91 percent over an eight hour day results in a TWA of 89.3 dB, and, a dose of 50 percent corresponds to a TWA of 85 dB.


If the dose as read on the dosimeter is less than or greater than the values found in Table A-1, the TWA may be calculated by using the formula: TWA 6.61 log10 (D/100) + 90 where TWA = 8-hour time-weighted average sound level and D = accumulated dose in percent exposure.


Table A-1 – Conversion From “Percent Noise Exposure” or “Dose” to “8-Hour Time-Weighted Average Sound Level” (TWA)

Dose or percent noise exposure
TWA
1073.4
1576.3
2078.4
2580.0
3081.3
3582.4
4083.4
4584.2
5085.0
5585.7
6086.3
6586.9
7087.4
7587.9
8088.4
8188.5
8288.6
8388.7
8488.7
8588.8
8688.9
8789.0
8889.1
8989.2
9089.2
9189.3
9289.4
9389.5
9489.6
9589.6
9689.7
9789.8
9889.9
9989.9
10090.0
10190.1
10290.1
10390.2
10490.3
10590.4
10690.4
10790.5
10890.6
10990.6
11090.7
11190.8
11290.8
11390.9
11490.9
11591.1
11691.1
11791.1
11891.2
11991.3
12091.3
12591.6
13091.9
13592.2
14092.4
14592.7
15092.9
15593.2
16093.4
16593.6
17093.8
17594.0
18094.2
18594.4
19094.6
19594.8
20095.0
21095.4
22095.7
23096.0
24096.3
25096.6
26096.9
27097.2
28097.4
29097.7
30097.9
31098.2
32098.4
33098.6
34098.8
35099.0
36099.2
37099.4
38099.6
39099.8
400100.0
410100.2
420100.4
430100.5
440100.7
450100.8
460101.0
470101.2
480101.3
490101.5
500101.6
510101.8
520101.9
530102.0
540102.2
550102.3
560102.4
570102.6
580102.7
590102.8
600102.9
610103.0
620103.2
630103.3
640103.4
650103.5
660103.6
670103.7
680103.8
690103.9
700104.0
710104.1
720104.2
730104.3
740104.4
750104.5
760104.6
770104.7
780104.8
790104.9
800105.0
810105.1
820105.2
830105.3
840105.4
850105.4
860105.5
870105.6
880105.7
890105.8
900105.8
910105.9
920106.0
930106.1
940106.2
950106.2
960106.3
970106.4
980106.5
990106.5
999106.6


Appendix B to § 1910.95 – Methods for Estimating the Adequacy of Hearing Protector Attenuation

This appendix is Mandatory

For employees who have experienced a significant threshold shift, hearing protector attenuation must be sufficient to reduce employee exposure to a TWA of 85 dB. Employers must select one of the following methods by which to estimate the adequacy of hearing protector attenuation.


The most convenient method is the Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to EPA regulation, the NRR must be shown on the hearing protector package. The NRR is then related to an individual worker’s noise environment in order to assess the adequacy of the attenuation of a given hearing protector. This appendix describes four methods of using the NRR to determine whether a particular hearing protector provides adequate protection within a given exposure environment. Selection among the four procedures is dependent upon the employer’s noise measuring instruments.


Instead of using the NRR, employers may evaluate the adequacy of hearing protector attenuation by using one of the three methods developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which are described in the “List of Personal Hearing Protectors and Attenuation Data,” HEW Publication No. 76-120, 1975, pages 21-37. These methods are known as NIOSH methods #1B1, #1B2 and #1B3. The NRR described below is a simplification of NIOSH method #1B2. The most complex method is NIOSH method #1B1, which is probably the most accurate method since it uses the largest amount of spectral information from the individual employee’s noise environment. As in the case of the NRR method described below, if one of the NIOSH methods is used, the selected method must be applied to an individual’s noise environment to assess the adequacy of the attenuation. Employers should be careful to take a sufficient number of measurements in order to achieve a representative sample for each time segment.



Note:

The employer must remember that calculated attenuation values reflect realistic values only to the extent that the protectors are properly fitted and worn.


When using the NRR to assess hearing protector adequacy, one of the following methods must be used:


(i) When using a dosimeter that is capable of C-weighted measurements:


(A) Obtain the employee’s C-weighted dose for the entire workshift, and convert to TWA (see appendix A, II).


(B) Subtract the NRR from the C-weighted TWA to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.


(ii) When using a dosimeter that is not capable of C-weighted measurements, the following method may be used:


(A) Convert the A-weighted dose to TWA (see appendix A).


(B) Subtract 7 dB from the NRR.


(C) Subtract the remainder from the A-weighted TWA to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.


(iii) When using a sound level meter set to the A-weighting network:


(A) Obtain the employee’s A-weighted TWA.


(B) Subtract 7 dB from the NRR, and subtract the remainder from the A-weighted TWA to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.


(iv) When using a sound level meter set on the C-weighting network:


(A) Obtain a representative sample of the C-weighted sound levels in the employee’s environment.


(B) Subtract the NRR from the C-weighted average sound level to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.


(v) When using area monitoring procedures and a sound level meter set to the A-weighing network.


(A) Obtain a representative sound level for the area in question.


(B) Subtract 7 dB from the NRR and subtract the remainder from the A-weighted sound level for that area.


(vi) When using area monitoring procedures and a sound level meter set to the C-weighting network:


(A) Obtain a representative sound level for the area in question.


(B) Subtract the NRR from the C-weighted sound level for that area.



Appendix C to § 1910.95 – Audiometric Measuring Instruments

This appendix is Mandatory

1. In the event that pulsed-tone audiometers are used, they shall have a tone on-time of at least 200 milliseconds.


2. Self-recording audiometers shall comply with the following requirements:


(A) The chart upon which the audiogram is traced shall have lines at positions corresponding to all multiples of 10 dB hearing level within the intensity range spanned by the audiometer. The lines shall be equally spaced and shall be separated by at least
1/4 inch. Additional increments are optional. The audiogram pen tracings shall not exceed 2 dB in width.


(B) It shall be possible to set the stylus manually at the 10-dB increment lines for calibration purposes.


(C) The slewing rate for the audiometer attenuator shall not be more than 6 dB/sec except that an initial slewing rate greater than 6 dB/sec is permitted at the beginning of each new test frequency, but only until the second subject response.


(D) The audiometer shall remain at each required test frequency for 30 seconds (±3 seconds). The audiogram shall be clearly marked at each change of frequency and the actual frequency change of the audiometer shall not deviate from the frequency boundaries marked on the audiogram by more than ±3 seconds.


(E) It must be possible at each test frequency to place a horizontal line segment parallel to the time axis on the audiogram, such that the audiometric tracing crosses the line segment at least six times at that test frequency. At each test frequency the threshold shall be the average of the midpoints of the tracing excursions.



Appendix D to § 1910.95 – Audiometric Test Rooms

This appendix is Mandatory

Rooms used for audiometric testing shall not have background sound pressure levels exceeding those in Table D-1 when measured by equipment conforming at least to the Type 2 requirements of American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1971 (R1976), and to the Class II requirements of American National Standard Specification for Octave, Half-Octave, and Third-Octave Band Filter Sets, S1.11-1971 (R1976).


Table D-1 – Maximum Allowable Octave-Band Sound Pressure Levels for Audiometric Test Rooms

Octave-band center frequency (Hz)5001000200040008000
Sound pressure level (dB)4040475762


Appendix E to § 1910.95 – Acoustic Calibration of Audiometers

This appendix is Mandatory

Audiometer calibration shall be checked acoustically, at least annually, according to the procedures described in this appendix. The equipment necessary to perform these measurements is a sound level meter, octave-band filter set, and a National Bureau of Standards 9A coupler. In making these measurements, the accuracy of the calibrating equipment shall be sufficient to determine that the audiometer is within the tolerances permitted by American Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.6-1969.


(1) Sound Pressure Output Check


A. Place the earphone coupler over the microphone of the sound level meter and place the earphone on the coupler.


B. Set the audiometer’s hearing threshold level (HTL) dial to 70 dB.


C. Measure the sound pressure level of the tones at each test frequency from 500 Hz through 6000 Hz for each earphone.


D. At each frequency the readout on the sound level meter should correspond to the levels in Table E-1 or Table E-2, as appropriate, for the type of earphone, in the column entitled “sound level meter reading.”


(2) Linearity Check


A. With the earphone in place, set the frequency to 1000 Hz and the HTL dial on the audiometer to 70 dB.


B. Measure the sound levels in the coupler at each 10-dB decrement from 70 dB to 10 dB, noting the sound level meter reading at each setting.


C. For each 10-dB decrement on the audiometer the sound level meter should indicate a corresponding 10 dB decrease.


D. This measurement may be made electrically with a voltmeter connected to the earphone terminals.


(3) Tolerances


When any of the measured sound levels deviate from the levels in Table E-1 or Table E-2 by ±3 dB at any test frequency between 500 and 3000 Hz, 4 dB at 4000 Hz, or 5 dB at 6000 Hz, an exhaustive calibration is advised. An exhaustive calibration is required if the deviations are greater than 15 dB or greater at any test frequency.


Table E-1 – Reference Threshold Levels for Telephonics – TDH-39 Earphones

Frequency, Hz
Reference threshold level for TDH-39 earphones, dB
Sound level meter reading, dB
50011.581.5
1000777
2000979
30001080
40009.579.5
600015.585.5

Table E-2 – Reference Threshold Levels for Telephonics – TDH-49 Earphones

Frequency, Hz
Reference threshold level for TDH-49 earphones, dB
Sound level meter reading, dB
50013.583.5
10007.577.5
20001181.0
30009.579.5
400010.580.5
600013.583.5


Appendix F to § 1910.95 – Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

This appendix Is Non-Mandatory

In determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred, allowance may be made for the contribution of aging to the change in hearing level by adjusting the most recent audiogram. If the employer chooses to adjust the audiogram, the employer shall follow the procedure described below. This procedure and the age correction tables were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the criteria document entitled “Criteria for a Recommended Standard . . . Occupational Exposure to Noise,” ((HSM)-11001).


For each audiometric test frequency;


(i) Determine from Tables F-1 or F-2 the age correction values for the employee by:


(A) Finding the age at which the most recent audiogram was taken and recording the corresponding values of age corrections at 1000 Hz through 6000 Hz;


(B) Finding the age at which the baseline audiogram was taken and recording the corresponding values of age corrections at 1000 Hz through 6000 Hz.


(ii) Subtract the values found in step (i)(B) from the value found in step (i)(A).


(iii) The differences calculated in step (ii) represented that portion of the change in hearing that may be due to aging.



Example:Employee is a 32-year-old male. The audiometric history for his right ear is shown in decibels below.

Employee’s age
Audiometric test frequency (Hz)
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
261055105
*2700055
28000105
29505155
3005102010
31510201515
*32510102520

The audiogram at age 27 is considered the baseline since it shows the best hearing threshold levels. Asterisks have been used to identify the baseline and most recent audiogram. A threshold shift of 20 dB exists at 4000 Hz between the audiograms taken at ages 27 and 32.


(The threshold shift is computed by subtracting the hearing threshold at age 27, which was 5, from the hearing threshold at age 32, which is 25). A retest audiogram has confirmed this shift. The contribution of aging to this change in hearing may be estimated in the following manner:


Go to Table F-1 and find the age correction values (in dB) for 4000 Hz at age 27 and age 32.



Frequency (Hz)
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
Age 326571014
Age 27546711
Difference11133

The difference represents the amount of hearing loss that may be attributed to aging in the time period between the baseline audiogram and the most recent audiogram. In this example, the difference at 4000 Hz is 3 dB. This value is subtracted from the hearing level at 4000 Hz, which in the most recent audiogram is 25, yielding 22 after adjustment. Then the hearing threshold in the baseline audiogram at 4000 Hz (5) is subtracted from the adjusted annual audiogram hearing threshold at 4000 Hz (22). Thus the age-corrected threshold shift would be 17 dB (as opposed to a threshold shift of 20 dB without age correction).


Table F-1 – Age Correction Values in Decibels for Males

Years
Audiometric Test Frequencies (Hz)
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
20 or younger53458
2153458
2253458
2353469
2453569
25535710
26545710
27546711
28646811
29646812
30646912
31647913
326571014
336571014
346581115
357581115
367591216
377691217
387691317
3976101418
4076101419
4176101420
4287111620
4387121621
4487121722
4587131823
4688131924
4788141924
4898142025
4999152126
5099162227
5199162328
52910172429
53910182530
541010182631
551011192732
561011202834
571011212935
581012223136
591112223237
60 or older1113233338

Table F-2 – Age Correction Values in Decibels for Females

Years
Audiometric Test Frequencies (Hz)
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
20 or younger74336
2174436
2274446
2375447
2475447
2585447
2685548
2785558
2885558
2985559
3086559
3186659
32966610
33966610
34966610
35967711
36977711
37977712
381077712
391078812
401078813
4110