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Title 40 – Protection of Environment–Volume 34

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Title 40 – Protection of Environment–Volume 34


Part


chapter i – Environmental Protection Agency (Continued)

723

CHAPTER I – ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)

SUBCHAPTER R – TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT

PART 723 – PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION EXEMPTIONS


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2604.

Subpart A [Reserved]

Subpart B – Specific Exemptions

§ 723.50 Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical substances with low environmental releases and human exposures.

(a) Purpose and scope. (1) This section grants an exemption from the premanufacture notice requirements of section 5(a)(1)(A) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2604(a)(1)(A)) for the manufacture of:


(i) Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year.


(ii) Chemical substances with low environmental releases and human exposures.


(2) To manufacture a new chemical substance under the terms of this exemption a manufacturer must:


(i) Submit a notice of intent to manufacture 30 days before manufacture begins, as required under paragraph (e) of this section.


(ii) Comply with all other provisions of this section.


(3) This section does not apply to microorganisms subject to part 725 of this chapter.


(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart.


(1) Act means the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq).


(2) Consumer means a private individual who uses a chemical substance or any product containing the chemical substance in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, during recreation, or for any personal use or enjoyment.


(3) Environment has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2602).


(4) Environmental transformation product means any chemical substance resulting from the action of environmental processes on a parent compound that changes the molecular identity of the parent compound.


(5) Metabolite means a chemical entity produced by one or more enzymatic or nonenzymatic reactions as a result of exposure of an organism to a chemical substance.


(6) Serious acute effects means human disease processes or other adverse effects that have short latency periods for development, result from short-term exposure, or are a combination of these factors and that are likely to result in death, severe or prolonged incapacitation, disfigurement, or severe or prolonged loss of the ability to use a normal bodily or intellectual function with a consequent impairment of normal activities.


(7) Serious chronic effects means human disease processes or other adverse effects that have long latency periods for development, result from long-term exposure, are long-term illnesses, or are a combination of these factors and that are likely to result in death, severe or prolonged incapacitation, disfigurement, or severe or prolonged loss of the ability to use a normal bodily or intellectual function with a consequent impairment of normal activities.


(8) Significant environmental effects means:


(i) Any irreversible damage to biological, commercial, or agricultural resources of importance to society;


(ii) Any reversible damage to biological, commercial, or agricultural resources of importance to society if the damage persists beyond a single generation of the damaged resource or beyond a single year; or


(iii) Any known or reasonably anticipated loss of members of an endangered or threatened species. Endangered or threatened species are those species identified as such by the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with the Endangered Species Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531).


(9) Site means a contiguous property unit. Property divided only by a public right-of-way is one site. There may be more than one manufacturing plant on a single site.


(10) The terms byproduct, EPA, importer, impurity, known to or reasonably ascertainable, manufacture, manufacturer, new chemical substance, person, possession or control, and test data have the same meanings as in § 720.3 of this chapter.


(c) Exemption categories. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, this exemption applies to:


(1) Any manufacturer of a new chemical substance manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year under the terms of this exemption.


(2) Any manufacturer of a new chemical substance satisfying all of the following low environmental release and low human exposure eligibility criteria:


(i) Consumers and the general population. For exposure of consumers and the general population to the new chemical substance during all manufacturing, processing, distribution in commerce, use, and disposal of the substance:


(A) No dermal exposure.


(B) No inhalation exposure (except as described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section.


(C) Exposure in drinking water no greater than a 1 milligram per year (estimated average dosage resulting from drinking water exposure in streams from the maximum allowable concentration level from ambient surface water releases established under paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section or a higher concentration authorized by EPA under paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section).


(ii) Workers. For exposure of workers to the new chemical substance during all manufacturing, processing, distribution in commerce, use and disposal of the substance:


(A) No dermal exposure (this criterion is met if adequate dermal exposure controls are used in accordance with applicable EPA guidance).


(B) No inhalation exposure (this criterion is considered to be met if adequate inhalation exposure controls are used in accordance with applicable EPA guidance).


(iii) Ambient surface water. For ambient surface water releases, no releases resulting in surface water concentrations above 1 part per billion, calculated using the methods prescribed in §§ 721.90 and 721.91, unless EPA has approved a higher surface water concentration supported by relevant and scientifically valid data submitted to EPA in a notice under paragraph (e) of this section on the substance or a close structural analogue of the substance which demonstrates that the new substance will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to aquatic species or human health at the higher concentration.


(iv) Incineration. For ambient air releases from incineration, no releases of the new chemical substance above 1 microgram per cubic meter maximum annual average concentration, calculated using the formula:



(kg/day of release after treatment) multiplied by (number of release days per year) multiplied by (9.68 × 10−6) micrograms per cubic meter.


(v) Land or groundwater. For releases to land or groundwater, no releases to groundwater, to land, or to a landfill unless the manufacturer has demonstrated to EPA’s satisfaction in a notice under paragraph (e) of this section that the new substance has negligible groundwater migration potential.


(d) Chemical substances that cannot be manufactured under this exemption. A new chemical substance cannot be manufactured under this section, notwithstanding satisfaction of the criterion of paragraphs (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section, if EPA determines, in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section, that the substance, any reasonably anticipated metabolites, environmental transformation products, or byproducts of the substance, or any reasonably anticipated impurities in the substance may cause, under anticipated conditions of manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the new chemical substance:


(1) Serious acute (lethal or sublethal) effects.


(2) Serious chronic (including carcinogenic and teratogenic) effects.


(3) Significant environmental effects.


(e) Exemption notice. (1) A manufacturer applying for an exemption under either paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section must submit an exemption notice to EPA at least 30 days before manufacture of the new chemical substance begins. Exemption notices and modifications must be submitted to EPA on EPA Form No. 7710-25 via CDX using e-PMN software in the manner set forth in this paragraph. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. Notices and any related support documents, must be generated and completed (via CDX) using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software.


(2) The notice shall contain the information described below, pursuant to the referenced provisions of § 720.45.


(i) Manufacturer identity.


(ii) Chemical identity (§ 720.45(a)).


(iii) Impurities (§ 720.45(b)).


(iv) Known synonyms or trade names (§ 720.45(c)).


(v) Byproducts (§ 720.45(d)).


(vi) Production volume (§ 720.45(e)). (A) Manufacturers submitting an exemption application under paragraph (c)(1) of this section will be assumed to be manufacturing at an annual production volume of 10,000 kilograms. Manufacturers who intend to manufacture an exempted substance at annual volumes of less than 10,000 kilograms and wish EPA to conduct its risk assessment based upon such lesser annual production level rather than a 10,000-kilograms level, may so specify by writing the lesser annual production volume in the appropriate box on the PMN form and marking the adjacent binding option box. Manufacturers who opt to specify annual production levels below 10,000 kilograms and who mark the production volume binding option box shall not manufacture more than the specific annual amount of the exempted substance unless a new exemption notice for a higher (up to 10,000 kgs) manufacturing volume is submitted and approved pursuant to this section.


(B) Manufacturers submitting an exemption under paragraph (c)(2) of this section shall list the estimated maximum amount to be manufactured during the first year of production and the estimated maximum amount to be manufactured during any 12-month period during the first 3 years of production.


(vii) Description of intended categories of use (§ 720.45(f)).


(viii) For manufacturer-controlled sites, the manufacturer shall supply identity of manufacturing sites, process descriptions, and worker exposure and environmental release information (§ 720.45(g)); for sites not controlled by the manufacturer, processing and use operation descriptions, estimated number of processing and use sites, and worker exposure/environmental release information (§ 720.45(h)). A manufacturer applying for an exemption under paragraph (c)(1) of this section need not provide information on worker exposure and environmental release referenced in paragraphs (e)(2)(viii) of this section if such information is not known or not readily available to the manufacturer. To assist in reporting this information, manufacturers may obtain a copy of EPA’s Guidance for Reporting Occupational Exposure and Environmental Release Information under 40 CFR 723.50, available from the Environmental Assistance Division at the address listed in paragraph (e)(1) of this section. Where worker exposure and environmental release information is not supplied by the manufacturer, EPA will generally apply “bounding estimates” (i.e., exposure estimates higher than those incurred by persons in the population with the highest exposure) to account for uncertainties in actual exposure and release scenarios.


(ix) Type and category of notice. The manufacturer must clearly indicate on the first page of the PMN form that the submission is a “TSCA section 5(h)(4) exemption notice,” and must indicate whether the notice is being submitted under paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section. Manufacturers of chemical substances that qualify for an exemption under both paragraph (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section may apply for either exemption, but not both.


(x) Test data (§ 720.50).


(xi) Certification. In addition to the certifications required in EPA form 7710-25, the following certifications shall be included in notices under this section. The manufacturer must certify that:


(A) The manufacturer intends to manufacture the new chemical substance for commercial purposes, other than in small quantities solely for research and development, under the terms of this section.


(B) The manufacturer is familiar with the terms of this section and will comply with those terms.


(C) The new chemical substance for which the notice is submitted meets all applicable exemption conditions.


(D) For substances manufactured under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the manufacturer intends to commence manufacture of the exempted substance for commercial purposes within 1 year of the date of the expiration of the 30-day review period.


(xii) Sanitized copy of notice. (A) The manufacturer must make all claims of confidentiality in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section. If any information is claimed confidential, the manufacturer must submit a second copy of the notice, with all information claimed as confidential deleted, in accordance with paragraph (l)(3) of this section.


(B) If the manufacturer does not provide the second copy, the submission will be considered incomplete.


(xiii) Safety Data Sheet (§ 720.45(i)).


(3) Incomplete notices. If EPA receives a submission which does not include all of the information required under this paragraph (e) of this section, the submission will be determined to be incomplete by EPA. When a submission for a new chemical substance has been determined to be incomplete, a manufacturer reapplying for an exemption for the new chemical substance must submit a new exemption notice containing all the information required under this paragraph (e) of this section including a certification page containing an original dated signature; partial submissions sent to EPA to supplement notices declared incomplete will not be accepted. Photocopied pages from previously submitted exemption forms will be accepted provided that the certifications page contains an original dated signature.


(f) Multiple exemption holders. (1) A manufacturer who intends to manufacture a substance for which an exemption under this section was previously approved may apply for an exemption under paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section; however, EPA will not approve any subsequent exemption application under paragraph (c)(1) of this section unless it can determine that the potential human exposure to, and environmental release of, the new chemical substance at the higher aggregate production volume will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to human health or the environment.


(2)(i) If EPA proposes to deny an exemption application for a substance for which another manufacturer currently holds an exemption, and that proposed denial is based exclusively on the cumulative human exposure or environmental release of the substance which precludes the EPA from determining that the subsequent applicant’s activities will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to human health or the environment, the EPA will notify the first exemption holder that it must, within 21 days of its receipt of EPA’s notice, either:


(A) Provide a new certification that it has commenced, or that it will commence, manufacture of the new chemical substance under this section within 1 year of the expiration of its exemption review period; or


(B) Withdraw its exemption for the new chemical substance.


(ii) If the first exemption holder does not respond to the EPA’s notice under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section within the prescribed time period, EPA shall issue a notice of ineligibility to the first exemption holder under the provisions of paragraph (h)(2) of this section.


(g) Review period. (1) EPA will review the notice submitted under paragraph (e) of this section to determine whether manufacture of the new chemical substance is eligible for the exemption. The review period will end 30 days after receipt of the notice by the TSCA Document Control Officer. To provide additional time to address any unresolved issues concerning an exemption application, the exemption applicant may, at any time during the review period, request a suspension of the review period pursuant to the provisions of § 720.75(b) of this chapter.


(2) Upon expiration of the 30-day review period, if EPA has taken no action, the manufacturer may consider its exemption approved and begin to manufacture the new chemical substance under the terms described in its notice and in this section.


(h) Notice of ineligibility – (1) During the review period. If the EPA determines during the review period that manufacture of the new chemical substance does not meet the terms of this section or that there are issues concerning toxicity or exposure that require further review which cannot be accomplished within the 30-day review period, EPA will notify the manufacturer by telephone that the substance is not eligible. This telephone notification will subsequently be confirmed by certified letter that identifies the reasons for the ineligibility determination. The manufacturer may not begin manufacture of the new chemical substance without complying with section 5(a)(1) of the Act or submitting a new notice under paragraph (e) of this section that satisfies EPA’s concerns.


(2) After the review period. (i)(A) If at any time after the review period specified in paragraph (g) of this section the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (“the Assistant Administrator”) makes a preliminary determination that manufacture of the new chemical substance does not meet the terms of this section, the Assistant Administrator will notify the manufacturer by certified letter that EPA believes that the new chemical substance does not meet the terms of the section.


(B) The manufacturer may continue to manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, and use the substance after receiving the notice under paragraph (h)(2)(i)(A) of this section if the manufacturer was manufacturing, processing, distributing in commerce, or using the substance at the time of the notification and if the manufacturer submits objections or an explanation under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section. Manufacturers not manufacturing, processing, distributing in commerce, or using the substance at the time of the notification may not begin manufacture until EPA makes its final determination under paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section.


(ii) A manufacturer who has received notice under paragraph (h)(2)(i)(A) of this section may submit, within 15 days of receipt of written notification, detailed objections to the determination or an explanation of its diligence and good faith efforts in attempting to comply with the terms of this section.


(iii) The Assistant Administrator will consider any objections or explanation submitted under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section and will make a final determination. The Assistant Administrator will notify the manufacturer of the final determination by telephone within 15 days of receipt of the objections or explanation, and subsequently by certified letter.


(iv) If the Assistant Administrator determines that manufacture of the new chemical substance meets the terms of this section, the manufacturer may continue or resume manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, and use in accordance with the terms of this section.


(v) If the Assistant Administrator determines that manufacture of the new chemical substance does not meet the terms of this section and that the manufacturer did not act with due diligence and in good faith to meet the terms of this section, the manufacturer must cease any continuing manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, and use of the new chemical substance within 7 days of the written notification under paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section. The manufacturer may not resume manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, and use of the new chemical substance until it submits a notice under section 5(a)(1) of the Act and part 720 of this chapter and the notice review period has ended.


(vi) If the Assistant Administrator determines that manufacture of the new chemical substance does not meet the terms of this section and that the manufacturer acted with due diligence and in good faith to meet the terms of this section, the manufacturer may continue manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, and use of the new chemical substance if:


(A) It was actually manufacturing, processing, distributing in commerce, or using the chemical substance at the time it received the notification specified in paragraph (h)(2)(i)(A) of this section.


(B) It submits a notice on the new chemical substance under section 5(a)(1) of the Act and part 720 of this chapter within 15 days of receipt of the written notification under paragraph (h)(2)(iii) of this section. Such manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, and use may continue unless EPA takes action under section 5(e) or 5(f) of the Act.


(3) Action under this paragraph does not preclude action under sections 7, 15, 16, or 17 of the Act.


(i) Additional information. If the manufacturer of a new chemical substance under the terms of this exemption obtains test data or other information indicating that the new chemical substance may not qualify under terms of this section, the manufacturer must submit these data or information to EPA within 15 working days of receipt of the information. If, during the notice review period specified in paragraph (g) of this section, the submitter obtains possession, control, or knowledge of new information that materially adds to, changes, or otherwise makes significantly more complete the information included in the notice, the submitter must send that information to the address listed on the notice form within 10 days of receiving the new information, but no later than 5 days before the end of the notice review period. The new submission must clearly identify the submitter and the exemption notice to which the new information is related. If the new information becomes available during the last 5 days of the notice review period, the submitter must immediately inform its EPA contact for that notice by telephone.


(j) Changes in manufacturing site, use, human exposure and environmental release controls, and certain manufacturing volumes. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (j)(6) of this section, chemical substances manufactured under this section must be manufactured at the site or sites described, for the uses described, and under the human exposure and environmental release controls described in the exemption notice under paragraph (e) of this section.


(2) Where the manufacturer lists a specific physical form in which the new chemical substance will be manufactured, processed, and/or used, the manufacturer must continue manufacturing, processing, and/or using the new chemical substance in either the same physical form described in the notice under paragraph (e), or in a physical form which will not increase the human exposure to or environmental release of the new chemical substance over those exposures or releases resulting from the specified physical form (e.g., a manufacturer which specifies that the new chemical substance will be produced in a non-volatile liquid form generally may not change to a respirable powder form).


(3) The annual production volume of chemical substances manufactured under paragraph (c)(1) of this section for which the manufacturer designated a binding annual production volume pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this section must not exceed that designated volume.


(4) Any person who manufactures a new chemical substance under paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section must comply with the provisions of this section, including submission of a new notice under paragraph (e) of this section, before:


(i) Manufacturing the new chemical substance at a site that was not approved in a previous exemption notice for the substance, except as provided in paragraph (j)(6) of this section.


(ii) Manufacturing the new chemical substance for a use that was not approved in a previous exemption notice for the substance.


(iii) Manufacturing the new chemical substance without employing the human exposure and environmental release controls approved in a previous exemption notice for the substance.


(iv) Manufacturing the new chemical substance in a physical form different than that physical form approved in a previous exemption notice for the substance and which form may increase the human exposure to, or environmental release of, the new chemical substance over those exposures or releases resulting from the physical form approved in the previous notice.


(v) Manufacturing the chemical substance in annual production volumes above any volume designated by the manufacturer as binding under paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this section in a previous exemption notice for the substance.


(5) In an exemption notice informing EPA of a change in site, use, or worker protection, or environmental release controls, the manufacturer is not required to provide all of the same information submitted to EPA in a previous exemption notice for that chemical substance. The new exemption notice, however, must indicate the identity of the new chemical substance; the manufacturer’s name; the name and telephone number of a technical contact; and location of the new site, new worker protection or environmental release controls, and new use information. The notice must also include the EPA-designated exemption number assigned to the previous notice and a new certification by the manufacturer, as described in paragraph (e)(2)(xi) of this section.


(6)(i) A manufacturer may, without submitting a new notice, manufacture the new chemical substance at a site not listed in its exemption application under the following conditions:


(A) the magnitude, frequency, and duration of exposure of individual workers to the new chemical substance at the new manufacturing site is equal to, or less than, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of exposure of the individual workers to the new chemical substance at the manufacturing site for which the EPA performed its original risk-assessment pursuant to the original exemption notice; and


(B) Either (1) at the new manufacturing site, the manufacturer does not release to surface waters any of the new chemical substance, or any waste streams containing the new chemical substance; or (2) at the new manufacturing site, the manufacturer maintains surface water concentrations of the chemical substance, resulting from direct or indirect discharges from the manufacturing site, at or below 1 part per billion, or at or below an alternative concentration level approved by the Agency in writing or under the procedures described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section, using the water concentration calculation method described at §§ 721.90 and 721.91.


(ii) The manufacturer shall notify EPA of any new manufacturing site no later than 30 days after the commencement of manufacture of the new chemical substance under the exemption at the new manufacturing site as follows:


(A) The notification must contain the EPA-designated exemption number to which the notification applies, manufacturer identity, the street address of the new manufacturing site, the date on which manufacture commenced at the new site, the name and telephone number of a technical contact at the new site, any claim of confidentiality, and a statement that the notification is an amendment to the original exemption application under the terms of this section.


(B) The notification must be submitted electronically to EPA via CDX as a support document to the original notification. Prior to submission to EPA via CDX, such notices must be generated and completed using the e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to access the e-PMN software.


(k) Customer notification. (1) Manufacturers of new chemical substances described in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section must notify processors and industrial users that the substance can be used only for the uses specified in the exemption notice at paragraph (e) of this section. The manufacturer must also inform processors and industrial users of any controls specified in the exemption notice. The manufacturer may notify processors and industrial users by means of a container labeling system, written notification, or any other method that adequately informs them of use restrictions or controls.


(2) A manufacturer of a new chemical substance described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section may distribute the chemical substance only to other persons who agree in writing to not further distribute the substance until it has been reacted, incorporated into an article, or otherwise rendered into a physical form or state in which environmental releases and human exposures above the eligibility criteria in paragraph (c)(2) of this section are not likely to occur.


(3) If the manufacturer learns that a direct or indirect customer is processing or using the new substance in violation of use restrictions or without imposing prescribed worker protection or environmental release controls, the manufacturer must cease distribution of the substance to the customer or the customer’s supplier immediately unless the manufacturer is able to document each of the following:


(i) That the manufacturer has, within 5 working days, notified the customer in writing that the customer has failed to comply with the conditions specified in this section and the exemption notice under paragraph (e) of this section.


(ii) That, within 15 working days of notifying the customer of the noncompliance, the manufacturer received from the customer, in writing, a statement of assurance that the customer is aware of the terms of this section and the exemption notice and will comply with those terms.


(4) If, after receiving a statement of assurance from a customer under paragraph (k)(3)(ii) of this section, the manufacturer obtains knowledge that the customer has again failed to comply with any of the conditions specified in this section or the exemption notice, the manufacturer shall cease supplying the new chemical substance to that customer and shall report the failure to comply to EPA within 15 days of obtaining this knowledge. Within 30 days of its receipt of the report, EPA will notify the manufacturer whether, and under what conditions, distribution of the chemical substance to the customer may resume.


(l) Confidentiality. (1) If the manufacturer submits information to EPA under this section which the manufacturer claims to be confidential business information, the manufacturer must clearly identify the information at the time of submission to EPA by bracketing, circling, or underlining it and stamping it with “CONFIDENTIAL” or some other appropriate designation. Any information so identified will be treated in accordance with the procedures in part 2 of this chapter. Any information not claimed confidential at the time of submission may be made available to the public without further notice.


(2)(i) Any person who asserts a claim of confidentiality for chemical identity under this paragraph (l) must provide a generic chemical name that is only as generic as necessary to protect the confidential chemical identity of the particular chemical substance. The name should reveal the specific chemical identity to the maximum extent possible.


(ii) The generic name provided by the manufacturer will be subject to EPA review and approval in accordance with the procedures specified in § 720.85(b)(6) of this chapter. The generic name provided by the submitter or an alternative selected by EPA under these procedures will be placed on a public list of substances exempt under this section.


(3) If any information is claimed confidential, the manufacturer must submit a second copy of the notice with all information claimed as confidential deleted. EPA will place the second copy in the public file.


(m) Exemptions granted under superseded regulations. Manufacturers holding exemptions granted under the superseded requirements of this section (as in effect on May 26, 1995) shall either continue to comply with those requirements (including the production volume limit) or apply for a new exemption pursuant to this section. EPA will not accept requests to amend exemptions granted under the superseded requirements; manufacturers wishing to amend such exemptions must submit a new exemption under paragraph (e) of this section. If a new exemption for a new chemical substance is granted under this exemption to the manufacturer holding an exemption under the superseded requirements, the exemption under the superseded requirements for such substance shall be void.


(n) Recordkeeping. (1) A manufacturer of a new chemical substance under paragraph (c) of this section must maintain the records described in this paragraph at the manufacturing site or site of importation for a period of 5 years after their preparation.


(2) The records must include the following to demonstrate compliance with this section:


(i) Records of annual production volume and import volume.


(ii) Records documenting compliance with the applicable requirements and restrictions of paragraphs (c), (e), (f), (h), (i), (j), and (k) of this section.


(3) Any person who manufactures a new chemical substance under the terms of this section must, upon request of a duly designated representative of EPA, permit such person at all reasonable times to have access to and to copy records kept under paragraph (n)(2) of this section.


(4) The manufacturer must submit the records listed in paragraph (n)(2) of this section to EPA upon request. Manufacturers must provide these records within 15 working days of receipt of such request.


(o) Compliance. (1) Failure to comply with any provision of this section is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(2) Submitting materially misleading or false information in connection with the requirements of any provision of this section is a violation of this section and therefore a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(3) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation.


(4) EPA may seek to enjoin the manufacture or processing of a chemical substance in violation of this section, or act to seize any chemical substance manufactured or processed in violation of this section, or take other action under the authority of section 7 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2606) or section 17 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1616).


[60 FR 16346, Mar. 29, 1995, as amended at 60 FR 34465, July 3, 1995; 62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997; 64 FR 31989, June 15, 1999; 71 FR 33642, June 12, 2006; 75 FR 787, Jan. 6, 2010; 77 FR 46292, Aug. 3, 2012; 78 FR 72828, Dec. 4, 2013; 80 FR 42746, July 20, 2015; 87 FR 39769, July 5, 2022]


§ 723.175 Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel-apart film articles.

(a) Purpose and scope. (1) This section grants an exemption from the premanufacture notice requirements of section 5(a)(1)(A) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2604(a)(1)(A)) for the manufacture and processing of new chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel-apart film articles. This section does not apply to microorganisms subject to part 725 of this chapter.


(2) To manufacture a new chemical substance under the terms of this exemption, a manufacturer of instant photographic or peel-apart film articles must:


(i) Submit an exemption notice when manufacture begins under paragraph (i) of this section.


(ii) Comply with certain requirements to limit exposure to the new chemical substance under paragraphs (e) through (h) of this section.


(iii) Comply with all recordkeeping requirements under paragraph (j) of this section.


(iv) Remit the applicable fee specified in § 700.45(c) of this chapter.


(b) Definitions – (1) Act means the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.).


(2) An article is a manufactured item –


(i) Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture;


(ii) Which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during end use; and


(iii) Which has either no change of chemical composition during its end use or only those changes of composition which have no commercial purpose separate from that of the article and that may occur as described in § 710.2 of this chapter except that fluids and particles are not considered articles regardless of shape or design.


(3) The terms byproduct, EPA, impurities, person, and site have the same meanings as in § 710.3 of this chapter.


(4) The term category of chemical substances has the same meaning as in section 26(c)(2) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2625).


(5) The terms chemical substance, distribute in commerce, distribution in commerce, environment, manufacture, new chemical substance, and process have the same meanings as in section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2602).


(6) Director of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics means the Director of the EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics or any EPA employee designated by the Office Director to carry out the Office Director’s functions under this section.


(7) The term exemption category means a category of chemical substances for which a person(s) has applied for or been granted an exemption under section 5(h)(4) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2604).


(8) The term instant photographic film article means a self-developing photographic film article designed so that all the chemical substances contained in the article, including the chemical substances required to process the film, remain sealed during distribution and use.


(9) Intermediate means any chemical substance which is consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction(s) used for the intentional manufacture of another chemical substance.


(10) Known to or reasonably ascertainable means all information in a person’s possession or control, plus all information that a reasonable person similarly situated might be expected to possess, control, or know, or could obtain without unreasonable burden or cost.


(11) The term peel-apart film article means a self-developing photographic film article consisting of a positive image receiving sheet, a light sensitive negative sheet, and a sealed reagent pod containing a developer reagent and designed so that all the chemical substances required to develop or process the film will not remain sealed within the article during and after the development of the film.


(12) Photographic article means any article which will become a component of an instant photographic or peel-apart film article.


(13) Special production area means a demarcated area within which all manufacturing, processing, and use of a new chemical substance takes place, except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.


(14) Test data means:


(i) Data from a formal or informal study, test, experiment, recorded observation, monitoring, or measurement.


(ii) Information concerning the objectives, experimental methods and materials, protocols, results, data analyses (including risk assessments), and conclusions from a study, test, experiment, recorded observation, monitoring, or measurement.


(15) Used in or for the manufacturing or processing of an instant photographic or peel-apart film article, when used to describe activities involving a new chemical substance, means the new chemical substance –


(i) Is included in the article; or


(ii) Is an intermediate to a chemical substance included in the article or is one of a series of intermediates used to manufacture a chemical substance included in the article.


(16) Wet mixture means a water or organic solvent-based suspension, solution, dispersion, or emulsion used in the manufacture of an instant photographic or peel-apart film article.


(c) Exemption category. The exemption category includes new chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic or peel-apart film articles which are manufactured and processed under the terms of this section.


(d) Applicability. This exemption applies only to manufacturers of instant photographic or peel-apart film articles who:


(1) Manufacture the new chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of the instant photographic or peel-apart film articles.


(2) Limit manufacture and processing of a new chemical substance to the site(s) listed in the exemption notice for that new chemical substance submitted under paragraph (i) of this section.


(3) Comply with the requirements of paragraphs (e), (f), (g), (h), and (j) of this section.


(4) Do not distribute in commerce or use a peel-apart film article containing a new chemical substance until submission of a premanufacture notice under section 5(a)(1)(A) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2604) and until the review period for the notice has ended without EPA action to prevent distribution or use.


(e) Conditions of manufacture and processing in the special production area. All manufacturing, processing, and use operations involving the new chemical substance must be performed in a special production area under the conditions set forth in this paragraph until the new chemical substance has been incorporated into a wet mixture, photographic article, or instant photographic or peel-apart film article.


(1) Exposure limits. In the special production area, the ambient air concentration of the new chemical substance during manufacture, processing, and use cannot exceed an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) of 10 ppm for gases and vapors and 50 µg/m
3 for particulates, with an allowable TWA excursion of 50 percent above those concentrations for a duration of 30 minutes or less.


(2) Respiratory protection – (i) Respirator requirement. Except as specified in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, each person in the special production area must wear an appropriate respiratory protection device to protect against dusts, fumes, vapors, and other airborne contaminants, as described in 29 CFR 1910.134. Selection of an appropriate respirator must be made according to the guidance of American National Standard Practices for Respiratory Protection Z88.2-1969 and the NIOSH Certified Equipment List, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH publication No. 80-144.


(ii) Waiver of respirator requirement. Employees are not required to wear respirators if monitoring information collected and analyzed in accordance with paragraph (e)(3) of this section demonstrates that the ambient 8-hour TWA concentration of the new chemical substance in the area is less than 1 ppm for gases and vapors and 5 µg/m
3 for particulates with an allowable TWA excursion of 50 percent above these concentrations for a duration of 30 minutes or less.


(iii) Quantitative fit test. Each respirator must be issued to a specific individual for personal use. A quantitative fit test must be performed for each respirator before its first use by that person in a special production area.


(3) Monitoring – (i) When to monitor. (A) When suitable sampling and analytic methods exist, periodic monitoring in accordance with this paragraph must be done to ensure compliance with the exposure limits of paragraphs (e)(1) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section.


(B) When suitable sampling and analytic methods do not exist, compliance with the exposure limits of paragraph (e)(1) and the requirements of paragraph (e)(10) of this section must be determined by an evaluation of monitoring data developed for a surrogate chemical substance possessing comparable physical-chemical properties under similar manufacturing and processing conditions.


(ii) Monitoring methods. A suitable air sampling method must permit personal or fixed location sampling by conventional collection methods. A suitable analytic method must have adequate sensitivity for the volume of sample available and be specific for the new chemical substance being monitored. If chemical-specific monitoring methods are not available, nonspecific methods may be used if the concentration of the new chemical substance is assumed to be the total concentration of chemical substances monitored.


(iii) Monitoring frequency. (A) When suitable air sampling and analytical procedures are available, monitoring must be done in each special production area during the first three 8-hour work shifts involving the manufacture or processing of each new chemical substance. Thereafter, monitoring must be done in each special production area for at least one 8-hour period per month, during a production run in which the new chemical substance is manufactured or processed. Samples must be of such frequency and pattern as to represent with reasonable accuracy the mean level and maximum 30-minute level of employee exposure during an 8-hour work shift. In monitoring for an 8-hour work shift or the equivalent, samples must be collected periodically or continuously for the duration of the 8-hour work shift. Samples must be taken during a period which is likely to represent the maximum employee exposure.


(B) If the manufacturer demonstrates compliance with the exposure limits for 3 consecutive months, further monitoring of the identical process must be performed only every 6 months thereafter, unless there is a significant change in the process, process design, or equipment. If there is such a change, the manufacturer must begin monitoring again according to the schedule in paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(A) of this section.


(iv) Location of monitoring. Air samples must be taken so as to ensure that the samples adequately represent the ambient air concentration of a new chemical substance present in each worker’s breathing zone.


(4) Engineering controls and exposure safeguards. Engineering controls such as, but not limited to, isolation, enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, and dust collection must be used to ensure compliance with the exposure limits prescribed in paragraph (e)(1) or (e)(2)(ii) of this section.


(5) Training, hygiene, and work practices – (i) Training. No employee may enter a special production area before the completion of a training program. The training program must be adapted to the individual circumstances of the manufacturer and must address: The known physical-chemical and toxicological properties of the chemical substances handled in the area; procedures for using and maintaining respirators and other personal safeguards; applicable principles of hygiene; special handling procedures designed to limit personal exposure to, and inadvertent release of, chemical substances; and procedures for responding to emergencies or spills.


(ii) Hygiene. Appropriate standards of hygiene must be observed by all employees handling a new chemical substance in manufacturing, processing, or transfer operations. The manufacturer must provide appropriate facilities for employee changing and wash-up. Food, beverages, tobacco products, and cosmetics must not be allowed in special production areas.


(iii) Work practices. Operating procedures such as those related to chemical weighing and filtering, or the charging, discharging and clean-up of process equipment, must be designed and conducted to ensure compliance with the exposure limits prescribed in paragraph (e)(1) or (e)(2)(ii) of this section. Written procedures and all materials necessary for responding to emergency situations must be immediately accessible to all employees in a special production area. Any spill or unanticipated emission must be controlled by specially trained personnel using the equipment and protective clothing described in paragraph (e)(6) of this section.


(6) Personal protection devices. All workers engaged in the manufacture and processing of a new chemical substance in the special production area must wear suitable protective clothing or equipment, such as chemical-resistant coveralls, protective eyewear, and gloves.


(7) Caution signs. Each special production area must be clearly posted with signs identifying the area as a special production area where new chemical substances are manufactured and processed under controlled conditions. Each sign must clearly restrict entry into the special production area to qualified personnel who are properly trained and equipped with appropriate personal exposure safeguards.


(8) Removal for storage or transportation. A new chemical substance that is not incorporated into a wet mixture, photographic article, or instant photographic or peel-apart film article may be removed from the special production area for purposes of storage between operational steps or for purposes of transportation to another special production area. Such storage or transportation must be conducted in a manner that limits worker and environmental exposure through the use of engineering controls, training, hygiene, work practices, and personal protective devices appropriate to the chemical substance in question.


(9) Labeling. (i) Any new chemical substance removed from a special production area or stored or transported between operational steps must be clearly labeled. The label must show the identity of the new chemical substance or an appropriate identification code, a statement of any known hazards associated with it, a list of special handling instructions, first aid information, spill control directions, and where applicable, the appropriate U.S. Department of Transportation notations.


(ii) No label is required if the new chemical substance has been incorporated into a photographic article, or if it is contained in a sealed reaction vessel or pipeline, or if it has been incorporated into an instant photographic or peel-apart film article.


(10) Areas immediately adjacent to the special production area. The ambient air concentration of the new chemical substance in areas immediately adjacent to the special production area must not exceed the exposure limit established in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section for waiver of respirator protection within the special production area. Periodic monitoring in accordance with paragraph (e)(3) of this section must be performed in immediately adjacent areas where it is reasonable to expect a risk of inhalation exposure.


(f) Conditions of processing outside the special production area. A wet mixture may be incorporated into a photographic article or an instant photographic or peel-apart film article outside the special production area under the conditions listed in this paragraph:


(1) Engineering controls and exposure safeguards. Engineering controls must limit the exposure to a new chemical substance contained in a wet mixture.


(2) Training, hygiene and work practices – (i) Training. Training of employees involved in the handling of wet mixtures containing a new chemical substance must be adapted to the individual circumstances of the employees’ activities and must address: Procedures for using personal exposure safeguards, applicable principles of hygiene, handling procedures designed to limit personal exposure, and procedures for responding to emergencies and spills.


(ii) Hygiene. Appropriate standards of hygiene that limit exposure must be observed by all employees handling wet mixtures that contain new chemical substances.


(iii) Work practices. Work practices and operating procedures must be designed to limit exposure to any new chemical substance contained in wet mixtures. Any spills or unanticipated releases of a wet mixture must be controlled by trained personnel wearing appropriate protective clothing or equipment such as gloves, eye protection, and, where necessary, respirators or chemically impervious clothing.


(3) Personal protection devices. All workers engaged in the processing of a wet mixture containing a new chemical substance must wear suitable protective clothing or equipment such as coveralls, protective eyewear, respirators, and gloves.


(g) Incorporation of photographic articles into instant photographic and peel-apart film articles. A photographic article may be incorporated into the instant photographic or peel-apart film article outside the special production area. The manufacturer must take measures to limit worker and environmental exposure to new chemical substances during these operations using engineering controls, training, hygiene, work practices, and personal protective devices.


(h) Environmental release and waste treatment – (1) Release to land. Process waste from manufacturing and processing operations in the special production area that contain a new chemical substance are considered to be hazardous waste and must be handled in accordance with the requirements of parts 262 through 267 and parts 122 and 124 of this chapter.


(2) Release to water. All wastewater or discharge which contain the new chemical substance must be appropriately pretreated before release to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) or other receiving body of water. In the case of release to a POTW, the pretreatment must prevent structural damage to, obstruction of, or interference with the operation of the POTW. The treatment of direct release to a receiving body of water must be appropriate for the new chemical substance’s physical-chemical properties and potential toxicity.


(3) Release to air. All process emissions released to the air which contain the new chemical substance must be vented through control devices appropriate for the new chemical substance’s physical-chemical properties and potential toxicity.


(i) Exemption notice. An exemption notices must be submitted to EPA when manufacture of the new chemical substance begins.


(1) Contents of exemption notice. The exemption notice must include the following information:


(i) Manufacturer and sites. The notice must identify the manufacturer and the sites and locations where the new chemical substance and the instant photographic or peel-apart film articles will be manufactured and processed.


(ii) Chemical identification. The notice must identify the new chemical substance as follows:


(A) Class 1 substances. For chemical substances whose composition can be represented by a definite structural diagram (Class 1 substances), the notice must provide the chemical name (preferably CAS or IUPAC nomenclature), the molecular formula, CAS Registry Number (if available), known synonyms (including trade names), and a structural diagram.


(B) Class 2 substances. For chemical substances that cannot be fully represented by a structural diagram, (Class 2 substances), the notice must provide the chemical name, the molecular formula, the CAS Registry Number (if available), and known synonyms (including trade names). The notice must identify the immediate precursors and reactants by name and CAS Registry Number (if available). The notice must include a partial or incomplete structural diagram, if available.


(C) Polymers. For a polymer, the notice must identify monomers and other reactants used in the manufacture of the polymer by chemical name and CAS Registry Number. The notice must indicate the amount of each monomer used (by weight percent of total monomer); the maximum residual of each monomer present in the polymer; and a partial or incomplete structural diagram, if available. The notice must indicate the number average molecular weight of the polymer and characterize the anticipated low molecular weight species. The notice must include this information for each typical average molecular weight composition of the polymer to be manufactured.


(iii) Impurities. The notice must identify the impurities that can be reasonably anticipated to be present in the new chemical substance when manufactured under the exemption by name and CAS Registry Number, by class of substances, or by process or source. The notice also must estimate the maximum percent (by weight) of each impurity in the new chemical substance and the percent of unknown impurities present.


(iv) Physical-chemical properties. The notice must describe the physical-chemical properties of the new chemical substance. Where specific physical-chemical data are not available, reasonable estimates and the techniques used to develop these estimates must be provided.


(v) Byproducts. The notice must identify the name, CAS Registry number (if available), and the volume of each byproduct that would be manufactured during manufacture of the new chemical substance.


(vi) Production volume. The notice must include an estimate of the anticipated maximum annual production volume.


(vii) Test data. The notice must include all information and test data on the new chemical substance’s health and environmental effects that are known to or reasonably ascertainable by the manufacturer.


(viii) Identity of the article. The notice must identify and describe the instant photographic film article(s) or peel-apart film article(s) that will contain the new chemical substance.


(ix) Release to water. The notice must include a description of the methods used to control and treat wastewater or discharge released to a POTW or other receiving body of water. The notice must also identify the POTW or receiving body of water.


(x) Certification. The manufacturer must certify in the notice that it is familiar with the terms of the exemption and that the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, and disposal of the new chemical substance will comply with those terms.


(xi) Fee payment ID number. The manufacturer or processor must include a payment identity number on the front page of the notice.


(2) Duplication of information in premanufacture notice. If a manufacturer who submits an exemption notice under this paragraph has already submitted, or simultaneously submits, a premanufacture notice under section 5(a)(1)(A) of the Act for the new chemical substance, it may, in lieu of submitting the information required by this paragraph, reference the required information to the extent it is included in the premanufacture notice. At a minimum, the exemption notice must identify the manufacturer and the new chemical substance, and contain the certification required by paragraph (i)(1)(x) of this section.


(3) Address. The exemption notice must be addressed to the Document Control Office (DCO) (7407M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001.


(j) Recordkeeping. (1) Manufacturers of a new chemical substance under this exemption must keep the following records for 30 years from the final date of manufacture.


(i) Production records. Each manufacturer must maintain records of the annual production volume of each new chemical substance manufactured under the terms of the exemption. This record must indicate when manufacture of the new chemical substance began.


(ii) Exposure monitoring records. Manufacturers must maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required by this section. Monitoring records may be adapted to the individual circumstances of the manufacturer but, at a minimum, must contain the following information: The chemical identity of the new chemical substance, date of the monitoring, the actual monitoring data for each monitoring location and sampling, and a reference to or description of the collection and analytic techniques. If the manufacturer does not monitor, the manufacturer must maintain a record of the reasons for not monitoring and the methods used to determine compliance with the exposure limits of paragraph (e)(1) of this section.


(iii) Training and exposure records. For each employee engaged in the manufacture or processing of a new chemical substance, the company must develop and maintain a record of the worker’s participation in required training. This record must also demonstrate the regular use of personal exposure safeguards, including the results of any personal exposure monitoring, the results of the quantitative fit test for the worker’s personal respirator, and any additional information related to the worker’s occupational exposure.


(iv) Treatment records. Manufacturers who release treated wastewater or discharge containing a new chemical substance to a POTW or other receiving body of water must maintain records of the method of treatment.


(2) The manufacturer must make the records listed in paragraph (j)(1) of this section available to EPA upon written request by the Director of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. The manufacturer must provide these records within 15 working days of receipt of this request.


(k) Confidentiality. If the manufacturer submits information under paragraph (i) or (j) of this section which it claims to be confidential business information, the manufacturer must clearly identify the information at the time of submission to the Agency by bracketing, circling, or underlining it and stamping it with “CONFIDENTIAL” or some other appropriate designation. Any information so identified will be treated in accordance with the procedures in part 2 of this chapter. Any information not claimed confidential at the time of submission will be made available to the public without further notice to the submitter.


(l) Amendment and repeal. (1) EPA may amend or repeal any term of this exemption if it determines that the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, and disposal of new chemical substances under the terms of the exemption may present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment. EPA also may amend this exemption to enlarge the exemption category or to reduce the restrictions or conditions of the exemption.


(2) As required by section 5(h)(4) of the Act, EPA will amend or repeal the substantive terms of an exemption granted under this part only by the formal rulemaking procedures described in section 6(c)(2) and (3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2605(c)).


(m) Prohibition of use of the exemption. The Director of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics may prohibit the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, or disposal of any new chemical substance under the terms of this exemption if he or she determines that the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the new chemical substance may present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(n) Enforcement. (1) A failure to comply with any provision of this part is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(2) Submitting materially misleading or false information in connection with the requirements of any provision of this part is a violation of this regulation and therefore a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(3) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation.


(4) EPA may seek to enjoin the manufacture of a new chemical substance in violation of this exemption or act to seize any chemical substances manufactured in violation of the exemption under the authority of section 17 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2616).


[83 FR 52719, Oct. 17, 2018]


§ 723.250 Polymers.

(a) Purpose and scope. (1) This section grants an exemption from certain of the premanufacture notice requirements of section 5(a)(1)(A) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2604(a)(1)(A)) for the manufacture of certain polymers. This section does not apply to microorganisms subject to part 725 of this chapter.


(2) To manufacture a new chemical substance under the terms of this section, a manufacturer must:


(i) Determine that the substance meets the definition of polymer in paragraph (b) of this section.


(ii) Determine that the substance is not specifically excluded by paragraph (d) of this section.


(iii) Ensure that the substance meets the exemption criteria of paragraph (e) of this section.


(iv) Submit a report as required under paragraph (f) of this section.


(v) Comply with the recordkeeping requirements of paragraph (j) of this section.


(b) Definitions. In addition to the definitions under section 3 of the Act, 15 U.S.C. 2602, the following definitions apply to this part.


Act means the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.).


Biopolymer means a polymer directly produced by living or once-living cells or cellular components.


Category of chemical substances has the same meaning as in section 26(c)(2) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2625).


Cationic polymer means a polymer that contains a net positively charged atom(s) or associated groups of atoms covalently linked to its polymer molecule.


Chemical substance, Director, EPA, importer, impurity, Inventory, known to or reasonably ascertainable, manufacture, manufacturer, mixture, new chemical, person, possession or control, process and test data have the same meanings as in § 720.3 of this chapter.


Equivalent weight of a functional group means the ratio of the molecular weight to the number of occurrences of that functional group in the molecule. It is the weight of substance that contains one formula-weight of the functional group.


Fluorotelomers means the products of telomerization, which is the reaction of a telogen (such as pentafluoroethyl iodide) with an ethylenic compound (such as tetrafluoroethylene) to form low molecular weight polymeric compounds, which contain an array of saturated carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other (C-C bonds) and to fluorine atoms (C-F bonds). This array is predominantly a straight chain, and depending on the telogen used produces a compound having an even number of carbon atoms. However, the carbon chain length of the fluorotelomer varies widely. The perfluoroalkyl groups formed by this process are usually, but do not have to be, connected to the polymer through a functionalized ethylene group as indicated by the following structural diagram: (Rf-CH2CH2-Anything).


Internal monomer unit means a monomer unit that is covalently bonded to at least two other molecules. Internal monomer units of polymer molecules are chemically derived from monomer molecules that have formed covalent bonds between two or more other monomer molecules or other reactants.


Monomer means a chemical substance that is capable of forming covalent bonds with two or more like or unlike molecules under the conditions of the relevant polymer-forming reaction used for the particular process.


Monomer Unit means the reacted form of the monomer in a polymer.


Number-average molecular weight means the arithmetic average (mean) of the molecular weight of all molecules in a polymer.


Oligomer means a polymer molecule consisting of only a few monomer units (dimer, trimer, tetramer)


Other reactant means a molecule linked to one or more sequences of monomer units but which, under the relevant reaction conditions used for the particular process, cannot become a repeating unit in the polymer structure.


Perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (PFAC) means a group of saturated carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other in a linear, branched, or cyclic array and covalently bonded to a carbonyl moiety and where all carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds have been replaced with carbon-fluorine (C-F) bonds. The carbonyl moiety is also covalently bonded to a hetero atom, typically, but not necessarily oxygen (O) or nitrogen (N).


Perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) means a group of saturated carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other in a linear, branched, or cyclic array and covalently bonded to a sulfonyl moiety and where all carbon – hydrogen (C-H) bonds have been replaced with carbon – fluorine (C-F) bonds. The sulfonyl moiety is also covalently bonded to a hetero atom, typically, but not necessarily oxygen (O) or nitrogen (N).


Polyester means a chemical substance that meets the definition of polymer and whose polymer molecules contain at least two carboxylic acid ester linkages, at least one of which links internal monomer units together.


Polymer means a chemical substance consisting of molecules characterized by the sequence of one or more types of monomer units and comprising a simple weight majority of molecules containing at least 3 monomer units which are covalently bound to at least one other monomer unit or other reactant and which consists of less than a simple weight majority of molecules of the same molecular weight. Such molecules must be distributed over a range of molecular weights wherein differences in the molecular weight are primarily attributable to differences in the number of monomer units. In the context of this definition, sequence means that the monomer units under consideration are covalently bound to one another and form a continuous string within the molecule, uninterrupted by units other than monomer units.


Polymer molecule means a molecule which contains a sequence of at least 3 monomer units which are covalently bound to at least one other monomer unit or other reactant.


Reactant means a chemical substance that is used intentionally in the manufacture of a polymer to become chemically a part of the polymer composition.


Reactive functional group means an atom or associated group of atoms in a chemical substance that is intended or can reasonably be anticipated to undergo further chemical reaction.


Reasonably anticipated means that a knowledgeable person would expect a given physical or chemical composition or characteristic to occur based on such factors as the nature of the precursors used to manufacture the polymer, the type of reaction, the type of manufacturing process, the products produced in polymerization, the intended uses of the substance, or associated use conditions.


(c) Applicability. This section applies to manufacturers of new chemical substances that otherwise must submit a premanufacture notice to EPA under § 720.22 of this chapter. New substances are eligible for exemption under this section if they meet the definition of “polymer” in paragraph (b) of this section, and the criteria in paragraph (e) of this section, and if they are not excluded from the exemption under paragraph (d) of this section.


(d) Polymers that cannot be manufactured under this section – (1) Cationic polymers. A polymer cannot be manufactured under this section if the polymer is a cationic polymer as defined under paragraph (b) of this section or if the polymer is reasonably anticipated to become a cationic polymer in a natural aquatic environment (e.g., rivers, lakes) unless:


(i) The polymer is a solid material that is not soluble or dispersible in water and will be used only in the solid phase (e.g., polymers that will be used as ion exchange beads), or


(ii) The combined (total) functional group equivalent weight of cationic groups in the polymer is equal to or greater than 5,000.


(2) Elemental limitations. (i) A polymer manufactured under this section must contain as an integral part of its composition at least two of the atomic elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and sulfur.


(ii) A polymer cannot be manufactured under this section if it contains as an integral part of its composition, except as impurities, any elements other than the following:


(A) The elements listed in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.


(B) Sodium, magnesium, aluminum, potassium, calcium, chlorine, bromine, and iodine as the monatomic counterions Na = , Mg = 2, Al = 3, K = , Ca = 2, Cl, Br, or I−.


(C) Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine covalently bound to carbon.


(D) Less than 0.20 weight percent of any combination of the atomic elements lithium, boron, phosphorus, titanium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, tin, and zirconium.


(3) Polymers which degrade, decompose, or depolymerize. A polymer cannot be manufactured under this section if the polymer is designed or is reasonably anticipated to substantially degrade, decompose, or depolymerize, including those polymers that could substantially decompose after manufacture and use, even though they are not actually intended to do so. For the purposes of this section, degradation, decomposition, or depolymerization mean those types of chemical change that convert a polymeric substance into simpler, smaller substances, through processes including but not limited to oxidation, hydrolysis, attack by solvents, heat, light, or microbial action.


(4) Polymers manufactured or imported from monomers and reactants not on the TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory. A polymer cannot be manufactured under this section if the polymer being manufactured or imported is prepared from monomers and/or other reactants (that are either charged to the reaction vessel or incorporated in the polymer at levels of greater than 2 weight percent) that are not already included on the TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory or manufactured under an applicable TSCA section 5 exemption.


(5) Water absorbing polymers with number average molecular weight (MW) 10,000 and greater. A polymer cannot be manufactured under this section if the polymer being manufactured or imported is a water absorbing polymer and has a number average MW greater than or equal to 10,000 daltons. For purposes of this section, a water-absorbing polymer is a polymeric substance that is capable of absorbing its weight of water.


(6) Polymers which contain certain perfluoroalkyl moieties consisting of a CF3- or longer chain length. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(6)(i), after February 26, 2010, a polymer cannot be manufactured under this section if the polymer contains as an integral part of its composition, except as impurities, one or more of the following perfluoroalkyl moieties consisting of a CF3- or longer chain length: Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFAS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFAC), fluorotelomers, or perfluoroalkyl moieties that are covalently bound to either a carbon or sulfur atom where the carbon or sulfur atom is an integral part of the polymer molecule.


(i) Any polymer that has been manufactured previously in full compliance with the requirements of this section prior to February 26, 2010 may no longer be manufactured under this section after January 27, 2012.


(ii) [Reserved]


(e) Exemption criteria. To be manufactured under this section, the polymer must meet one of the following criteria:


(1) Polymers with number average MW greater than or equal to 1,000 and less than 10,000 daltons (and oligomer content less than 10 percent below MW 500 and less than 25 percent below MW 1,000). (i) The polymer must have a number average MW greater than or equal to 1,000 and less than 10,000 daltons and contain less than 10 percent oligomeric material below MW 500 and less than 25 percent oligomeric material below MW 1,000.


(ii) The polymer cannot contain reactive functional groups unless it meets one of the following criteria:


(A) The polymer contains only the following reactive functional groups: carboxylic acid groups, aliphatic hydroxyl groups, unconjugated olefinic groups that are considered “ordinary,”(i.e., not specially activated either by being part of a larger functional group, such as a vinyl ether, or by other activating influences, e.g., strongly electron-withdrawing sulfone group with which the olefinic groups interact), butenedioic acid groups, those conjugated olefinic groups contained in naturally-occurring fats, oils, and carboxylic acids, blocked isocyanates (including ketoxime-blocked isocyanates), thiols, unconjugated nitrile groups, and halogens (except that reactive halogen-containing groups such as benzylic or allylichalides cannot be included).


(B) The polymer has a combined (total) reactive group equivalent weight greater than or equal to 1,000 for the following reactive functional groups: acidhalides; acid anhydrides; aldehydes, hemiacetals; methylolamides,- amines or,- ureas; alkoxysilanes with alkoxy greater than C2-alkoxysilanes; allyl ethers; conjugated olefins; cyanates; epoxides; imines; or unsubstituted positions ortho or para to phenolic hydroxyl; or


(C) If any reactive functional groups not included in paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section are present, the combined (total) reactive group equivalent weight, including any groups listed in paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(B), is greater than or equal to 5,000.


(2) Polymers with number average MW greater than or equal to 10,000 (and oligomer content less than 2 percent below MW 500 and less than 5 percent below MW 1,000) . The polymer must have a number average MW greater than or equal to 10,000 daltons and contain less than 2 percent oligomeric material below MW 500 and less than 5 percent oligomeric material below MW 1000.


(3) Polyester polymers. The polymer is a polyester as defined in paragraph (b) of this section and is manufactured solely from one or more of the reactants in the following table 1:


Table 1 – List of Reactants From Which Polyester May be Made

Reactant
CAS No.
Monobasic Acids and Natural Oils
Benzoic acid65-85-0
Canola oil120962-03-0
Coconut oil8001-31-8*
Corn oil8001-30-7*
Cottonseed oil8001-29-4*
Dodecanoic acid143-07-7
Fats and glyceridic oils, anchovy128952-11-4*
Fats and glyceridic oils, babassu91078-92-1*
Fats and glyceridic oils, herring68153-06-0*
Fats and glyceridic oils, menhaden8002-50-4*
Fats and glyceridic oils, sardine93334-41-9*
Fats and glyceridic oils, oiticica8016-35-1*
Fatty acids,C16-18 and C18-unsatd.67701-08-0*
Fatty acids, castor-oil61789-44-4*
Fatty acids, coco61788-47-4*
Fatty acids, dehydrated castor-oil61789-45-5*
Fatty acids, linseed oil68424-45-3*
Fatty acids, safflower oil
Fatty acids, soya68308-53-2*
Fatty acids, sunflower oil84625-38-7*
Fatty acids, sunflower-oil, conjugated68953-27-5*
Fatty acids, tall-oil61790-12-3*
Fatty acids, tall-oil, conjugated*
Fatty acids, vegetable oil61788-66-7*
Glycerides, C16-18 and C18-unsatd.67701-30-8*
Heptanoic acid111-14-8
Hexanoic acid142-62-1
Hexanoic acid, 3,3,5-trimethyl-3302-10-1
Linseed oil8001-26-1*
Linseed oil, oxidized68649-95-6*
Nonanoic acid112-05-0
Oils, Cannabis*
Oils, palm kernel8023-79-8*
Oils, perilla68132-21-8*
Oils, walnut8024-09-7
Safflower oil8001-23-8*
Soybean oil8001-22-7*
Sunflower oil8001-21-6*
Tung oil8001-20-5*
Di and Tri Basic Acids:
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid88-99-3
1,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid121-91-5
1,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester1459-93-4
1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid100-21-0
1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester636-09-9
1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester120-61-6
1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid528-44-9
Butanedioic acid110-15-6
Butanedioic acid, diethyl ester123-25-1
Butanedioic acid, dimethyl ester106-65-0
2-Butenedioic acid (E)-110-17-8
Decanedioic acid111-20-6
Decanedioic acid, diethyl ester110-40-7
Decanedioic acid, dimethyl ester106-79-6
Dodecanedioic acid693-23-2
Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers61788-89-4*
Heptanedioic acid111-16-0
Heptanedioic acid, dimethyl ester1732-08-7
Hexanedioic acid124-04-9
Hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester627-93-0
Hexanedioic acid, diethyl ester141-28-6
Nonanedioic acid123-99-9
Nonanedioic acid, dimethyl ester1732-10-1
Nonanedioic acid, diethyl ester624-17-9
Octanedioic acid(505-48-6)
Octanedioic acid, dimethyl ester1732-09-8
Pentanedioic acid(110-94-1)
Pentanedioic acid, dimethyl ester1119-40-0
Pentanedioic acid, diethyl ester818-38-2
Undecanedioic acid1852-04-6
Polyols
1,3-Butanediol107-88-0
1,4-Butanediol110-63-4
1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol105-08-8
1,2-Ethanediol107-21-1
Ethanol, 2,2′-oxybis-111-46-6
1,6-Hexanediol629-11-8
1,3-Pentanediol, 2,2,4-trimethyl-144-19-4
1,2-Propanediol,57-55-6
1,3-Propanediol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-115-77-5
1,3-Propanediol, 2,2-dimethyl-126-30-7
1,3-Propanediol, 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-77-99-6
1,3-Propanediol, 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyl-77-85-0
1,3-propanediol, 2-methyl2163-42-0
1,2,3-Propanetriol56-81-5
1,2,3-Propanetriol, homopolymer25618-55-7
2-Propen-1-ol, polymer with ethenylbenzene25119-62-4
Modifiers
Acetic acid, 2,2′-oxybis-110-99-6
1-Butanol71-36-3**
Cyclohexanol108-93-0
Cyclohexanol, 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bis-80-04-6
Ethanol, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)-112-34-5
1-Hexanol111-27-3
Methanol, hydrolysis products with trichlorohexylsilane and trichlorophenylsilane72318-84-4*
1-Phenanthrenemethanol, tetradecahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-13393-93-6
Phenol, 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bis-, polymer with 2,2′- [(1-methylethylidene)bis(4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)] bis[oxirane]25036-25-3
Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, di-Ph, polymers with Ph silsesquioxanes, methoxy-terminated68440-65-3*
Siloxanes and Silicones, di-Me, methoxy Ph, polymers with Ph silsesquioxanes, methoxy-terminated68957-04-0*
Siloxanes and Silicones, Me Ph, methoxy Ph, polymers with Ph silsesquioxanes, methoxy- and Ph-terminated
168957-06-2*
Silsesquioxanes, Ph Pr
168037-90-1*

* Chemical substance of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products, and biological materials (UVCB). The CAS Registry Numbers for UVCB substances are not used in CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS and its indexes.

** These substances may not be used in a substance manufactured from fumaric or maleic acid because of potential risks associated with esters, which may be formed by reaction of these reactants.


(f) Exemption report for polymers manufactured under the terms of this section. For substances exempt under paragraphs (e)(1), (e)(2), and (e)(3) of this section a report of manufacture or import must be submitted (postmarked) by January 31 of the year subsequent to initial manufacture. The notice must include:


(1) Manufacturer’s name. This includes the name and address of the manufacturer and the name and telephone number of a technical contact.


(2) Number of substances manufactured. Number of substances manufactured. The manufacturer must identify the number of polymers manufactured under terms of the exemption for the first time in the year preceding the notice.


(g) Chemical identity information. For substances exempt under paragraph (e) of this section the manufacturer must to the extent known to or reasonably ascertainable by the manufacturer identify the following and maintain the records in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section:


(1) A specific chemical name and CAS Registry Number (or EPA assigned Accession Number) for each “reactant,” as that term is defined in paragraph (b) of this section, used at any weight in the manufacture of the polymer. For purposes of determining chemical identity, the manufacturer may determine whether a reactant is used at greater than two weight percent according to either the weight of the reactant charged to the reaction vessel or the weight of the chemically combined (incorporated) reactant in the polymer. Manufacturers who choose the “incorporated” method must have analytical data, or theoretical calculations (if it can be documented that an analytical determination cannot be made or is not necessary), to demonstrate compliance with this paragraph. Reactants that introduce into the polymer elements, properties, or functional groups that would render the polymer ineligible for the exemption are not allowed at any level.


(2) A representative structural diagram, if possible.


(h) Certification. To manufacture a substance under the terms of this section, a manufacturer must as of the date of first manufacture, make the following certification statements and maintain them in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section:


(1) The substance is manufactured or imported for a commercial purpose other than for research and development.


(2) All information in the certification is truthful.


(3) The new chemical substance meets the definition of a polymer, is not specifically excluded from the exemption in paragraph (d) of this section, and meets the conditions of the exemption in paragraph (e) of this section.


(i) Exemptions granted under superseded regulations. Manufacturers granted exemptions under the superseded requirements of § 723.250 (as in effect on May 26, 1995) shall either continue to comply with those requirements or follow all procedural and recordkeeping requirements pursuant to this section. If an exemption holder continues to follow the superseded regulations, the Notice of Commencement requirements apply and the exempt polymer will continue to be listed on the Inventory with exclusion criteria and exemption category restrictions on residual monomer/reactant and low molecular weight species content limitations.


(j) Recordkeeping. (1) A manufacturer of a new polymer under paragraphs (e) of this section, must retain the records described in this paragraph at the manufacturing site for a period of 5 years from the date of commencement of manufacture.


(2) The records must include the following to demonstrate compliance with the terms of this section:


(i) Chemical identity information as required in paragraph (g) of this section.


(ii) Information to demonstrate that the new polymer is not specifically excluded from the exemption.


(iii) Records of production volume for the first 3 years of manufacture and the date of commencement of manufacture.


(iv) Information to demonstrate that the new polymer meets the exemption criteria in paragraphs (e)(1), (e)(2), or (e)(3) of this section.


(v) Analytical data, or theoretical calculations (if it can be documented that an analytical determination cannot be made or is not necessary), to demonstrate that the polymer meets the number-average MW exemption criteria in paragraphs (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section. The analytical tests may include gel permeation chromatography (GPC).vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), or other such tests which will demonstrate that the polymer meets the number-average MW criterion.


(vi) Analytical data, or theoretical calculations (if it can be documented that an analytical determination cannot be made or is not necessary), to demonstrate that the polymer meets the criteria in paragraphs (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section, meets the low MW content criteria in paragraphs (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section.


(vii) If applicable, analytical data, or theoretical calculations (if it can be documented that an analytical determination cannot be made or is not necessary) required in paragraph (g) of this section for determining monomers or reactants charged to the reaction vessel at greater than 2 weight percent but incorporated at 2 weight percent or less in the manufactured polymer.


(viii) The certification statements as required under paragraph (h) of this section.


(3) The manufacturer must submit the records listed in paragraph (j)(2) of this section to EPA upon written request by EPA. The manufacturer must provide these records within 15 working days of receipt of this request. In addition, any person who manufactures a new chemical substance under the terms of this section, upon request of EPA, must permit such person at all reasonable times to have access to and to copy these records.


(k) Submission of information. Information submitted to EPA under this section must be sent in writing to: TSCA Document Control Officer, (7407), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.


(l) Compliance. (1) A person who manufactures or imports a new chemical substance and fails to comply with any provision of this section is in violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(2) Using for commercial purposes a chemical substance or mixture which a person knew or had reason to know was manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce in violation of section 5 of the Act is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(3) Failure or refusal to establish and maintain records or to permit access to or copying of records, as required by this section and section 11 of the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(4) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection as required by section 11 of the Act is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(5) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation. Persons who submit materially misleading or false information in connection with the requirements of any provision of this section may be subject to penalties calculated as if they never filed their notices.


(6) EPA may seek to enjoin the manufacture or processing of a chemical substance in violation of this section or act to seize any chemical substance manufactured or processed in violation of this section or take other actions under the authority of section 7 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2606) or section 17 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2616).


(m) Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to assure compliance with section 5 and this section, to verify that information submitted to EPA under this section is true and correct, and to audit data submitted to EPA under this section.


(n) Confidentiality. If a manufacturer submits information to EPA under this section which the manufacturer claims to be confidential business information, the manufacturer must clearly identify the information at the time of submission to EPA by bracketing, circling, or underlining it and stamping it with “CONFIDENTIAL” or some other appropriate designation. Any information so identified will be treated in accordance with the procedures in 40 CFR part 2. Any information not claimed confidential at the time of submission may be made available to the public without further notice.


[60 FR 16332, Mar. 29, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997; 75 FR 4305, Jan. 27, 2010; 87 FR 39769, July 5, 2022]


PART 725 – REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2604, 2607, 2613, and 2625.


Source:62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General Provisions and Applicability

§ 725.1 Scope and purpose.

(a) This part establishes all reporting requirements under section 5 of TSCA for manufacturers, importers, and processors of microorganisms subject to TSCA jurisdiction for commercial purposes, including research and development for commercial purposes. New microorganisms for which manufacturers and importers are required to report under section 5(a)(1)(A) of TSCA are those that are intergeneric. In addition, under section 5(a)(1)(B) of TSCA, manufacturers, importers, and processors may be required to report for any microorganism that EPA determines by rule is being manufactured, imported, or processed for a significant new use.


(b) Any manufacturer, importer, or processor required to report under section 5 of TSCA (see § 725.100 for new microorganisms and § 725.900 for significant new uses) must file a Microbial Commercial Activity Notice (MCAN) with EPA, unless the activity is eligible for a specific exemption as described in this part. The general procedures for filing MCANs are described in subpart D of this part. The exemptions from the requirement to file a MCAN are for certain kinds of contained activities (see §§ 725.424 and 725.428), test marketing activities (see § 725.300), and research and development activities described in paragraph (c) of this section.


(c) Any manufacturer, importer, or processor required to file a MCAN for research and development (R&D) activities may instead file a TSCA Experimental Release Application (TERA) for a specific test (see § 725.250). A TERA is not required for certain R&D activities; however a TERA exemption does not extend beyond the research and development stage, to general commercial use of the microorganism, for which compliance with MCAN requirements is required. The TERA exemptions are for R&D activities subject to other Federal agencies or programs (see § 725.232), certain kinds of contained R&D activities (see § 725.234), and R&D activities using certain listed microorganisms (see § 725.238).


(d) New microorganisms will be added to the Inventory established under section 8 of TSCA once a MCAN has been received, the MCAN review period has expired, and EPA receives a Notice of Commencement (NOC) indicating that manufacture or importation has actually begun. New microorganisms approved for use under a TERA will not be added to the Inventory until a MCAN has been received, the MCAN review period has expired, and EPA has received an NOC.


§ 725.3 Definitions.

Definitions in section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2602), as well as definitions contained in §§ 704.3, 720.3, and 721.3 of this chapter, apply to this part unless otherwise specified in this section. In addition, the following definitions apply to this part:


Consolidated microbial commercial activity notice or consolidated MCAN means any MCAN submitted to EPA that covers more than one microorganism (each being assigned a separate MCAN number by EPA) as a result of a prenotice agreement with EPA.


Containment and/or inactivation controls means any combination of engineering, mechanical, procedural, or biological controls designed and operated to restrict environmental release of viable microorganisms from a structure.


Director means the Director of the EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.


Exemption request means any application submitted to EPA under subparts E, F, or G of this part.


General commercial use means use for commercial purposes other than research and development.


Genome means the sum total of chromosomal and extrachromosomal genetic material of an isolate and any descendants derived under pure culture conditions from that isolate.


Health and safety study of a microorganism or health and safety study means any study of any effect of a microorganism or microbial mixture on health or the environment or on both, including underlying data and epidemiological studies, studies of occupational exposure to a microorganism or microbial mixture, toxicological, clinical, and ecological, or other studies of a microorganism or microbial mixture, and any test performed under the Act. Microorganism identity is always part of a health and safety study of a microorganism.


(1) It is intended that the term “health and safety study of a microorganism” be interpreted broadly. Not only is information which arises as a result of a formal, disciplined study included, but other information relating to the effects of a microorganism or microbial mixture on health or the environment is also included. Any data that bear on the effects of a microorganism on health or the environment would be included.


(2) Examples include:


(i) Tests for ecological or other environmental effects on invertebrates, fish, or other animals, and plants, including: Acute toxicity tests, chronic toxicity tests, critical life stage tests, behavioral tests, algal growth tests, seed germination tests, plant growth or damage tests, microbial function tests, bioconcentration or bioaccumulation tests, and model ecosystem (microcosm) studies.


(ii) Long- and short-term tests of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, or teratogenicity; dermatoxicity; cumulative, additive, and synergistic effects; and acute, subchronic, and chronic effects.


(iii) Assessments of human and environmental exposure, including workplace exposure, and impacts of a particular microorganism or microbial mixture on the environment, including surveys, tests, and studies of: Survival and transport in air, water, and soil; ability to exchange genetic material with other microorganisms, ability to colonize human or animal guts, and ability to colonize plants.


(iv) Monitoring data, when they have been aggregated and analyzed to measure the exposure of humans or the environment to a microorganism.


(v) Any assessments of risk to health and the environment resulting from the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the microorganism.


Inactivation means that living microorganisms are rendered nonviable.


Institutional Biosafety Committee means the committees described in the NIH Guidelines in section IV.B.2.


Intergeneric microorganism means a microorganism that is formed by the deliberate combination of genetic material originally isolated from organisms of different taxonomic genera.


(1) The term “intergeneric microorganism” includes a microorganism which contains a mobile genetic element which was first identified in a microorganism in a genus different from the recipient microorganism.


(2) The term “intergeneric microorganism” does not include a microorganism which contains introduced genetic material consisting of only well-characterized, non-coding regulatory regions from another genus.


Introduced genetic material means genetic material that is added to, and remains as a component of, the genome of the recipient.


Manufacture, import, or process for commercial purposes means:


(1) To import, produce, manufacture, or process with the purpose of obtaining an immediate or eventual commercial advantage for the manufacturer, importer, or processor, and includes, among other things, “manufacture” or “processing” of any amount of a microorganism or microbial mixture:


(i) For commercial distribution, including for test marketing.


(ii) For use by the manufacturer, including use for product research and development or as an intermediate.


(2) The term also applies to substances that are produced coincidentally during the manufacture, processing, use, or disposal of another microorganism or microbial mixture, including byproducts that are separated from that other microorganism or microbial mixture and impurities that remain in that microorganism or microbial mixture. Byproducts and impurities without separate commercial value are nonetheless produced for the purpose of obtaining a commercial advantage, since they are part of the manufacture or processing of a microorganism for commercial purposes.


Microbial commercial activity notice or MCAN means a notice for microorganisms submitted to EPA pursuant to section 5(a)(1) of the Act in accordance with subpart D of this part.


Microbial mixture means any combination of microorganisms or microorganisms and other chemical substances, if the combination does not occur in nature and is not an article.


Microorganism means an organism classified, using the 5-kingdom classification system of Whittacker, in the kingdoms Monera (or Procaryotae), Protista, Fungi, and the Chlorophyta and the Rhodophyta of the Plantae, and a virus or virus-like particle.


Mobile genetic element or MGE means an element of genetic material that has the ability to move genetic material within and between organisms. “Mobile genetic elements” include all plasmids, viruses, transposons, insertion sequences, and other classes of elements with these general properties.


New microorganism means a microorganism not included on the Inventory.


NIH Guidelines means the National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules” (July 5, 1994).


Non-coding regulatory region means a segment of introduced genetic material for which:


(1) The regulatory region and any inserted flanking nucleotides do not code for protein, peptide, or functional ribonucleic acid molecules.


(2) The regulatory region solely controls the activity of other regions that code for protein or peptide molecules or act as recognition sites for the initiation of nucleic acid or protein synthesis.


Small quantities solely for research and development (or “small quantities solely for purposes of scientific experimentation or analysis or research on, or analysis of, such substance or another substance, including such research or analysis for development of a product”) means quantities of a microorganism manufactured, imported, or processed or proposed to be manufactured, imported, or processed solely for research and development that meet the requirements of § 725.234.


Structure means a building or vessel which effectively surrounds and encloses the microorganism and includes features designed to restrict the microorganism from leaving.


Submerged standard industrial fermentation means a fermentation system that meets all of the following conditions:


(1) Enzyme production is conducted under conditions of submerged fermentation (i.e., growth of the microorganism occurs beneath the surface of the liquid growth medium).


(2) Any fermentation of solid plant material or insoluble substrates, to which T. reesei fermentation broth is added after the submerged standard industrial fermentation operations used for enzyme production is completed, may be initiated only after the inactivation of the microorganism as delineated in 40 CFR 725.422(d).


Submission means any MCAN or exemption request submitted to EPA under this part.


Technically qualified individual means a person or persons:


(1) Who, because of education, training, or experience, or a combination of these factors, is capable of understanding the health and environmental risks associated with the microorganism which is used under his or her supervision,


(2) Who is responsible for enforcing appropriate methods of conducting scientific experimentation, analysis, or microbiological research to minimize such risks, and


(3) Who is responsible for the safety assessments and clearances related to the procurement, storage, use, and disposal of the microorganism as may be appropriate or required within the scope of conducting a research and development activity.


TSCA Experimental Release Application or TERA means an exemption request for a research and development activity, which is not eligible for a full exemption from reporting under § 725.232, 725.234, or 725.238, submitted to EPA in accordance with subpart E of this part.


Well-characterized for introduced genetic material means that the following have been determined:


(1) The function of all of the products expressed from the structural gene(s).


(2) The function of sequences that participate in the regulation of expression of the structural gene(s).


(3) The presence or absence of associated nucleotide sequences and their associated functions, where associated nucleotide sequences are those sequences needed to move genetic material including linkers, homopolymers, adaptors, transposons, insertion sequences, and restriction enzyme sites.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 85 FR 13772, Mar. 10, 2020]


§ 725.8 Coverage of this part.

(a) Microorganisms subject to this part. Only microorganisms which are manufactured, imported, or processed for commercial purposes, as defined in § 725.3, are subject to the requirements of this part.


(b) Microorganisms automatically included on the Inventory. Microorganisms that are not intergeneric are automatically included on the Inventory.


(c) Microorganisms not subject to this part. The following microorganisms are not subject to this part, either because they are not subject to jurisdiction under the Act or are not subject to reporting under section 5 of the Act.


(1) Any microorganism which would be excluded from the definition of “chemical substance” in section 3 of the Act and § 720.3(e) of this chapter.


(2) Any microbial mixture as defined in § 725.3. This exclusion applies only to a microbial mixture as a whole and not to any microorganisms and other chemical substances which are part of the microbial mixture.


(3) Any microorganism that is manufactured and processed solely for export if the following conditions are met:


(i) The microorganism is labeled in accordance with section 12(a)(1)(B) of the Act, when the microorganism is distributed in commerce.


(ii) The manufacturer and processor can document at the commencement of manufacturing or processing that the person to whom the microorganism will be distributed intends to export it or process it solely for export as defined in § 721.3 of this chapter.


§ 725.12 Identification of microorganisms for Inventory and other listing purposes.

To identify and list microorganisms on the Inventory, both taxonomic designations and supplemental information will be used. The supplemental information required in paragraph (b) of this section will be used to specifically describe an individual microorganism on the Inventory. Submitters must provide the supplemental information required by paragraph (b) of this section to the extent necessary to enable a microorganism to be accurately and unambiguously identified on the Inventory.


(a) Taxonomic designation. The taxonomic designation of a microorganism must be provided for the donor organism and the recipient microorganism to the level of strain, as appropriate. These designations must be substantiated by a letter from a culture collection, literature references, or the results of tests conducted for the purpose of taxonomic classification. Upon EPA’s request to the submitter, data supporting the taxonomic designation must be provided to EPA. The genetic history of the recipient microorganism should be documented back to the isolate from which it was derived.


(b) Supplemental information. The supplemental information described in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section is required to the extent that it enables a microorganism to be accurately and unambiguously identified.


(1) Phenotypic information. Phenotypic information means pertinent traits that result from the interaction of a microorganism’s genotype and the environment in which it is intended to be used and may include intentionally added biochemical and physiological traits.


(2) Genotypic information. Genotypic information means the pertinent and distinguishing genotypic characteristics of a microorganism, such as the identity of the introduced genetic material and the methods used to construct the reported microorganism. This also may include information on the vector construct, the cellular location, and the number of copies of the introduced genetic material.


§ 725.15 Determining applicability when microorganism identity or use is confidential or uncertain.

(a) Consulting EPA. Persons intending to conduct activities involving microorganisms may determine their obligations under this part by consulting the Inventory or the microorganisms and uses specified in § 725.239 or in subpart M of this part. This section establishes procedures for EPA to assist persons in determining whether the microorganism or the use is listed on the Inventory, in § 725.239 or in subpart M of this part.


(1) Confidential identity or use. In some cases it may not be possible to directly determine if a specific microorganism is listed, because portions of that entry may contain generic information to protect confidential business information (CBI). If any portion of the microorganism’s identity or use has been claimed as CBI, that portion does not appear on the public version of the Inventory, in § 725.239 or in subpart M of this part. Instead, it is contained in a confidential version held in EPA’s Confidential Business Information Center (CBIC). The public versions contain generic information which masks the confidential business information. A person who intends to conduct an activity involving a microorganism or use whose entry is described with generic information will need to inquire of EPA whether the unreported microorganism or use is on the confidential version.


(2) Uncertain microorganism identity. The current state of scientific knowledge leads to some imprecision in describing a microorganism. As the state of knowledge increases, EPA will be developing policies to determine whether one microorganism is equivalent to another. Persons intending to conduct activities involving microorganisms may inquire of EPA whether the microorganisms they intend to manufacture (including import) or process are equivalent to specific microorganisms described on the Inventory, in § 725.239, or in subpart M of this part.


(b) Requirement of bona fide intent. (1) EPA will answer the inquiries described in paragraph (a) of this section only if the Agency determines that the person has a bona fide intent to conduct the activity for which reporting is required or for which any exemption may apply.


(2) To establish a bona fide intent to manufacture (including import) or process a microorganism, the person who proposes to manufacture (including import) or process the microorganism must submit the request to EPA via CDX. Prior to submission to EPA via CDX, such bona fide intents to manufacture (including import) or process must be generated and completed using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to access the e-PMN software. A bona fide intent to manufacture (including import) or process must contain the following information:


(i) Taxonomic designations and supplemental information required by § 725.12.


(ii) A signed statement certifying that the submitter intends to manufacture (including import) or process the microorganism for commercial purposes.


(iii) A description of research and development activities conducted with the microorganism to date, demonstration of the submitter’s ability to produce or obtain the microorganism from a foreign manufacturer, and the purpose for which the person will manufacture (including import) or process the microorganism.


(iv) An indication of whether a related microorganism was previously reviewed by EPA to the extent known by the submitter.


(v) A specific description of the major intended application or use of the microorganism.


(c) If an importer or processor cannot provide all the information required by paragraph (b) of this section, because it is claimed as confidential business information by its foreign manufacturer or supplier, the foreign manufacturer or supplier may supply the information directly to EPA.


(d) EPA will review the information submitted by the manufacturer (including importer) or processor under this paragraph to determine whether that person has shown a bona fide intent to manufacture (including import) or process the microorganism. If necessary, EPA will compare this information to the information requested for the confidential microorganism under § 725.85(b)(3)(iii).


(e) In order for EPA to make a conclusive determination of the microorganism’s status, the proposed manufacturer (including importer) or processor must show a bona fide intent to manufacture (including import) or process the microorganism and must provide sufficient information to establish identity unambiguously. After sufficient information has been provided, EPA will inform the manufacturer (including importer) or processor whether the microorganism is subject to this part and if so, which sections of this part apply.


(f) If the microorganism is found on the confidential version of the Inventory, in § 725.239 or in subpart M of this part, EPA will notify the person(s) who originally reported the microorganism that another person (whose identity will remain confidential, if so requested) has demonstrated a bona fide intent to manufacture (including import) or process the microorganism and therefore was told that the microorganism is on the Inventory, in § 725.239, or in subpart M of this part.


(g) A disclosure to a person with a bona fide intent to manufacture (including import) or process a particular microorganism that the microorganism is on the Inventory, in § 725.239, or in subpart M of this part will not be considered a public disclosure of confidential business information under section 14 of the Act.


(h) EPA will answer an inquiry on whether a particular microorganism is subject to this part within 30 days after receipt of a complete submission under paragraph (b) of this section.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 80 FR 42747, July 20, 2015]


§ 725.17 Consultation with EPA.

Persons may consult with EPA, either in writing or by telephone, about their obligations under this part. Written consultation is preferred. Written inquiries should be sent to the following address: Environmental Assistance Division (7408), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460, ATTN: Biotechnology Notice Consultation. Persons wishing to consult with EPA by telephone should call (202) 554-1404; hearing impaired TDD (202) 554-0551 or e-mail: [email protected]


Subpart B – Administrative Procedures

§ 725.20 Scope and purpose.

This subpart describes general administrative procedures applicable to all persons who submit MCANs and exemption requests to EPA under section 5 of the Act for microorganisms.


§ 725.25 General administrative requirements.

(a) General. (1) Each person who is subject to the notification provisions of this part must complete, sign, and submit a MCAN or exemption request containing the information as required for the appropriate submission under this part. Except as otherwise provided, each submission must include all referenced attachments. All information in the submission (unless certain attachments appear in the open scientific literature) must be in English. All information submitted must be true and correct.


(2) In addition to specific information required, the submitter should submit all information known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter that would permit EPA to make a reasoned evaluation of the human health and environmental effects of the microorganism and any microbial mixture or article that may contain the microorganism.


(b) Certification. Persons submitting MCANs and exemption requests to EPA under this part, and material related to their reporting obligations under this part, must attach the following statement to any information submitted to EPA. This statement must be signed and dated by an authorized official of the submitter:



I certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief: The company named in this submission intends to manufacture, import, or process for a commercial purpose, other than in small quantities solely for research and development, the microorganism identified in this submission. All information provided in this submission is complete and truthful as of the date of submission. I am including with this submission all test data in my possession or control and a description of all other data known to or reasonably ascertainable by me as required by 40 CFR 725.160 or 725.260.


(c) Where to submit information under this part. MCANs and exemption requests, and any support documents related to these submissions, may only be submitted in a manner set forth in this paragraph. MCANs and exemption requests, and any related support documents, must be generated, completed, and submitted to EPA (via CDX) using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software.


(d) General requirements for submission of data. (1) Submissions under this part must include the information described in § 725.155, § 725.255, § 725.355, or § 725.455, as appropriate, to the extent such information is known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter.


(2) In accordance with § 725.160 or § 725.260, as appropriate, the submission must also include any test data in the submitter’s possession or control and descriptions of other data which are known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter and which concern the health and environmental effects of the microorganism.


(e) Agency or joint submissions. (1) A manufacturer or importer may designate an agent to assist in submitting the MCAN. If so, only the manufacturer or importer, and not the agent, signs the certification on the form.


(2) A manufacturer or importer may authorize another person, (e.g., a supplier or a toll manufacturer) to report some of the information required in the MCAN to EPA on its behalf. The manufacturer or importer should indicate in a cover letter accompanying the MCAN which information will be supplied by another person and identify that other person as a joint submitter where indicated in their MCAN. The other person supplying information (i.e., the joint submitter) may submit the information to EPA either in the MCAN or a Letter of Support, except that if the joint submitter is not incorporated, licensed, or doing business in the United States, the joint submitter must submit the information to EPA in a Letter of Support only, rather than the MCAN. The joint submitter must indicate in the MCAN or Letter of Support the identity of the manufacturer or importer. Any person who submits the MCAN or Letter of Support for a joint submission must sign and certify the MCAN or Letter of Support.


(3) If EPA receives a submission which does not include the information required, which the submitter indicates that it has authorized another person to provide, the review period will not begin until EPA receives all of the required information.


(f) Microorganisms subject to a section 4 test rule. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, if a person intends to manufacture or import a new microorganism which is subject to the notification requirements of this part, and the microorganism is subject to a test rule promulgated under section 4 of the Act before the notice is submitted, section 5(b)(1) of the Act requires the person to submit the test data required by the testing rule with the notice. The person must submit the data in the form and manner specified in the test rule and in accordance with § 725.160. If the person does not submit the test data, the submission is incomplete and EPA will follow the procedures in § 725.33.


(2) If EPA has granted the submitter an exemption under section 4(c) of the Act from the requirement to conduct tests and submit data, the person may not file a MCAN or TERA until EPA receives the test data.


(3) If EPA has granted the submitter an exemption under section 4(c) of the Act and if another person previously has submitted the test data to EPA, the exempted person may either submit the test data or provide the following information as part of the notice:


(i) The name, title, and address of the person who submitted the test data to EPA.


(ii) The date the test data were submitted to EPA.


(iii) A citation for the test rule.


(iv) A description of the exemption and a reference identifying it.


(g) Microorganisms subject to a section 5(b)(4) rule. (1) If a person:


(i) Intends to manufacture or import a microorganism which is subject to the notification requirements of this part and which is subject to a rule issued under section 5(b)(4) of the Act; and


(ii) Is not required by a rule issued under section 4 of the Act to submit test data for the microorganism before the filing of a submission, the person must submit to EPA data described in paragraph (g)(2) of this section at the time the submission is filed.


(2) Data submitted under paragraph (g)(1) of this section must be data which the person submitting the notice believes show that the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, and disposal of the microorganism, or any combination of such activities, will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(h) Data that need not be submitted. Specific data requirements are listed in subparts D, E, F, G, and L of this part. The following is a list of data that need not be submitted under this part:


(1) Data previously submitted to EPA. (i) A person need not submit any data previously submitted to EPA with no claims of confidentiality if the new submission includes: the office or person to whom the data were submitted; the date of submission; and, if appropriate, a standard literature citation as specified in § 725.160(a)(3)(ii).


(ii) For data previously submitted to EPA with a claim of confidentiality, the person must resubmit the data with the new submission and any claim of confidentiality, under § 725.80.


(2) Efficacy data. This part does not require submission of any data related solely to product efficacy. However, including efficacy data will improve EPA’s ability to assess the benefits of the use of the microorganism. This does not exempt a person from submitting any of the data specified in § 725.160 or § 725.260.


(3) Non-U.S. exposure data. This part does not require submission of any data which relates only to exposure of humans or the environment outside the United States. This does not exclude nonexposure data such as data on health effects (including epidemiological studies), ecological effects, physical and chemical properties, or environmental fate characteristics.


(i) Fees. Persons submitting MCANs and exemption requests to EPA under this part are subject to the applicable fees and conditions specified in §§ 700.40, 700.45(c), and 700.49 of this chapter.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 788, Jan. 6, 2010; 78 FR 72828, Dec. 4, 2013; 83 FR 52723, Oct. 17, 2018]


§ 725.27 Submissions.

Each person who is required to submit information under this part must submit the information in the form and manner set forth in the appropriate subpart.


(a) Requirements specific to MCANs are described in §§ 725.150 through 725.160.


(b) Requirements specific to TERAs are described in §§ 725.250 through 725.260.


(c) Requirements specific to test marketing exemptions (TMEs) are described in §§ 725.350 and 725.355.


(d) Requirements specific to Tier I and Tier II exemptions for certain general commercial uses are described in §§ 725.424 through 725.470.


(e) Additional requirements specific to significant new uses for microorganisms are described at § 725.950.


§ 725.28 Notice that submission is not required.

When EPA receives a MCAN or exemption request, EPA will review it to determine whether the microorganism is subject to the requirements of this part. If EPA determines that the microorganism is not subject to these requirements, EPA will notify the submitter that section 5 of the Act does not prevent the manufacture, import, or processing of the microorganism and that the submission is not needed.


§ 725.29 EPA acknowledgement of receipt of submission.

(a) EPA will acknowledge receipt of each submission by sending a letter via CDX or U.S. mail to the submitter that identifies the number assigned to each MCAN or exemption request and the date on which the review period begins. The review period will begin on the date the MCAN or exemption request is received by the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics Document Control Officer.


(b) The acknowledgement does not constitute a finding by EPA that the submission is in compliance with this part.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 788, Jan. 6, 2010]


§ 725.32 Errors in the submission.

(a) Within 30 days of receipt of the submission, EPA may request that the submitter remedy errors in the submission. The following are examples of such errors:


(1) Failure to date the submission.


(2) Typographical errors that cause data to be misleading or answers to any questions to be unclear.


(3) Contradictory information.


(4) Ambiguous statements or information.


(b) In the request to correct the submission, EPA will explain the action which the submitter must take to correct the submission.


(c) If the submitter fails to correct the submission within 15 days of receipt of the request, EPA may extend the review period.


§ 725.33 Incomplete submissions.

(a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not begin, if:


(1) The wrong person files the submission.


(2) The submitter does not attach and sign the certification statement as required by § 725.25(b).


(3) Some or all of the information in the submission or any attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature.


(4) The submitter does not provide information that is required by sections 5(d)(1)(B) and (C) of the Act and § 725.160 or 725.260, as appropriate.


(5) The submitter does not provide information required by § 725.25, § 725.155, § 725.255, § 725.355, or § 725.455, as appropriate, or indicate that it is not known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter.


(6) The submitter has asserted confidentiality claims and has failed to:


(i) Submit a second copy of the submission with all confidential information deleted for the public file, as required by § 725.80(b)(2).


(ii) Comply with the substantiation requirements as described in § 725.94.


(7) The submitter does not include any information required by section 5(b)(1) of the Act and pursuant to a rule promulgated under section 4 of the Act, as required by § 725.25(f).


(8) The submitter does not submit data which the submitter believes show that the microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, if EPA has listed the microorganism under section 5(b)(4) of the Act, as required in § 725.25(g).


(9) The submitter does not remit the fees required by § 700.45(c) of this chapter.


(10) The submitter does not include an identifying number and a payment identity number.


(11) The submitter does not submit the notice in the manner set forth in § 725.25(c).


(b)(1) If EPA receives an incomplete submission under this part, the Director, or a designee, will notify the submitter within 30 days of receipt that the submission is incomplete and that the review period will not begin until EPA receives a complete submission.


(2) If EPA obtains additional information during the review period for any submission that indicates the original submission was incomplete, the Director, or a designee, may declare the submission incomplete within 30 days after EPA obtains the additional information and so notify the submitter.


(c) The notification that a submission is incomplete under paragraph (b) of this section will include:


(1) A statement of the basis of EPA’s determination that the submission is incomplete.


(2) The requirements for correcting the incomplete submission.


(3) Information on procedures under paragraph (d) of this section for filing objections to the determination or requesting modification of the requirements for completing the submission.


(d) Within 10 days after receipt of notification by EPA that a submission is incomplete, the submitter may file written objections requesting that EPA accept the submission as complete or modify the requirements necessary to complete the submission.


(e)(1) EPA will consider the objections filed by the submitter. The Director, or a designee, will determine whether the submission was complete or incomplete, or whether to modify the requirements for completing the submission. EPA will notify the submitter in writing of EPA’s response within 10 days of receiving the objections.


(2) If the Director, or a designee, determines, in response to the objection, that the submission was complete, the review period will be deemed suspended on the date EPA declared the submission incomplete, and will resume on the date that the submission is declared complete. The submitter need not correct the submission as EPA originally requested. If EPA can complete its review within the review period beginning on the date of the submission, the Director, or a designee, may inform the submitter that the running of the review period will resume on the date EPA originally declared it incomplete.


(3) If the Director, or a designee, modifies the requirements for completing the submission or concurs with EPA’s original determination, the review period will begin when EPA receives a complete submission.


(f) If EPA discovers at any time that a person submitted materially false or misleading statements in information submitted under this part, EPA may find that the submission was incomplete from the date it was submitted, and take any other appropriate action.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 788, Jan. 6, 2010; 83 FR 52723, Oct. 17, 2018]


§ 725.36 New information.

(a) During the review period, if a submitter possesses, controls, or knows of new information that materially adds to, changes, or otherwise makes significantly more complete the information included in the MCAN or exemption request, the submitter must send that information within 10 days of receiving the new information, but no later than 5 days before the end of the review period. The new information must be sent in the same manner the original notice or exemption was sent, as described in § 725.25(c)(1), (c)(2), and (c)(3).


(b) The new submission must clearly identify the submitter, the MCAN or exemption request to which the new information is related, and the number assigned to that submission by EPA, if known to the submitter.


(c) If the new information becomes available during the last 5 days of the review period, the submitter must immediately inform the EPA contact for that submission by telephone of the new information.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 789, Jan. 6, 2010]


§ 725.40 Notice in the Federal Register.

(a) Filing of Federal Register notice. After EPA receives a MCAN or an exemption request under this part, EPA will issue a notice in the Federal Register including the information specified in paragraph (b) of this section.


(b) Contents of notice. (1) In the public interest, the specific microorganism identity listed in the submission will be published in the Federal Register unless the submitter has claimed the microorganism identity confidential. If the submitter claims confidentiality, a generic name will be published in accordance with § 725.85.


(2) The categories of use of the microorganism will be published as reported in the submission unless this information is claimed confidential. If confidentiality is claimed, the generic information which is submitted under § 725.88 will be published.


(3) A list of information submitted in accordance with § 725.160(a), § 725.255, § 725.260, § 725.355, or § 725.455, as appropriate, will be published.


(4) The submitter’s identity will be published, unless the submitter has claimed it confidential.


(c) Publication of exemption decisions. Following the expiration of the appropriate review period for the exemption request, EPA will issue a notice in the Federal Register indicating whether the request has been approved or denied and the reasons for the decision.


§ 725.50 EPA review.

(a) MCANs. The review period specified in section 5(a) of the Act for MCANs runs for 90 days from the date the Document Control Officer receives a complete submission, or the date EPA determines the submission is complete under § 725.33, unless the Agency extends the review period under section 5(c) of the Act and § 725.56.


(b) Exemption requests. The review period starts on the date the Document Control Officer receives a complete exemption request, or the date EPA determines the request is complete under § 725.33, unless the Agency extends the review period under § 725.56. The review periods for exemption requests run as follows:


(1) TERAs. The review period for TERAs is 60 days.


(2) TMEs. The review period for TMEs is 45 days.


(3) Tier II exemption requests. The review period for Tier II exemption requests is 45 days.


§ 725.54 Suspension of the review period.

(a) A submitter may voluntarily suspend the running of the review period if the Director, or a designee, agrees. If the Director does not agree, the review period will continue to run, and EPA will notify the submitter. A submitter may request a suspension at any time during the review period. The suspension must be for a specified period of time.


(b)(1) Request for suspension. A request for suspension may only be submitted in a manner set forth in this paragraph. The request for suspension also may be made orally, including by telephone, to the submitter’s EPA contact for that notice, subject to paragraph (c) of this section.


(2) Submission of suspension notices. EPA will accept requests for suspension only if submitted in accordance with this paragraph. Requests for suspension, must be generated, completed, and submitted to EPA (via CDX) using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software.


(c) An oral request for suspension may be granted by EPA for a maximum of 15 days only. Requests for longer suspension must only be submitted in the manner set forth in this paragraph.


(d) If the submitter has not made a previous oral request, the running of the notice review period is suspended as of the date of receipt of the CDX submission by EPA.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 789, Jan. 6, 2010; 78 FR 72828, Dec. 4, 2013]


§ 725.56 Extension of the review period.

(a) At any time during the review period, EPA may unilaterally determine that good cause exists to extend the review period specified for MCANs, or the exemption requests.


(b) If EPA makes such a determination, EPA:


(1) Will notify the submitter that EPA is extending the review period for a specified length of time and state the reasons for the extension.


(2) For MCANs, EPA may issue a notice for publication in the Federal Register which states that EPA is extending the review period and gives the reasons for the extension.


(c) The total period of the extension may be for a period of up to the same length of time as specified for each type of submission in § 725.50. If the initial extension is for less than the total time allowed, EPA may make additional extensions. However, the sum of the extensions may not exceed the total allowed.


(d) The following are examples of situations in which EPA may find that good cause exists for extending the review period:


(1) EPA has reviewed the submission and is seeking additional information.


(2) EPA has received significant additional information during the review period.


(3) The submitter has failed to correct a submission after receiving EPA’s request under § 725.32.


(4) EPA has reviewed the submission and determined that there is a significant possibility that the microorganism will be regulated under section 5(e) or section 5(f) of the Act, but EPA is unable to initiate regulatory action within the initial review period.


§ 725.60 Withdrawal of submission by the submitter.

(a)(1) Withdrawal of notice by the submitter. A submitter may withdraw a notice during the notice review period by submitting a statement of withdrawal in a manner set forth in this paragraph. The withdrawal is effective upon receipt of the CDX submission by EPA.


(2) Submission of withdrawal notices. EPA will accept statements of withdrawal only if submitted in accordance with this paragraph. Statements of withdrawal must be generated, completed, and submitted to EPA (via CDX) using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software.


(b) If a manufacturer, importer, or processor who withdrew a submission later resubmits a submission for the same microorganism, a new review period begins.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 789, Jan. 6, 2010; 78 FR 72828, Dec. 4, 2013]


§ 725.65 Recordkeeping.

(a) General provisions. (1) Any person who submits a notice under this part must retain documentation of information in the submission, including:


(i) Any data in the submitter’s possession or control; and


(ii) Records of production volume for the first 3 years of manufacture, import, or processing.


(2) Any person who submits a notice under this part must retain documentation of the date of commencement of testing, manufacture, import, or processing.


(3) Any person who is exempt from some or all of the reporting requirements of this part must retain documentation that supports the exemption.


(4) All information required by this section must be retained for 3 years from the date of commencement of each activity for which records are required under this part.


(b) Specific requirements. In addition to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, specific recordkeeping requirements included in certain subparts must also be followed.


(1) Additional recordkeeping requirements for activities conducted inside a structure are set forth in § 725.235(h).


(2) Additional recordkeeping requirements for TERAs are set forth in § 725.250(f).


(3) Additional recordkeeping requirements for TMEs are set forth in § 725.350(c).


(4) Additional recordkeeping requirements for Tier I exemptions under subpart G of this part are set forth in § 725.424(a)(5).


(5) Additional recordkeeping requirements for Tier II exemptions under subpart G of this part are set forth in § 725.450(d).


(6) Additional recordkeeping requirements for significant new uses of microorganisms reported under subpart L of this part are set forth in § 725.850. Recordkeeping requirements may also be included when a microorganism and significant new use are added to subpart M of this part.


§ 725.67 Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.

(a) Submission. (1) Any manufacturer or importer of a new microorganism may request, under TSCA section 5(h)(4), an exemption, in whole or in part, from this part by sending a Letter of Application in the manner set forth in § 725.25(c).


(2) General provisions. The Letter of Application should provide information to show that any activities affected by the requested exemption will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment. This information should include data described in the following paragraphs.


(i) The effects of the new microorganism on health and the environment.


(ii) The magnitude of exposure of human beings and the environment to the new microorganism.


(iii) The benefits of the new microorganism for various uses and the availability of substitutes for such uses.


(iv) The reasonably ascertainable economic consequences of granting or denying the exemption, including effects on the national economy, small business, and technological innovation.


(3) Specific requirements. In addition to the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the specific information requirements of the relevant subpart under which the exemption is sought should be met.


(i) Exemption from MCAN reporting under subpart D. Information requirements are set forth in §§ 725.155 and 725.160.


(ii) Exemption from TERA reporting under subpart E. Information requirements are set forth in §§ 725.255 and 725.260.


(iii) Listing a recipient microorganism as eligible for exemption under subpart G. Information regarding the following criteria should be addressed in an application to list a recipient microorganism under § 725.420:


(A) Identification and classification of the microorganism using available genotypic and phenotypic information;


(B) Information to evaluate the relationship of the microorganism to any other closely related microorganisms which have a potential for adverse effects on health or the environment;


(C) A history of safe commercial use for the microorganism;


(D) Commercial uses indicating that the microorganism products might be subject to TSCA;


(E) Studies which indicate the potential for the microorganism to cause adverse effects to health or the environment; and


(F) Studies which indicate the survival characteristics of the microorganism in the environment.


(b) Processing of the Letter of Application by EPA – (1) Grant of the Application. If, after consideration of the Letter of Application and any other relevant information available to EPA, the Assistant Administrator for Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention makes a preliminary determination that the new microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, the Assistant Administrator will propose a rule to grant the exemption using the applicable procedures in part 750 of this chapter.


(2) Denial of the application. If the Assistant Administrator decides that the preliminary determination described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section cannot be made, the application will be denied by sending the applicant a written statement with the Assistant Administrator’s reasons for denial.


(c) Processing of the exemption – (1) Unreasonable risk standard. Granting a section 5(h)(4) exemption requires a determination that the activities will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(i) An unreasonable risk determination under the Act is an administrative judgment that requires balancing of the harm to health or the environment that a chemical substance may cause and the magnitude and severity of that harm, against the social and economic effects on society of EPA action to reduce that harm.


(ii) A determination of unreasonable risk under section 5(h)(4) of the Act will examine the reasonably ascertainable economic and social consequences of granting or denying the exemption after consideration of the effect on the national economy, small business, technological innovation, the environment, and public health.


(2) Grant of the exemption. The exemption will be granted if the Assistant Administrator determines, after consideration of all relevant evidence presented in the rulemaking proceeding described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, that the new microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(3) Denial of the exemption. The exemption will be denied if the Assistant Administrator determines, after consideration of all relevant evidence presented in the rulemaking proceeding described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, that the determination described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section cannot be made. A final decision terminating the rulemaking proceeding will be published in the Federal Register.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 789, Jan. 6, 2010; 77 FR 46292, Aug. 3, 2012]


§ 725.70 Compliance.

(a) Failure to comply with any provision of this part is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(b) A person who manufactures or imports a microorganism before a MCAN is submitted and the MCAN review period expires is in violation of section 15 of the Act even if that person was not required to submit the MCAN under § 725.105.


(c) Using a microorganism which a person knew or had reason to know was manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce in violation of section 5 of the Act or this part is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(d) Failure or refusal to establish and maintain records or to permit access to or copying of records, as required by the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(e) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection as required by section 11 of the Act is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(f) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation. Persons who submit materially misleading or false information in connection with the requirements of any provision of this part may be subject to penalties calculated as if they never filed their submissions.


(g) EPA may seek to enjoin the manufacture or processing of a microorganism in violation of this part or act to seize any microorganism manufactured or processed in violation of this part or take other actions under the authority of section 7 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2606) or section 17 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2616).


§ 725.75 Inspections.

EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to assure compliance with section 5 of the Act and this part, to verify that information required by EPA under this part is true and correct, and to audit data submitted to EPA under this part.


Subpart C – Confidentiality and Public Access to Information

§ 725.80 General provisions for confidentiality claims.

(a) A person may assert a claim of confidentiality for any information submitted to EPA under this part. However,


(1) Any person who asserts a claim of confidentiality for portions of the specific microorganism identity must provide the information as described in § 725.85.


(2) Any person who asserts a claim of confidentiality for a use of a microorganism must provide the information as described in § 725.88.


(3) Any person who asserts a claim of confidentiality for information contained in a health and safety study of a microorganism must provide the information described in § 725.92.


(b) Any claim of confidentiality must accompany the information when it is submitted to EPA.


(1) When a person submits any information under this part, including any attachments, for which claims of confidentiality are made, the claim(s) must be asserted by circling the specific information which is claimed and marking the page on which that information appears with an appropriate designation such as “trade secret,” “TSCA CBI,” or “confidential business information.”


(2) If any information is claimed confidential, the person must submit two copies of the document including the claimed information.


(i) One copy of the document must be complete. In that copy, the submitter must mark the information which is claimed as confidential in the manner prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.


(ii) The second copy must be complete except that all information claimed as confidential in the first copy must be deleted. EPA will place the second copy in the public file.


(iii) If the submitter does not provide the second copy, the submission is incomplete and the review period does not begin to run until EPA receives the second copy, in accordance with § 725.33.


(iv) Any information contained within the copy submitted under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section which has been in the public file for more than 30 days will be presumed to be in the public domain, notwithstanding any assertion of confidentiality made under this section.


(3) A person who submits information to EPA under this part must reassert a claim of confidentiality and substantiate the claim each time the information is submitted to EPA.


(c) Any person asserting a claim of confidentiality under this part must substantiate each claim in accordance with the requirements in § 725.94.


(d) EPA will disclose information that is subject to a claim of confidentiality asserted under this section only to the extent permitted by the Act, this subpart, and part 2 of this title.


(e) If a submitter does not assert a claim of confidentiality for information at the time it is submitted to EPA, EPA may make the information public and place it in the public file without further notice to the submitter.


§ 725.85 Microorganism identity.

(a) Claims applicable to the period prior to commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use – (1) When to make a claim. (i) A person who submits information to EPA under this part may assert a claim of confidentiality for portions of the specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only to the period prior to the commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use.


(ii) A person who submits information to EPA under this part must reassert a claim of confidentiality and substantiate the claim each time the information is submitted to EPA. For example, if a person claims certain information confidential in a TERA submission and wishes the same information to remain confidential in a subsequent TERA or MCAN submission, the person must reassert and resubstantiate the claim in the subsequent submission.


(2) Assertion of claim. (i) A submitter may assert a claim of confidentiality only if the submitter believes that public disclosure prior to commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use of the fact that anyone is initiating research and development activities pertaining to the specific microorganism or intends to manufacture or import the specific microorganism for general commercial use would reveal confidential business information. Claims must be substantiated in accordance with the requirements of § 725.94(a).


(ii) If the submission includes a health and safety study concerning the microorganism and if the claim for confidentiality with respect to the specific identity is denied in accordance with § 725.92(c), EPA will deny a claim asserted under paragraph (a) of this section.


(3) Development of generic name. Any person who asserts a claim of confidentiality for portions of the specific microorganism identity under this paragraph must provide one of the following items at the time the submission is filed:


(i) The generic name which was accepted by EPA in the prenotice consultation conducted under paragraph (a)(4) of this section.


(ii) One generic name that is only as generic as necessary to protect the confidential identity of the particular microorganism. The name should reveal the specific identity to the maximum extent possible. The generic name will be subject to EPA review and approval.


(4) Determination by EPA. (i) Any person who intends to assert a claim of confidentiality for the specific identity of a new microorganism may seek a determination by EPA of an appropriate generic name for the microorganism before filing a submission. For this purpose, the person should submit to EPA:


(A) The specific identity of the microorganism.


(B) A proposed generic name(s) which is only as generic as necessary to protect the confidential identity of the new microorganism. The name(s) should reveal the specific identity of the microorganism to the maximum extent possible.


(ii) Within 30 days, EPA will inform the submitter either that one of the proposed generic names is adequate or that none is adequate and further consultation is necessary.


(5) Use of generic name. If a submitter claims microorganism identity as confidential under paragraph (a) of this section, and if the submitter complies with paragraph (a)(2) of this section, EPA will issue for publication in the Federal Register notice described in § 725.40 the generic name proposed by the submitter or one agreed upon by EPA and the submitter.


(b) Claims applicable to the period after commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use – (1) Maintaining claim. Any claim of confidentiality under paragraph (a) of this section is applicable only until the microorganism is manufactured or imported for general commercial use and becomes eligible for inclusion on the Inventory. To maintain the confidential status of the microorganism identity when the microorganism is added to the Inventory, a submitter must reassert the confidentiality claim and substantiate the claim in the notice of commencement of manufacture required under § 725.190.


(i) A submitter may not claim the microorganism identity confidential for the period after commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use unless the submitter claimed the microorganism identity confidential under paragraph (a) of this section in the MCAN submitted for the microorganism.


(ii) A submitter may claim the microorganism identity confidential for the period after commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use if the submitter did not claim the microorganism identity confidential under paragraph (a) of this section in any TERA submitted for the microorganism, but subsequently did claim microorganism identity confidential in the MCAN submitted for the microorganism.


(2) Assertion of claim. (i) A person who believes that public disclosure of the fact that anyone manufactures or imports the microorganism for general commercial use would reveal confidential business information may assert a claim of confidentiality under paragraph (b) of this section.


(ii) If the notice includes a health and safety study concerning the new microorganism, and if the claim for confidentiality with respect to the microorganism identity is denied in accordance with § 725.92(c), EPA will deny a claim asserted under paragraph (b) of this section.


(3) Requirements for assertion. Any person who asserts a confidentiality claim for microorganism identity must:


(i) Comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section regarding submission of a generic name.


(ii) Agree that EPA may disclose to a person with a bona fide intent to manufacture or import the microorganism the fact that the particular microorganism is included on the confidential Inventory for purposes of notification under section 5(a)(1)(A) of the Act.


(iii) Have available and agree to furnish to EPA upon request the taxonomic designations and supplemental information required by § 725.12.


(iv) Provide a detailed written substantiation of the claim, in accordance with the requirements of § 725.94(b).


(4) Denial of claim. If the submitter does not meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, EPA will deny the claim of confidentiality.


(5) Acceptance of claim. (i) EPA will publish a generic name on the public Inventory if:


(A) The submitter asserts a claim of confidentiality in accordance with this paragraph.


(B) No claim for confidentiality of the microorganism identity as part of a health and safety study has been denied in accordance with part 2 of this title or § 725.92.


(ii) Publication of a generic name on the public Inventory does not create a category for purposes of the Inventory. Any person who has a bona fide intent to manufacture or import a microorganism which is described by a generic name on the public Inventory may submit an inquiry to EPA under § 725.15(b) to determine whether the particular microorganism is included on the confidential Inventory.


(iii) Upon receipt of a request described in § 725.15(b), EPA may require the submitter who originally asserted confidentiality for a microorganism to submit to EPA the information listed in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section.


(iv) Failure to submit any of the information required under paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section within 10 calendar days of receipt of a request by EPA under paragraph (b) of this section will constitute a waiver of the original submitter’s confidentiality claim. In this event, EPA may place the specific microorganism identity on the public Inventory without further notice to the original submitter.


(6) Use of generic name on the public Inventory. If a submitter asserts a claim of confidentiality under paragraph (b) of this section, EPA will examine the generic microorganism name proposed by the submitter.


(i) If EPA determines that the generic name proposed by the submitter is only as generic as necessary to protect the confidential identity of the particular microorganism, EPA will place that generic name on the public Inventory.


(ii) If EPA determines that the generic name proposed by the submitter is more generic than necessary to protect the confidential identity, EPA will propose in writing, for review by the submitter, an alternative generic name that will reveal the identity of the microorganism to the maximum extent possible.


(iii) If the generic name proposed by EPA is acceptable to the submitter, EPA will place that generic name on the public Inventory.


(iv) If the generic name proposed by EPA is not acceptable to the submitter, the submitter must explain in detail why disclosure of that generic name would reveal confidential business information and propose another generic name which is only as generic as necessary to protect the confidential identity of the microorganism. If EPA does not receive a response from the submitter within 30 days after the submitter receives the proposed name, EPA will place EPA’s chosen generic name on the public Inventory. If the submitter does provide the information requested, EPA will review the response. If the submitter’s proposed generic name is acceptable, EPA will publish that generic name on the public Inventory. If the submitter’s proposed generic name is not acceptable, EPA will notify the submitter of EPA’s choice of a generic name. Thirty days after this notification, EPA will place the chosen generic name on the public Inventory.


§ 725.88 Uses of a microorganism.

(a) Assertion of claim. A person who submits information to EPA under this part on the categories or proposed categories of use of a microorganism may assert a claim of confidentiality for this information.


(b) Requirements for claim. A submitter that asserts such a claim must:


(1) Report the categories or proposed categories of use of the microorganism.


(2) Provide, in nonconfidential form, a description of the uses that is only as generic as necessary to protect the confidential business information. The generic use description will be included in the Federal Register notice described in § 725.40.


(c) Generic use description. The person must submit the information required by paragraph (b) of this section by describing the uses as precisely as possible, without revealing the information which is claimed confidential, to disclose as much as possible how the use may result in human exposure to the microorganism or its release to the environment.


§ 725.92 Data from health and safety studies of microorganisms.

(a) Information other than specific microorganism identity. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, EPA will deny any claim of confidentiality with respect to information included in a health and safety study of a microorganism, unless the information would disclose confidential business information concerning:


(1) Processes used in the manufacture or processing of a microorganism.


(2) Information which is not in any way related to the effects of a microorganism on health or the environment, such as, the name of the submitting company, cost or other financial data, product development or marketing plans, and advertising plans, for which the person submits a claim of confidentiality in accordance with § 725.80.


(b) Microorganism identity – (1) Claims applicable to the period prior to commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use. A claim of confidentiality for the period prior to commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use for the specific identity of a microorganism for which a health and safety study was submitted must be asserted in conjunction with a claim asserted under § 725.85(a). The submitter must substantiate each claim in accordance with the requirements of § 725.94(a).


(2) Claims applicable to the period after commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use. To maintain the confidential status of the specific identity of a microorganism for which a health and safety study was submitted after commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use, the claim must be reasserted and substantiated in conjunction with a claim under § 725.85(b). The submitter must substantiate each claim in accordance with the requirements of § 725.94(b).


(c) Denial of confidentiality claim. EPA will deny a claim of confidentiality for microorganism identity under paragraph (b) of this section, unless:


(1) The information would disclose processes used in the manufacture or processing of a microorganism.


(2) The microorganism identity is not necessary to interpret a health and safety study.


(d) Use of generic names. When EPA discloses a health and safety study containing a microorganism identity, which the submitter has claimed confidential, and if the Agency has not denied the claim under paragraph (c) of this section, EPA will identify the microorganism by the generic name selected under § 725.85.


§ 725.94 Substantiation requirements.

(a) Claims applicable to the period prior to commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use – (1) MCAN, TME, Tier I certification, and Tier II exemption request requirements. Any person who submits a MCAN, TME, Tier I certification, or Tier II exemption request should strictly limit confidentiality claims to that information which is confidential and proprietary to the business.


(i) If any information in the submission is claimed as confidential business information, the submitter must substantiate each claim by submitting written answers to the questions in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section at the time the person submits the information.


(ii) If the submitter does not provide written substantiation as required in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, the submission will be considered incomplete and the review period will not begin in accordance with § 725.33.


(2) TERA requirements. Any person who submits a TERA, should strictly limit confidentiality claims to that information which is confidential and proprietary to the business. If any information in such a submission is claimed as confidential business information, the submitter must have available for each of those claims, and agree to furnish to EPA upon request, written answers to the questions in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section.


(b) Claims applicable to the period after commencement of manufacture or import for general commercial use. (1) If a submitter claimed portions of the microorganism identity confidential in the MCAN and wants the identity to be listed on the confidential Inventory, the claim must be reasserted and substantiated at the time the Notice of Commencement (NOC) is submitted under § 725.190. Otherwise, EPA will list the specific microorganism identity on the public Inventory.


(2) The submitter must substantiate the claim for confidentiality of the microorganism identity by answering all of the questions in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) in this section. In addition, the following questions must be answered:


(i) What harmful effects to the company’s or institution’s competitive position, if any, would result if EPA publishes on the Inventory the identity of the microorganism? How could a competitor use such information given the fact that the identity of the microorganism otherwise would appear on the TSCA Inventory with no link between the microorganism and the company or institution? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between the disclosure and the harmful effects?


(ii) Has the identity of the microorganism been kept confidential to the extent that competitors do not know it is being manufactured or imported for general commercial use by anyone?


(c) General questions. The following questions must be answered in detail for each confidentiality claim:


(1) For what period of time is a claim of confidentiality being asserted? If the claim is to extend until a certain event or point in time, indicate that event or time period. Explain why the information should remain confidential until such point.


(2) Briefly describe any physical or procedural restrictions within the company or institution relating to the use and storage of the information claimed as confidential. What other steps, if any, apply to use or further disclosure of the information?


(3) Has the information claimed as confidential been disclosed to individuals outside of the company or institution? Will it be disclosed to such persons in the future? If so, what restrictions, if any, apply to use or further disclosure of the information?


(4) Does the information claimed as confidential appear, or is it referred to, in any of the following questions? If the answer is yes to any of these questions, indicate where the information appears and explain why it should nonetheless be treated as confidential.


(i) Advertising or promotional materials for the microorganism or the resulting end product?


(ii) Material safety data sheets or other similar materials for the microorganism or the resulting end product?


(iii) Professional or trade publications?


(iv) Any other media available to the public or to competitors?


(v) Patents?


(vi) Local, State, or Federal agency public files?


(5) Has EPA, another Federal agency, a Federal court, or a State made any confidentiality determination regarding the information claimed as confidential? If so, provide copies of such determinations.


(6) For each type of information claimed confidential, describe the harm to the company’s or institution’s competitive position that would result if this information were disclosed. Why would this harm be substantial? How could a competitor use such information? What is the causal connection between the disclosure and harm?


(7) If EPA disclosed to the public the information claimed as confidential, how difficult would it be for the competitor to enter the market for the resulting product? Consider such constraints as capital and marketing cost, specialized technical expertise, or unusual processes.


(d) Microorganism identity and production method. If confidentiality claims are asserted for the identity of the microorganism or information on how the microorganism is produced, the following questions must be answered:


(1) Has the microorganism or method of production been patented in the U.S. or elsewhere? If so, why is confidentiality necessary?


(2) Does the microorganism leave the site of production or testing in a form which is accessible to the public or to competitors? What is the cost to a competitor, in time and money, to develop appropriate use conditions? What factors facilitate or impede product analysis?


(3) For each additional type of information claimed as confidential, explain what harm would result from disclosure of each type of information if the identity of the microorganism were to remain confidential.


(e) Health and safety studies of microorganisms. If confidentiality claims are asserted for information in a health or safety study of a microorganism, the following questions must be answered:


(1) Would the disclosure of the information claimed confidential reveal: confidential process information, or information unrelated to the effects of the microorganism on health and the environment. Describe the causal connection between the disclosure and harm.


(2) Does the company or institution assert that disclosure of the microorganism identity is not necessary to interpret any health and safety studies which have been submitted? If so, explain how a less specific identity would be sufficient to interpret the studies.


§ 725.95 Public file.

All information submitted, including any health and safety study of a microorganism and other supporting documentation, will become part of the public file for that submission, unless such materials are claimed confidential. In addition, EPA may add materials to the public file, unless such materials are claimed confidential. Publically available docket materials are available at the addresses in § 700.17(b)(1) and (2) of this chapter


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, 77 FR 46292, Aug. 3, 2012]


Subpart D – Microbial Commercial Activities Notification Requirements

§ 725.100 Scope and purpose.

(a) This subpart establishes procedures for submission of a notice to EPA under section 5(a) of the Act for persons who manufacture, import, or process microorganisms for commercial purposes. This notice is called a Microbial Commercial Activity Notice (MCAN). It is expected that MCANs will in general only be submitted for microorganisms intended for general commercial use. Persons who manufacture, import, or process a microorganism in small quantities solely for research and development as defined in § 725.3 are not required to submit a notice to EPA. Persons who manufacture, import, or process a microorganism for research and development activities that do not fit the definition of small quantities solely for research and development may nonetheless qualify for more limited reporting requirements in subpart E, including the TERA which can be used for review of research and development involving environmental release.


(b) Persons subject to MCAN submission are described in § 725.105.


(c) Exclusions and exemptions specific to MCAN submissions are described in § 725.110.


(d) Submission requirements applicable specifically to MCANs are described at § 725.150.


(e) Data requirements for MCANs are set forth in §§ 725.155 and 725.160.


(f) EPA review procedures specific to MCANs are set forth in § 725.170.


(g) Subparts A through C of this part apply to any MCAN submitted under this subpart.


§ 725.105 Persons who must report.

(a) Manufacturers of new microorganisms. (1) MCAN submission is required for any person who intends to manufacture for commercial purposes in the United States a new microorganism. Exclusions are described in § 725.110.


(2) If a person contracts with a manufacturer to produce or process a new microorganism and the manufacturer produces or processes the microorganism exclusively for that person, and that person specifies the identity of the microorganism, and controls the total amount produced and the basic technology for the plant process, then that person must submit the MCAN. If it is unclear who must report, EPA should be contacted to determine who must submit the MCAN.


(3) Only manufacturers that are incorporated, licensed, or doing business in the United States may submit a MCAN.


(b) Importers of new microorganisms. (1) MCAN submission is required for a person who intends to import into the United States for commercial purposes a new microorganism. Exclusions are described in § 725.110.


(2) When several persons are involved in an import transaction, the MCAN must be submitted by the principal importer. If no one person fits the principal importer definition in a particular transaction, the importer should contact EPA to determine who must submit the MCAN for that transaction.


(3) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the provisions of this subpart D apply to each person who submits a MCAN for a new microorganism which such person intends to import for a commercial purpose. In addition, each importer must comply with paragraph (b)(4) of this section.


(4) EPA will hold the principal importer, or the importer that EPA determines must submit the MCAN when there is no principal importer under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, liable for complying with this part, for completing the MCAN, and for the completeness and truthfulness of all information which it submits.


(c) Manufacturers, importers, or processors of microorganisms for a significant new use. MCAN submission is required for any person who intends to manufacture, import, or process for commercial purposes a microorganism identified as having one or more significant new uses in subpart M of this part, and who intends either to engage in a designated significant new use of the microorganism or intends to distribute it in commerce. Persons excluded from reporting on significant new uses of microorganisms and additional procedures for reporting are described in subpart L of this part.


§ 725.110 Persons not subject to this subpart.

Persons are not subject to the requirements of this subpart for the following activities:


(a) Manufacturing, importing, or processing solely for research and development microorganisms that meet the requirements for an exemption under subpart E of this part.


(b) Manufacturing, importing, or processing microorganisms for test marketing activities which have been granted an exemption under subpart F of this part.


(c) Manufacturing or importing new microorganisms under the conditions of a Tier I or Tier II exemption under subpart G of this part.


§ 725.150 Procedural requirements for this subpart.

General requirements for all MCANs under this part are contained in subparts A through C of this part. In addition, the following requirements apply to MCANs submitted under this subpart:


(a) When to submit a MCAN. A MCAN must be submitted at least 90 calendar days prior to manufacturing or importing a new microorganism and at least 90 calendar days prior to manufacturing, importing, or processing a microorganism for a significant new use.


(b) Section 5(b) of the Act. The submitter must comply with any applicable requirement of section 5(b) of the Act for the submission of test data.


(c) Contents of a MCAN. Each person who submits a MCAN under this subpart must provide the information and test data described in §§ 725.155 and 725.160.


(d) Recordkeeping. Each person who submits a MCAN under this subpart must comply with the recordkeeping requirements of § 725.65.


§ 725.155 Information to be included in the MCAN.

(a) Each person who is required by this part to submit a MCAN must include the information specified in paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section, to the extent it is known to or reasonably ascertainable by that person. However, no person is required to include information which relates solely to exposure of humans or ecological populations outside of the United States.


(b) Each person should also submit, in writing, all other information known to or reasonably ascertainable by that person that would permit EPA to make a reasoned evaluation of the health and environmental effects of the microorganism, or any microbial mixture or article, including information on its effects on humans, animals, plants, and other microorganisms, and in the environment. The information to be submitted under this subpart includes the information listed in paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section relating to the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, and disposal of the new microorganism.


(c) Submitter identification. (1) The name and headquarters address of the submitter.


(2) The name, address, and office telephone number (including area code) of the principal technical contact representing the submitter.


(d) Microorganism identity information. Persons must submit sufficient information to allow the microorganism to be accurately and unambiguously identified for listing purposes as required by § 725.12.


(1) Description of the recipient microorganism and the new microorganism. (i) Data substantiating the taxonomy of the recipient microorganism and the new microorganism to the level of strain, as appropriate. In lieu of data, EPA will accept a letter from a culture collection substantiating taxonomy, provided EPA, upon request to the submitter, may have access to the data supporting the taxonomic designation.


(ii) Information on the morphological and physiological features of the new microorganism.


(iii) Other specific data by which the new microorganism may be uniquely identified for Inventory purposes.


(2) Genetic construction of the new microorganism. (i) Data substantiating the taxonomy of the donor organism(s). In lieu of data, EPA will accept a letter from a culture collection substantiating taxonomy, provided EPA, upon request to the submitter, may have access to the data supporting the taxonomic designation.


(ii) Description of the traits for which the new microorganism has been selected or developed and other traits known to have been added or modified.


(iii) A detailed description of the genetic construction of the new microorganism, including the technique used to modify the microorganism (e.g., fusion of cells, injection of DNA, electroporation or chemical poration, or methods used for induced mutation and selection). The description should include, for example, a description of the introduced genetic material, including any regulatory sequences and structural genes and the products of those genes; how the introduced genetic material is expected to affect behavior of the recipient; expression, alteration, and stability of the introduced genetic material; methods for vector construction and introduction; and a description of the regulatory and structural genes that are components of the introduced genetic material, including genetic maps of the introduced sequences.


(3) Phenotypic and ecological characteristics. (i) Habitat, geographical distribution, and source of the recipient microorganism.


(ii) Survival and dissemination under relevant environmental conditions including a description of methods for detecting the new or recipient microorganism(s) in the environment and the sensitivity limit of detection for these techniques.


(iii) A description of anticipated biological interactions with and effects on target organisms and other organisms such as competitors, prey, hosts, symbionts, parasites, and pathogens; a description of host range; a description of pathogenicity, infectivity, toxicity, virulence, or action as a vector of pathogens; and capacity for genetic transfer under laboratory and relevant environmental conditions.


(iv) A description of anticipated involvement in biogeochemical or biological cycling processes, involvement in rate limiting steps in mineral or nutrient cycling, or involvement in inorganic compounds cycling (such as possible sequestration or transformation of heavy metals).


(e) Byproducts. A description of the byproducts resulting from the manufacture, processing, use, and disposal of the new microorganism.


(f) Total production volume. The estimated maximum amount of the new microorganism intended to be manufactured or imported during the first year of production and the estimated maximum amount to be manufactured or imported during any consecutive 12-month period during the first 3 years of production. This estimate may be by weight or volume and should include an estimation of viability (i.e., viable cells per unit volume or colony forming units per unit dry weight).


(g) Use information. A description of intended categories of use by function and application, the estimated percent of production volume devoted to each category of use, and the percent of the new microorganism in the formulation for each commercial or consumer use.


(h) Worker exposure and environmental release. (1) For sites controlled by the submitter:


(i) The identity of sites where the new microorganism will be manufactured, processed, or used. For purposes of this section, the site for a person who imports a new microorganism is the site of the operating unit within the person’s organization which is directly responsible for importing the new microorganism and which controls the import transaction. The import site may in some cases be the organization’s headquarters office in the United States.


(ii) A process description of each manufacture, processing, and use operation, which includes a diagram of the major unit operations and conversions, the identity and entry point of all feedstocks, and the identity of any possible points of release of the new microorganism from the process, including a description of all controls, including engineering controls, used to prevent such releases.


(iii) Worker exposure information, including worker activities, physical form of process streams which contain the new microorganism to which workers may be exposed, the number of workers, and the duration of activities.


(iv) Information on release of the new microorganism to the environment, including the quantity and media of release and type of control technology used.


(v) A narrative description of the intended transport of the new microorganism, including the means of transport, containment methods to be used during transport, and emergency containment procedures to be followed in case of accidental release.


(vi) Procedures for disposal of any articles, waste, clothing, or other equipment involved in the activity, including procedures for inactivation of the new microorganism, containment, disinfection, and disposal of contaminated items.


(2) For sites not controlled by the submitter, a description of each type of processing and use operation involving the new microorganism, including identification of the estimated number of processing or use sites, situations in which worker exposure to and/or environmental release of the new microorganism will occur, the number of workers exposed and the duration of exposure; procedures for transport of the new microorganism and for disposal, including procedures for inactivation of the new microorganism; and control measures which limit worker exposure and environmental release.


§ 725.160 Submission of health and environmental effects data.

(a) Test data on the new microorganism in the possession or control of the submitter. (1) Except as provided in § 725.25(h), and in addition to the information required by § 725.155(d)(3), each MCAN must contain all test data in the submitter’s possession or control which are related to the effects on health or the environment of any manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the new microorganism or any microbial mixture or article containing the new microorganism, or any combination of such activities. This includes test data concerning the new microorganism in a pure culture or formulated form as used or as intended to be used in one of the activities listed above.


(2) A full report or standard literature citation must be submitted for the following types of test data:


(i) Health effects data.


(ii) Ecological effects data.


(iii) Physical and chemical properties data.


(iv) Environmental fate characteristics.


(v) Monitoring data and other test data related to human exposure to or environmental release of the new microorganism.


(3)(i) If the data do not appear in the open scientific literature, the submitter must provide a full report. A full report includes the experimental methods and materials, results, discussion and data analysis, conclusions, references, and the name and address of the laboratory that developed the data.


(ii) If the data appear in the open scientific literature, the submitter need only provide a standard literature citation. A standard literature citation includes author, title, periodical name, date of publication, volume, and page numbers.


(4)(i) If a study, report, or test is incomplete when a person submits a MCAN, the submitter must identify the nature and purpose of the study; name and address of the laboratory developing the data; progress to date; types of data collected, significant preliminary results; and anticipated completion date.


(ii) If a test or experiment is completed before the MCAN review period ends, the person must submit the study, report, or test, as specified in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, to the address listed in § 725.25(c) within 10 days of receiving it, but no later than 5 days before the end of the review period. If the test or experiment is completed during the last 5 days of the review period, the submitter must immediately inform its EPA contact for that submission by telephone.


(5) For test data in the submitter’s possession or control which are not listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a person is not required to submit a complete report. The person must submit a summary of the data. If EPA so requests, the person must submit a full report within 10 days of the request, but no later than 5 days before the end of the review period.


(6) All test data described under paragraph (a) of this section are subject to these requirements, regardless of their age, quality, or results.


(b) Other data concerning the health and environmental effects of the new microorganism that are known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter. (1) Except as provided in § 725.25(h), and in addition to the information required by § 725.155(c)(3), any person who submits a MCAN must describe the following data, including any data from a health and safety study of a microorganism, if the data are related to effects on health or the environment of any manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the microorganism, of any microbial mixture or article containing the new microorganism, or of any combination of such activities:


(i) Any data, other than test data, in the submitter’s possession or control.


(ii) Any data, including test data, which are not in the submitter’s possession or control, but which are known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter. For the purposes of this section, data are known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter if the data are known to any of its employees or other agents who are associated with the research and development, test marketing, or commercial marketing of the microorganism.


(2) Data that must be described include data concerning the new microorganism in a pure culture or formulated form as used or as intended to be used in one of the activities listed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.


(3) The description of data reported under paragraph (b) of this section must include:


(i) If the data appear in the open scientific literature, a standard literature citation, which includes the author, title, periodical name, date of publication, volume, and pages.


(ii) If the data are not available in the open scientific literature, a description of the type of data and summary of the results, if available, and the names and addresses of persons the submitter believes may have possession or control of the data.


(4) All data described in paragraph (b) of this section are subject to these requirements, regardless of their age, quality, or results; and regardless of whether they are complete at the time the MCAN is submitted.


§ 725.170 EPA review of the MCAN.

General procedures for review of all submissions under this part are contained in §§ 725.28 through 725.60. In addition, the following procedures apply to EPA review of MCANs submitted under this subpart:


(a) Length of the review period. The MCAN review period specified in section 5(a) of the Act runs for 90 days from the date the Document Control Officer for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics receives a complete MCAN, or the date EPA determines the MCAN is complete under § 725.33, unless the Agency extends the period under section 5(c) of the Act and § 725.56.


(b) Notice of expiration of MCAN review period. (1) EPA will notify the submitter that the MCAN review period has expired or that EPA has completed its review of the MCAN. Expiration of the review period does not constitute EPA approval or certification of the new microorganism, and does not mean that EPA may not take regulatory action against the microorganism in the future.


(2) After expiration of the MCAN review period, in the absence of regulatory action by EPA under section 5(e), 5(f), or 6(a) of the Act, the submitter may manufacture or import the microorganism even if the submitter has not received notice of expiration.


(3) Early notification that EPA has completed its review does not permit commencement of manufacture or import prior to the expiration of the 90-day MCAN review period.


(c) No person submitting a MCAN in response to the requirements of this subpart may manufacture, import, or process a microorganism subject to this subpart until the review period, including all extensions and suspensions, has expired.


§ 725.190 Notice of commencement of manufacture or import.

(a) Applicability. Any person who commences the manufacture or import of a new microorganism for nonexempt, commercial purposes for which that person previously submitted a section 5(a) notice under this part must submit a notice of commencement (NOC) of manufacture or import.


(b) When to report. (1) If manufacture or import for nonexempt, commercial purposes begins on or after May 27, 1997, the submitter must submit the NOC to EPA no later than 30 calendar days after the first day of such manufacture or import.


(2) If manufacture or import for nonexempt, commercial purposes began or will begin before May 27, 1997, the submitter must submit the NOC by May 27, 1997.


(3) Submission of an NOC prior to the commencement of manufacture or import is a violation of section 15 of the Act.


(c) Information to be reported. The NOC must contain the following information: Specific microorganism identity, MCAN number, and the date when manufacture or import commences. If the person claimed microorganism identity confidential in the MCAN, and wants the identity to be listed on the confidential Inventory, the claim must be reasserted and resubstantiated in accordance with § 725.85(b). Otherwise, EPA will list the specific microorganism identity on the public Inventory.


(d) How to submit. All notices of commencement must be generated, completed, and submitted to EPA (via CDX) using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 789, Jan. 6, 2010; 78 FR 72828, Dec. 4, 2013]


Subpart E – Exemptions for Research and Development Activities

§ 725.200 Scope and purpose.

(a) This subpart describes exemptions from the reporting requirements under subpart D of this part for research and development activities involving microorganisms.


(b) In lieu of complying with subpart D of this part, persons described in § 725.205 may submit a TSCA Experimental Release Application (TERA) for research and development activities involving microorganisms or otherwise comply with this subpart.


(c) Exemptions from part 725 are provided at §§ 725.232, 725.234, and 725.238.


(d) Submission requirements specific for TERAs are described at § 725.250.


(e) Data requirements for TERAs are set forth in §§ 725.255 and 725.260.


(f) EPA review procedures specific for TERAs are set forth in §§ 725.270 and 725.288.


(g) Subparts A through C of this part apply to any submission under this subpart.


§ 725.205 Persons who may report under this subpart.

(a) Commercial research and development activities involving new microorganisms or significant new uses of microorganisms are subject to reporting under this part unless they qualify for an exemption under this part.


(b) Commercial purposes for research and development means that the activities are conducted with the purpose of obtaining an immediate or eventual commercial advantage for the researcher and would include:


(1) All research and development activities which are funded directly, in whole or in part, by a commercial entity regardless of who is actually conducting the research. Indications that the research and development activities are funded directly, in whole or in part, may include, but are not limited to:


(i) Situations in which a commercial entity contracts directly with a university or researcher; or


(ii) Situations in which a commercial entity gives a conditional grant where the commercial entity holds patent rights, or establishes a joint venture where the commercial entity holds patent or licensing rights; or


(iii) Any other situation in which the commercial entity intends to obtain an immediate or eventual commercial advantage for the commercial entity and/or the researcher.


(2) Research and development activities that are not funded directly by a commercial entity, if the researcher intends to obtain an immediate or eventual commercial advantage. Indications that the researcher intends to obtain an immediate or eventual commercial advantage may include, but are not limited to:


(i) The research is directed toward developing a commercially viable improvement of a product already on the market; or


(ii) The researcher has sought or is seeking commercial funding for the purpose of developing a commercial application; or


(iii) The researcher or university has sought or is seeking a patent to protect a commercial application which the research is developing; or


(iv) Other evidence that the researcher is aware of a commercial application for the research and has directed the research toward developing that application.


(c) Certain research and development activities involving microorganisms subject to jurisdiction under the Act are exempt from reporting under this part. A person conducting research and development activities which meet the conditions for the exemptions described in §§ 725.232, 725.234, or 725.238 is exempt from TERA reporting under this subpart.


(d) A microorganism is not exempt from reporting under subpart D of this part if any amount of the microorganism, including as part of a mixture, is processed, distributed in commerce, or used, for any commercial purpose other than research and development.


(e) Quantities of the inactivated microorganism, or mixtures or articles containing the inactivated microorganism, remaining after completion of research and development activities may be disposed of as a waste in accordance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations.


(f) A person who manufactures, imports, or processes a microorganism solely for research and development is not required to comply with the requirements of this section if:


(1) The person is manufacturing a microbial pesticide identified in § 172.45(c), or


(2) The person is manufacturing a microbial pesticide for which an Experimental Use Permit is required, pursuant to § 172.3; or


(3) The person is manufacturing a microbial pesticide for which a notification or an Experimental Use Permit is not required to be submitted.


§ 725.232 Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies.

This part does not apply to any research and development activity that meets all of the following conditions.


(a) The microorganism is manufactured, imported, or processed solely for research and development activities.


(b) There is no intentional testing of a microorganism outside of a structure, as structure is defined in § 725.3.


(c)(1) The person receives research funds from another Federal agency, and the funds are awarded on the condition that the research will be conducted in accordance with the relevant portions of the NIH Guidelines, or


(2) A Federal agency or program otherwise imposes the legally binding requirement that the research is to be conducted in accordance with relevant portions of the NIH Guidelines.


§ 725.234 Activities conducted inside a structure.

A person who manufactures, imports, or processes a microorganism is not subject to the reporting requirements under subpart D of this part if all of the following conditions are met:


(a) The microorganism is manufactured, imported, or processed solely for research and development activities.


(b) The microorganism is used by, or directly under the supervision of, a technically qualified individual, as defined in § 725.3. The technically qualified individual must maintain documentation of the procedures selected to comply with paragraph (d) of this section and must ensure that the procedures are used.


(c) There is no intentional testing of a microorganism outside of a structure, as structure is defined in § 725.3.


(d) Containment and/or inactivation controls. (1) Selection and use of containment and/or inactivation controls inside a structure for a particular microorganism shall take into account the following:


(i) Factors relevant to the organism’s ability to survive in the environment.


(ii) Potential routes of release in air, solids and liquids; in or on waste materials and equipment; in or on people, including maintenance and custodial personnel; and in or on other organisms, such as insects and rodents.


(iii) Procedures for transfer of materials between facilities.


(2) The technically qualified individual’s selection of containment and/or inactivation controls shall be approved and certified by an authorized official (other than the TQI) of the institution that is conducting the test prior to the commencement of the test.


(3) Records shall be developed and maintained describing the selection and use of containment and/or inactivation controls, as specified in § 725.235(c). These records, which must be maintained at the location where the research and development activity is being conducted, shall be submitted to EPA upon written request and within the time frame specified in EPA’s request.


(4) Subsequent to EPA review of records in accordance with paragraph (d)(3) of this section, changes to the containment/inactivation controls selected under paragraph (d)(1) of this section must be made upon EPA order. Failure to comply with EPA’s order shall result in automatic loss of eligibility for an exemption under this section.


(e) The manufacturer, importer, or processor notifies all persons in its employ or to whom it directly distributes the microorganism, who are engaged in experimentation, research, or analysis on the microorganism, including the manufacture, processing, use, transport, storage, and disposal of the microorganism associated with research and development activities, of any risk to health, identified under § 725.235(a), which may be associated with the microorganism. The notification must be made in accordance with § 725.235(b).


§ 725.235 Conditions of exemption for activities conducted inside a structure.

(a) Determination of risks. To determine whether notification under § 725.234(e) is required, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must do one of the following:


(1) For research conducted in accordance with the NIH Guidelines, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must meet the conditions laid out at IV-B-4-d of the NIH Guidelines; or


(2) For all other research conducted in accordance with § 725.234, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must review and evaluate the following information to determine whether there is reason to believe there is any risk to health which may be associated with the microorganism:


(i) Information in its possession or control concerning any significant adverse reaction of persons exposed to the microorganism which may reasonably be associated with such exposure.


(ii) Information provided to the manufacturer, importer, or processor by a supplier or any other person concerning a health risk believed to be associated with the microorganism.


(iii) Health and environmental effects data in its possession or control concerning the microorganism.


(iv) Information on health effects which accompanies any EPA rule or order issued under TSCA section 4, 5, or 6 of the Act that applies to the microorganism and of which the manufacturer, importer, or processor has knowledge.


(b) Notification to employees and others. (1) The manufacturer, importer, or processor must notify the persons identified in § 725.234(e) by means of a container labeling system, conspicuous placement of notices in areas where exposure may occur, written notification to each person potentially exposed, or any other method of notification which adequately informs persons of health risks which the manufacturer, importer, or processor has reason to believe may be associated with the microorganism, as determined under paragraph (a) of this section.


(2) If the manufacturer, importer, or processor distributes a microorganism manufactured, imported, or processed under this section to persons not in its employ, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must in written form:


(i) Notify those persons that the microorganism is to be used only for research and development purposes and the requirements of § 725.234 are to be met.


(ii) Provide the notice of health risks specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.


(3) The adequacy of any notification under this section is the responsibility of the manufacturer, importer, or processor.


(c) Recordkeeping. (1) For research conducted in accordance with the NIH Guidelines, a person who manufactures, imports, or processes a microorganism under this section must retain the following records:


(i) Documentation that the NIH Guidelines have been adhered to. Such documentation shall include:


(A) For experiments subject to Institutional Biosafety Committee review, or notification simultaneous with initiation of the experiment, the information submitted for review or notification, along with standard laboratory records, shall satisfy the recordkeeping requirements specified in § 725.234(d)(3).


(B) For experiments exempt from Institutional Biosafety Committee review or notification simultaneous with initiation of the experiment, documentation of the exemption, along with standard laboratory records, shall satisfy the recordkeeping requirement specified in § 725.234(d)(3).


(ii) Documentation of how the following requirements are satisfied under the NIH Guidelines:


(A) Copies or citations to information reviewed and evaluated to determine the need to make any notification of risk.


(B) Documentation of the nature and method of notification of risk, including copies of any labels or written notices used.


(C) The names and addresses of any persons other than the manufacturer, importer, or processor to whom the substance is distributed, the identity of the microorganism, the amount distributed, and copies of the notifications required.


(2) For all other research conducted in accordance with § 725.234, a person who manufacturers, imports, or processes a microorganism under this section, must maintain the following records:


(i) Records describing selection and use of containment and/or inactivation controls required by § 725.234(d)(3) and certification by an authorized official required by § 725.234(d)(2) for each microorganism.


(ii) Copies or citations to information reviewed and evaluated under paragraph (a) of this section to determine the need to make any notification of risk.


(iii) Documentation of the nature and method of notification under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, including copies of any labels or written notices used.


(iv) The names and addresses of any persons other than the manufacturer, importer, or processor to whom the substance is distributed, the identity of the microorganism, the amount distributed, and copies of the notifications required under paragraph (b)(2) of this section.


§ 725.238 Activities conducted outside a structure.

(a) Exemption. (1) Research and development activities involving intentional testing in the environment of certain microorganisms listed in § 725.239 may be conducted without prior review by EPA if all of the conditions of this section and § 725.239 are met.


(2) The research and development activity involving a microorganism listed in § 725.239 must be conducted by, or directly under the supervision of, a technically qualified individual, as defined in § 725.3.


(b) Certification. To be eligible for the exemption under this section, a manufacturer or importer must submit to EPA prior to initiation of the activity a document signed by an authorized official containing the following information:


(1) Name, address, and telephone number of the manufacturer or importer.


(2) Location, estimated duration, and planned start date of the test.


(3) Certification of the following:


(i) Compliance with the conditions of the exemption specified for the microorganism in § 725.239.


(ii) If state and/or local authorities have been notified of the activity, evidence of notification.


(c) Recordkeeping. Persons who conduct research and development activities under this section must comply with the recordkeeping requirements of § 725.65 and retain documentation that supports their compliance with the requirements of this section and the specific requirements for the microorganism listed in § 725.239.


§ 725.239 Use of specific microorganisms in activities conducted outside a structure.

(a) Bradyrhizobium japonicum. To qualify for an exemption under this section, all of the following conditions must be met for a test involving Bradyrhizobium japonicum:


(1) Characteristics of recipient microorganism. The recipient microorganism is limited to strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum.


(2) Modification of traits. (i) The introduced genetic material must meet the criteria for poorly mobilizable listed in § 725.421(c).


(ii) The introduced genetic material must consist only of the following components:


(A) The structural gene(s) of interest, which have the following limitations:


(1) For structural genes encoding marker sequences, the gene is limited to the aadH gene, which confers resistance to the antibiotics streptomycin and spectinomycin.


(2) For traits other than antibiotic resistance, the structural gene must be limited to the genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium.


(B) The regulatory sequences permitting the expression of solely the gene(s) of interest.


(C) Associated nucleotide sequences needed to move genetic material, including linkers, homopolymers, adaptors, transposons, insertion sequences, and restriction enzyme sites.


(D) The vector nucleotide sequences needed for vector transfer.


(E) The vector nucleotide sequences needed for vector maintenance.


(3) Limitations on exposure. (i) The test site area must be no more than 10 terrestrial acres.


(ii) The technically qualified individual must select appropriate methods to limit the dissemination of modified Bradyrhizobium japonicum.


(b) Rhizobium meliloti. To qualify for an exemption under this section, all of the following conditions must be met for a test involving Rhizobium meliloti:


(1) Characteristics of recipient microorganism. The recipient microorganism is limited to strains of Rhizobium meliloti.


(2) Modification of traits. (i) The introduced genetic material must meet the criteria for poorly mobilizable listed in § 725.421(c) of this part.


(ii) The introduced genetic material must consist only of the following components:


(A) The structural gene(s) of interest, which have the following limitations:


(1) For structural genes encoding marker sequences, the gene is limited to the aadH gene, which confers resistance to the antibiotics streptomycin and spectinomycin.


(2) For traits other than antibiotic resistance, the structural gene must be limited to the genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium.


(B) The regulatory sequences permitting the expression of solely the gene(s) of interest.


(C) Associated nucleotide sequences needed to move genetic material, including linkers, homopolymers, adaptors, transposons, insertion sequences, and restriction enzyme sites.


(D) The vector nucleotide sequences needed for vector transfer.


(E) The vector nucleotide sequences needed for vector maintenance.


(3) Limitations on exposure. (i) The test site area must be no more than 10 terrestrial acres.


(ii) The technically qualified individual must select appropriate methods to limit the dissemination of modified Rhizobium meliloti.


§ 725.250 Procedural requirements for the TERA.

General requirements for all submissions under this part are contained in subparts A through C of this part. In addition, the following requirements apply to TERAs submitted under this subpart:


(a) When to submit the TERA. Each person who is eligible to submit a TERA under this subpart must submit the TERA at least 60 calendar days before the person intends to initiate the proposed research and development activity.


(b) Contents of the TERA. Each person who submits a TERA under this subpart must provide the information and test data described in §§ 725.255 and 725.260. In addition, the submitter must supply sufficient information to enable EPA to evaluate the effects of all activities for which approval is requested.


(c) A person may submit a TERA for one or more microorganisms and one or more research and development activities, including a research program.


(d) EPA will either approve the TERA, with or without conditions, or disapprove it under procedures established in this subpart.


(e) The manufacturer, importer, or processor who receives a TERA approval must comply with all terms of the approval, as well as conditions described in the TERA, and remains liable for compliance with all terms and conditions, regardless of who conducts the research and development activity. Any person conducting the research and development activity approved under the TERA must comply with all terms of the TERA approval, as well as the conditions described in the TERA.


(f) Recordkeeping. Persons submitting a TERA must comply with the recordkeeping requirements of § 725.65. In addition, the following requirements apply to TERAs:


(1) Each person submitting a TERA under this part must retain documentation of information contained in the TERA for a period of 3 years from the date that the results of the study are submitted to the Agency.


(2) Summaries of all data, conclusions, and reports resulting from the conduct of the research and development activity under the TERA must be submitted to the EPA address identified in § 725.25(c) within 1 year of the termination of the activity.


§ 725.255 Information to be included in the TERA.

(a) To review a TERA, EPA must have sufficient information to permit a reasoned evaluation of the health and environmental effects of the planned test in the environment. The person seeking EPA approval must submit all information known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter on the microorganism(s) and the research and development activity, including information not listed in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section that the person believes will be useful for EPA’s risk assessment. The TERA must be in writing and must include at least the information described in the following paragraphs.


(b) When specific information is not submitted, an explanation of why such information is not available or not applicable must be included.


(c) Persons applying for a TERA, must include the submitter identification and microorganism identity information required for MCANs in § 725.155(c), (d)(1), and (d)(2).


(d) Persons applying for a TERA must submit phenotypic and ecological characteristics information required in § 725.155(d)(3) as it relates directly to the conditions of the proposed research and development activity.


(e) Persons applying for a TERA must also submit the following information about the proposed research and development activity:


(1) A detailed description of the proposed research and development activity. (i) The objectives and significance of the activity and a rationale for testing the microorganisms in the environment.


(ii) Number of microorganisms released (including viability per volume if applicable) and the method(s) of application or release.


(iii) Characteristics of the test site(s), including location, geographical, physical, chemical, and biological features, proximity to human habitation or activity, and description of site characteristics that would influence dispersal or confinement.


(iv) Target organisms (if the microorganism(s) to be tested has an intended target), including identification of each target organism and anticipated mechanism and result of interaction.


(v) Planned start date and duration of each activity.


(vi) If State and/or local authorities have been notified of the activity, evidence of notification.


(2) Information on monitoring, confinement, mitigation, and emergency termination procedures. (i) Confinement procedures for the activity, access and security measures, and procedures for routine termination of the activity.


(ii) Mitigation and emergency procedures.


(iii) Measures to detect and control potential adverse effects.


(iv) Name of principal investigator and chief of site personnel responsible for emergency procedures.


(v) Personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and procedures to be followed to minimize dispersion of the microorganism(s) by people, machinery, or equipment.


(vi) Procedures for disposal of any articles, waste, clothing, machinery, or other equipment involved in the experimental release, including methods for inactivation of the microorganism(s), containment, disinfection, and disposal of contaminated items.


§ 725.260 Submission of health and environmental effects data.

Each TERA must contain all available data concerning actual or potential effects on health or the environment of the new microorganism that are in the possession or control of the submitter and a description of other data known to or reasonably ascertainable by the submitter that will permit a reasoned evaluation of the planned test in the environment. The data must be reported in the manner described in § 725.160(a)(3) and (b)(3).


§ 725.270 EPA review of the TERA.

General procedures for review of all submissions under this part are contained in §§ 725.28 through 725.60. In addition, the following procedures apply to EPA review of applications submitted under this subpart:


(a) Length of the review period. (1) The review period for the TERA will be 60 days from the date the Document Control Officer for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics receives a complete TERA, or the date EPA determines the TERA is complete under § 725.33, unless EPA finds good cause for an extension under § 725.56.


(2) A submitter shall not proceed with the research and development activity described in the TERA unless and until EPA provides written approval of the TERA. A submitter may receive early approval if a review is completed in less than 60 days.


(b) EPA decision regarding proposed TERA activity. (1) A decision concerning a TERA under this subpart will be made by the Administrator, or a designee.


(2) If EPA determines that the proposed research and development activity for the microorganism does not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, EPA will notify the submitter that the TERA is approved and that the submitter can proceed with the proposed research and development activity described in the TERA.


(3) EPA may include requirements and conditions in its approval of the TERA that would be stated in the TERA approval under paragraph (c) of this section.


(4) If EPA concludes that it cannot determine that the proposed research and development activity described in the TERA will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, EPA will deny the TERA and will provide reasons for the denial in writing.


(c) TERA approval. (1) A TERA approval issued by EPA under this section is legally binding on the TERA submitter.


(2) When EPA approves a TERA, the submitter must conduct the research and development activity only as described in the TERA and in accordance with any requirements and conditions prescribed by EPA in its approval of the TERA.


(3) Any person who fails to conduct the research and development activity as described in the TERA and in accordance with any requirements and conditions prescribed by EPA in its approval of the TERA under this section, shall be in violation of sections 5 and 15 of the Act and be subject to civil and criminal penalties under section 16 of the Act.


§ 725.288 Revocation or modification of TERA approval.

(a) Significant questions about risk. (1) If, after approval of a TERA under this subpart, EPA receives information which raises significant questions about EPA’s determination that the activity does not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, EPA will notify the submitter in writing of those questions.


(2) The submitter may, within 10 days of receipt of EPA’s notice, provide in writing additional information or arguments concerning the significance of the questions and whether EPA should modify or revoke the approval of the TERA.


(3) After considering any such information and arguments, EPA will decide whether to change its determination regarding approval of the TERA.


(i) If EPA determines that the activity will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, it will notify the submitter in writing. To make this finding, EPA may prescribe additional conditions which must be followed by the submitter.


(ii) If EPA determines that it can no longer conclude that the activity will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, it will notify the submitter in writing that EPA is revoking its approval and state its reasons. In that event, the submitter must terminate the research and development activity within 48 hours of receipt of the notice in accordance with directions provided by EPA in the notice.


(b) Evidence of unreasonable risk. (1) If, after approval of a TERA under this subpart, EPA determines that the proposed research and development activity will present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, EPA will notify the submitter in writing and state its reasons.


(2) In the notice, EPA may prescribe additional safeguards to address or reduce the risk, or may instruct the submitter to suspend the research and development activities.


(3) Within 48 hours, the submitter must implement the instructions contained in the notice. The submitter may then submit additional information or arguments concerning the matters raised by EPA and whether EPA should modify or revoke the approval of the TERA in accordance with paragraph (a)(2) of this section.


(4) EPA will consider the information and arguments in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section.


(5) Following consideration of the information and arguments under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, if EPA notifies the submitter that the R&D activity must be suspended or terminted, the submitter may resume the activity only upon written notice from EPA that EPA has approved resumption of the activity. In approving resumption of an activity, EPA may prescribe additional conditions which must be followed by the submitter.


(c) Modifications. If, after approval of a TERA under this subpart, the submitter concludes that it is necessary to alter the conduct of the research and development activity in a manner which would result in the activity being different from that described in the TERA agreement and any conditions EPA prescribed in its approval, the submitter must inform the EPA contact for the TERA and may not modify the activity without the approval of EPA.


Subpart F – Exemptions for Test Marketing

§ 725.300 Scope and purpose.

(a) This subpart describes exemptions from the reporting requirements under subpart D of this part for test marketing activities involving microorganisms.


(b) In lieu of complying with subpart D of this part, persons described in § 725.305 may submit an application for a test marketing exemption (TME).


(c) Submission requirements specific for TME applications are described at § 725.350.


(d) Data requirements for TME applications are set forth in § 725.355.


(e) EPA review procedures specific for TMEs are set forth in § 725.370.


(f) Subparts A through C of this part apply to any submission under this subpart.


§ 725.305 Persons who may apply under this subpart.

A person identified in this section may apply for a test marketing exemption. EPA may grant the exemption if the person demonstrates that the microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment as a result of the test marketing. A person may apply under this subpart for the following test marketing activities:


(a) A person who intends to manufacture or import for commercial purposes a new microorganism.


(b) A person who intends to manufacture, import, or process for commercial purposes a microorganism identified in subpart M of this part for a significant new use.


§ 725.350 Procedural requirements for this subpart.

General requirements for all submissions under this part are contained in subparts A through C of this part. In addition, the following requirements apply to applications submitted under this subpart:


(a) Prenotice consultation. EPA strongly suggests that for a TME, the applicant contact EPA for a prenotice consultation regarding eligibility for a TME.


(b) When to submit a TME application. Each person who is eligible to apply for a TME under this subpart must submit the application at least 45 calendar days before the person intends to commence the test marketing activity.


(c) Recordkeeping. Each person who is granted a TME must comply with the recordkeeping requirements of § 725.65. In addition, any person who obtains a TME must retain documentation of compliance with any restrictions imposed by EPA when it grants the TME. This information must be retained for 3 years from the final date of manufacture or import under the exemption.


§ 725.355 Information to be included in the TME application.

(a) To review a TME application, EPA must have sufficient information to permit a reasoned evaluation of the health and environmental effects of the planned test marketing activity. The person seeking EPA approval must submit all information known to or reasonably ascertainable by the person on the microorganism and the test marketing activity, including information not listed in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section that the person believes will demonstrate that the microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment as a result of the test marketing. The TME application must be in writing and must include at least the information described in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section.


(b) When specific information is not submitted, an explanation of why such information is not available or not applicable must be included.


(c) Persons applying for a TME must submit the submitter identification and microorganism identity information required for MCANs in § 725.155(c), (d)(1), and (d)(2).


(d) Persons applying for a TME must submit phenotypic and ecological characteristics information required in § 725.155(d)(3) as it relates directly to the conditions of the proposed test marketing activity.


(e) Persons applying for a TME must also submit the following information about the proposed test marketing activity:


(1) Proposed test marketing activity. (i) The maximum quantity of the microorganism which the applicant will manufacture or import for test marketing.


(ii) The maximum number of persons who may be provided the microorganism during test marketing.


(iii) The maximum number of persons who may be exposed to the microorganism as a result of test marketing, including information regarding duration and route of such exposures.


(iv) A description of the test marketing activity, including its duration and how it can be distinguished from full-scale commercial production and research and development activities.


(2) Health and environmental effects data. All existing data regarding health and environmental effects of the microorganism must be reported in accordance with § 725.160.


§ 725.370 EPA review of the TME application.

General procedures for review of all submissions under this part are contained in §§ 725.28 through 725.60. In addition, the following procedures apply to EPA review of TME applications submitted under this subpart:


(a) No later than 45 days after EPA receives a TME, the Agency will either approve or deny the application.


(b) A submitter may only proceed with test marketing activities after receipt of EPA approval.


(c) In approving a TME application, EPA may impose any restrictions necessary to ensure that the microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health and the environment as a result of test marketing.


Subpart G – General Exemptions for New Microorganisms

§ 725.400 Scope and purpose.

(a) This subpart describes exemptions from reporting under subpart D of this part, and from review under this part altogether, for manufacturing and importing of certain new microorganisms for commercial purposes.


(b) Recipient microorganisms eligible for the tiered exemption from review under this part are listed in § 725.420.


(c) Criteria for the introduced genetic material contained in the new microorganisms are described in § 725.421.


(d) Physical containment and control technologies are described in § 725.422.


(e) The conditions for the Tier I exemption are listed in § 725.424.


(f) In lieu of complying with subpart D of this part, persons using recipient microorganisms eligible for the tiered exemption may submit a Tier II exemption request. The limited reporting requirements for the Tier II exemption, including data requirements, are described in §§ 725.450 and 725.455.


(g) EPA review procedures for the Tier II exemption are set forth in § 725.470.


(h) Subparts A through C of this part apply to any submission under this subpart.


§ 725.420 Recipient microorganisms.

The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for either exemption under this subpart:


(a) Acetobacter aceti.


(b) Aspergillus niger.


(c) Aspergillus oryzae.


(d) Bacillus licheniformis.


(e) Bacillus subtilis.


(f) Clostridium acetobutylicum.


(g) Escherichia coli K-12.


(h) Penicillium roqueforti.


(i) Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


(j) Saccharomyces uvarum.


(k) Trichoderma reesei strain QM6a and its derivatives used only in submerged standard industrial fermentation operations as defined at 40 CFR 725.3.


(l) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 85 FR 13772, Mar. 10, 2020]


§ 725.421 Introduced genetic material.

For a new microorganism to qualify for either exemption under this subpart, introduced genetic material must meet all of the criteria listed in this section.


(a) Limited in size. The introduced genetic material must consist only of the following:


(1) The structural gene(s) of interest.


(2) The regulatory sequences permitting the expression of solely the gene(s) of interest.


(3) Associated nucleotide sequences needed to move genetic material, including linkers, homopolymers, adaptors, transposons, insertion sequences, and restriction enzyme sites.


(4) The nucleotide sequences needed for vector transfer.


(5) The nucleotide sequences needed for vector maintenance.


(b) Well-characterized. For introduced genetic material, well-characterized means that the following have been determined:


(1) The function of all of the products expressed from the structural gene(s).


(2) The function of sequences that participate in the regulation of expression of the structural gene(s).


(3) The presence or absence of associated nucleotide sequences and their associated functions, where associated nucleotide sequences are those sequences needed to move genetic material including linkers, homopolymers, adaptors, transposons, insertion sequences, and restriction enzyme sites.


(c) Poorly mobilizable. The ability of the introduced genetic material to be transferred and mobilized is inactivated, with a resulting frequency of transfer of less than 10−8 transfer events per recipient.


(d) Free of certain sequences. (1) The introduced genetic material must not contain a functional portion of any of the toxin-encoding sequences described in this paragraph (d).


(i) For the purposes of this section, a functional portion of a toxin-encoding sequence means any sequence which codes for a polypeptide that has one of the following effects:


(A) It directly or indirectly contributes to toxic effects in humans. Directly contributes to toxic effects in humans means those sequences encoding polypeptides that have direct toxicity to target cells. An example of a sequence which directly contributes to toxic effects in humans is one which encodes the portion of diphtheria toxin, listed in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, capable of interacting with elongation factor 2, leading to inhibition of protein synthesis in target respiratory, heart, kidney, and nerve tissues. Indirectly contributes to toxic effects in humans means a sequence whose encoded polypeptide is not directly toxic to target cells, yet still adversely affects humans. An example of a sequence which indirectly contributes to toxic effects is the sequence which encodes the portion of the botulinum toxin, listed in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, capable of blocking the release of acetylcholine from gangliosides. Botulinum toxin affects neuromuscular junctions by its blockage of acetylcholine release, leading to irreversible relaxation of muscles and respiratory arrest.


(B) It binds a toxin or toxin precursor to target human cells.


(C) It facilitates intracellular transport of a toxin in target human cells.


(ii) While these toxins are listed (with synonyms in parentheses) in paragraphs (d)(2) through (d)(7) of this section according to the source organism, it is use of the nucleotide sequences that encode the toxins that is being restricted and not the use of the source organisms. The source organisms are listed to provide specificity in identification of sequences whose use is restricted. Although similar or identical sequences may be isolated from organisms other than those listed below in paragraphs (d)(2) through (d)(7) of this section, these comparable toxin sequences, regardless of the organism from which they are derived, must not be included in the introduced genetic material.


(2) Sequences for protein synthesis inhibitor.


Sequence Source
Toxin Name
Corynebacterium diphtheriae & C. ulceransDiphtheria toxin
Pseudomonas aeruginosaExotoxin A
Shigella dysenteriaeShigella toxin (Shiga toxin, Shigella dysenteriae type I toxin, Vero cell toxin)
Abrus precatorius, seedsAbrin
Ricinus communis, seedsRicin

(3) Sequences for neurotoxins.


Sequence Source
Toxin Name
Clostridium botulinumNeurotoxins A, B, C1, D, E, F, G (Botulinum toxins, botulinal toxins)
Clostridium tetaniTetanus toxin (tetanospasmin)
Proteus mirabilisNeurotoxin
Staphylococcus aureusAlpha toxin (alpha lysin)
Yersinia pestisMurine toxin
Snake toxins
Bungarus caeruleusCaeruleotoxin
Bungarus multicinctusBeta-bungarotoxin (phospholipase)
Crotalus spp.Crotoxin (phospholipase)
Dendroaspis viridisNeurotoxin
Naja naja varietiesNeurotoxin
Notechia scutatusNotexin (phospholipase)
Oxyuranus scutellatusTaipoxin
Invertebrate toxins
Chironex fleckeriNeurotoxin
Androctnus australisNeurotoxin
Centruroides sculpturatusNeurotoxin

(4) Sequences for oxygen labile cytolysins.


Sequence Source
Toxin Name
Bacillus alveAlveolysin
Bacillus cereusCereolysin
Bacillus laterosporusLaterosporolysin
Bacillus thuringiensisThuringiolysin
Clostridium bifermentansLysin
Clostridium botulinumLysin
Clostridium caproicumLysin
Clostridium chauvoei Delta-toxin
Clostridium histolyticumEpsilon-toxin
Clostridium novyiGamma-toxin
Clostridium oedematiensDelta-toxin
Clostridium perfringensTheta-toxin (Perfringolysin)
Clostridium septicumDelta-toxin
Clostridium sordelliiLysin
Clostridium tetaniTetanolysin
Listeria monocytogenesListeriolysin (A B)
Streptococcus pneumoniaePneumolysin
Streptococcus pyogeneStreptolysin O (SLO)

(5) Sequences for toxins affecting membrane function.


Sequence Source
Toxin Name
Bacillus anthracisEdema factor (Factors I II); Lethal factor (Factors II III)
Bacillus cereusEnterotoxin (diarrheagenic toxin, mouse lethal factor)
Bordetella pertussisAdenylate cyclase (Heat-labile factor); Pertussigen (pertussis toxin, islet activating factor, histamine sensitizing factor, lymphocytosis promoting factor)
Clostridium botulinumC2 toxin
Clostridium difficileEnterotoxin (toxin A)
Clostridium perfringensBeta-toxin; Delta-toxin
Escherichia coli & other Enterobacteriaceae spp.Heat-labile enterotoxins (LT); Heat-stable enterotoxins (STa, ST1 subtypes ST1a ST1b; also STb, STII)
Legionella pneumophilaCytolysin
Vibrio cholerae & Vibrio mimicusCholera toxin (choleragen)

(6) Sequences that affect membrane integrity.


Sequence Source
Toxin Name
Clostridium bifermentans & other Clostridium sppLecithinase
Clostridium perfringensAlpha-toxin (phospholipase C, lecithinase); Enterotoxin
Corynebacterium pyogenes & other Corynebacterium spp.Cytolysin (phospholipase C), Ovis toxin (sphingomyelinase D)
Staphylococcus aureusBeta-lysin (beta toxin)

(7) Sequences that are general cytotoxins.


Sequence Source
Toxin Name
Adenia digitataModeccin
Aeromonas hydrophilaAerolysin (beta-lysin, cytotoxic lysin)
Clostridium difficileCytotoxin (toxin B)
Clostridium perfringensBeta-toxin; Epsilon-toxin; Kappa-toxin
Escherichia coli & other Enterobacteriaceae spp.Cytotoxin (Shiga-like toxin, Vero cell toxin)
Pseudomonas aeruginosaProteases
Staphylococcus aureusGamma lysin (Gamma toxin); Enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED SEE); Pyrogenic exotoxins A B; Toxic shock syndrome toxins (TSST-1)
Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aeruginosaLeucocidin (leukocidin, cytotoxin)
Streptococcus pyogenesStreptolysin S (SLS); Erythrogenic toxins (scarlet fever toxins, pyrogenic exotoxins)
Yersinia enterocoliticaHeat-stable enterotoxins (ST)

§ 725.422 Physical containment and control technologies.

The manufacturer must meet all of the following criteria for physical containment and control technologies for any facility in which the new microorganism will be used for a Tier I exemption; these criteria also serve as guidance for a Tier II exemption.


(a) Use a structure that is designed and operated to contain the new microorganism.


(b) Control access to the structure.


(c) Provide written, published, and implemented procedures for the safety of personnel and control of hygiene.


(d) Use inactivation procedures demonstrated and documented to be effective against the new microorganism contained in liquid and solid wastes prior to disposal of the wastes. The inactivation procedures must reduce viable microbial populations by at least 6 logs in liquid and solid wastes.


(e) Use features known to be effective in minimizing viable microbial populations in aerosols and exhaust gases released from the structure, and document use of such features.


(f) Use systems for controlling dissemination of the new microorganism through other routes, and document use of such features.


(g) Have in place emergency clean-up procedures.


§ 725.424 Requirements for the Tier I exemption.

(a) Conditions of exemption. The manufacture or import of a new microorganism for commercial purposes is not subject to review under this part if all of the following conditions are met for all activities involving the new microorganism:


(1) The recipient microorganism is listed in and meets any requirements specified in § 725.420.


(2) The introduced genetic material meets the criteria under § 725.421.


(3) The physical containment and control technologies of any facility in which the microorganism will be manufactured, processed, or used meet the criteria under § 725.422.


(4) The manufacturer or importer submits a certification described in paragraph (b) of this section to EPA at least 10 days before commencing initial manufacture or import of a new microorganism derived from a recipient microorganism listed in § 725.420.


(5) The manufacturer or importer complies with the recordkeeping requirements of § 725.65 and maintains records for the initial and subsequent uses of the new microorganism that verify compliance with the following:


(i) The certifications made in paragraph (b) of this section.


(ii) All the eligibility criteria for the Tier I exemption including the criteria for the recipient microorganism, the introduced genetic material, the physical containment and control technologies.


(b) Certification. To be eligible for the Tier I exemption under this subpart, the manufacturer or importer must submit to EPA a document signed by a responsible company official containing the information listed in this paragraph.


(1) Name and address of manufacturer or importer.


(2) Date when manufacture or import is expected to begin.


(3) The identification (genus, species) of the recipient microorganism listed in § 725.420 which is being used to create the new microorganism which will be used under the conditions of the Tier I exemption.


(4) Certification of the following:


(i) Compliance with the introduced genetic material criteria described in § 725.421.


(ii) Compliance with the containment requirements described in § 725.422, including the provision in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.


(5) The site of waste disposal and the type of permits for disposal, the permit numbers and the institutions issuing the permits.


(6) The certification statement required in § 725.25(b). Certification of submission of test data is not required for the Tier I exemption.


§ 725.426 Applicability of the Tier I exemption.

The Tier I exemption under § 725.424 applies only to a manufacturer or importer of a new microorganism that certifies that the microorganism will be used in all cases in compliance with §§ 725.420, 725.421, and 725.422.


§ 725.428 Requirements for the Tier II exemption.

The manufacturer or importer of a new microorganism for commercial purposes may submit to EPA a Tier II exemption request in lieu of a MCAN under subpart D of this part if all of the following conditions are met:


(a) The recipient microorganism is listed in and meets any requirements specified in § 725.420.


(b) The introduced genetic material meets the criteria under § 725.421.


(c) Adequate physical containment and control technologies are used. The criteria listed under § 725.422 for physical containment and control technologies of facilities should be used as guidance to satisfy the Tier II exemption request data requirements listed at § 725.455(d). EPA will review proposed process and containment procedures as part of the submission for a Tier II exemption under this section.


§ 725.450 Procedural requirements for the Tier II exemption.

General requirements for all submissions under this part are contained in § 725.25. In addition, the following requirements apply to requests submitted under this subpart:


(a) Prenotice consultation. EPA strongly suggests that for a Tier II exemption, the submitter contact the Agency for a prenotice consultation regarding eligibility for the exemption.


(b) When to submit the Tier II exemption request. Each person who is eligible to submit a Tier II exemption request under this subpart must submit the request at least 45 calendar days before the person intends to commence manufacture or import.


(c) Contents of the Tier II exemption request. Each person who submits a request under this subpart must provide the information described in §§ 725.428 and 725.455, as well as information known to or reasonably ascertainable by the person that would permit EPA to determine that use of the microorganism, under the conditions specified in the request, will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(d) Recordkeeping. Each person who submits a request under this subpart must comply with the recordkeeping requirements of § 725.65. In addition, the submitter should maintain records which contain information that verifies compliance with the following:


(1) The certifications made in the request.


(2) All the eligibility criteria for the Tier II exemption request including the criteria for the recipient microorganism, the introduced genetic material, the physical containment and control technologies.


§ 725.455 Information to be included in the Tier II exemption request.

The submitter must indicate clearly that the submission is a Tier II exemption request for a microorganism instead of the MCAN under subpart D of this part and must submit the following information:


(a) Submitter identification. (1) The name and headquarters address of the submitter.


(2) The name, address, and office telephone number (including area code) of the principal technical contact representing the submitter.


(b) Microorganism identity information. (1) Identification (genus, species, and strain) of the recipient microorganism. Genus, species designation should be substantiated by a letter from a culture collection or a brief summary of the results of tests conducted for taxonomic identification.


(2) Type of genetic modification and the function of the introduced genetic material.


(3) Site of insertion.


(4) Certification of compliance with the introduced genetic material criteria described in § 725.421.


(c) Production volume. Production volume, including total liters per year, and the maximum cell concentration achieved during the production process.


(d) Process and containment information. (1) A description of the process including the following:


(i) Identity and location of the manufacturing site(s).


(ii) Process flow diagram illustrating the production process, including downstream separations, and indicating the containment envelope around the appropriate equipment.


(iii) Identities and quantities of feedstocks.


(iv) Sources and quantities of potential releases to both the workplace and environment, and a description of engineering controls, inactivation procedures, and other measures which will reduce worker exposure and environmental releases.


(v) A description of procedures which will be undertaken to prevent fugitive emissions, i.e. leak detection and repair program.


(vi) A description of procedures/safeguards to prevent and mitigate accidental releases to the workplace and the environment.


(2) Certification of those elements of the containment criteria described in § 725.422 with which the manufacturer is in compliance, including stating by number the elements with which the manufacturer is in full compliance.


(e) The site of waste disposal and the type of permits for disposal, the permit numbers and the institutions issuing the permits.


(f) The certification statement required in § 725.25(b). Certification of submission of test data is not required for the Tier II exemption.


§ 725.470 EPA review of the Tier II exemption request.

General procedures for review of all submissions under this part are contained in §§ 725.28 through 725.60. In addition, the following procedures apply to EPA review of Tier II exemption requests submitted under this subpart:


(a) Length of the review period. The review period for the request will be 45 days from the date the Document Control Officer for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics receives a complete request, or the date EPA determines the request is complete under § 725.33, unless the Agency extends the review period for good cause under § 725.56.


(b) Criteria for review. EPA will review the request to determine that the new microorganism complies with § 725.428 and that its manufacture, processing, use, and disposal as described in the request will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(c) EPA decision regarding the Tier II exemption request. A decision concerning a request under this subpart will be made by the Administrator, or a designee.


(d) Determination that the microorganism is ineligible for a Tier II review. (1) EPA may determine that the manufacturer or importer is not eligible for Tier II review, because the microorganism does not meet the criteria under § 725.428 or the Administrator, or a designee, decides that there is insufficient information to determine that the conditions of manufacture, processing, use, or disposal of the microorganism as described in the request will not present an unreasonable risk to health or the environment.


(2) If the Agency makes this determination, the Administrator, or a designee will notify the manufacturer or importer by telephone, followed by a letter, that the request has been denied. The letter will explain reasons for the denial.


(3) If the request is denied, the manufacturer or importer may submit the information necessary to constitute a MCAN under subpart D of this part.


(e) Approval or denial of the Tier II exemption request. (1) No later than 45 days after EPA receives a request, the Agency will either approve or deny the request.


(2) In approving a request, EPA may impose any restrictions necessary to ensure that the microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health and the environment as a result of general commercial use.


(f) EPA may seek to enjoin the manufacture or import of a microorganism in violation of this subpart, or act to seize any microorganism manufactured or imported in violation of this section or take other actions under the authority of sections 7 or 17 of the Act.


(g) A manufacturer or importer may only proceed after receipt of EPA approval.


Subparts H-K [Reserved]

Subpart L – Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms

§ 725.900 Scope and purpose.

(a) This subpart describes additional provisions governing submission of MCANs for microorganisms subject to significant new use rules identified in subpart M of this part.


(b) Manufacturers, importers, and processors described in § 725.105(c) must submit a MCAN under subpart D of this part for significant new uses of microorganisms described in subpart M of this part, unless they are excluded under § 725.910 or § 725.912.


(c) Section 725.920 discusses exports and imports.


(d) Additional recordkeeping requirements specific to significant new uses of microorganisms are described in § 725.950.


(e) Section 725.975 describes how EPA will approve alternative means of complying with significant new use requirements designated in subpart M of this part.


(f) Expedited procedures for promulgating significant new use requirements under subpart M of this part for microorganisms subject to section 5(e) orders are discussed in §§ 725.980 and 725.984.


(g) This subpart L contains provisions governing submission and review of notices for the microorganisms and significant new uses identified in subpart M of this part. The provisions of this subpart L apply to the microorganisms and significant new uses identified in subpart M of this part, except to the extent that they are specifically modified or supplanted by specific requirements in subpart M of this part. In the event of a conflict between the provisions of this subpart L and the provisions of subpart M of this part, the provisions of subpart M of this part shall govern.


(h) The provisions of subparts A through F of this part also apply to subparts L and M of this part. For purposes of subparts L and M of this part, wherever the words “microorganism” or “new microorganism” appear in subparts A through F of this part, it shall mean the microorganism subject to subparts L and M of this part. In the event of a conflict between the provisions of subparts A through F and the provisions of subparts L and M of this part, the provisions of subparts L and M of this part shall govern.


§ 725.910 Persons excluded from reporting significant new uses.

(a) A person who intends to manufacture, import, or process a microorganism identified in subpart M of this part and who intends to distribute it in commerce is not required to submit a MCAN under subpart D of this part, if that person can document one or more of the following as to each recipient of the microorganism from that person:


(1) That the person has notified the recipient, in writing, of the specific section in subpart M of this part which identifies the microorganism and its designated significant new uses, or


(2) That the recipient has knowledge of the specific section in subpart M of this part which identifies the microorganism and its designated significant new uses, or


(3) That the recipient cannot undertake any significant new use described in the specific section in subpart M of this part.


(b) The manufacturer, importer, or processor described in paragraph (a) of this section must submit a MCAN under subpart D of this part, if such person has knowledge at the time of commercial distribution of the microorganism identified in the specific section in subpart M of this part that a recipient intends to engage in a designated significant new use of that microorganism without submitting a MCAN under this part.


(c) A person who processes a microorganism identified in a specific section in subpart M of this part for a significant new use of that microorganism is not required to submit a MCAN if that person can document each of the following:


(1) That the person does not know the specific microorganism identity of the microorganism being processed, and


(2) That the person is processing the microorganism without knowledge that the microorganism is identified in subpart M of this part.


(d)(1) If at any time after commencing distribution in commerce of a microorganism identified in a specific section in subpart M of this part, a person who manufactures, imports, or processes a microorganism described in subpart M of this part and distributes it in commerce has knowledge that a recipient of the microorganism is engaging in a significant new use of that microorganism designated in that section without submitting a MCAN under this part, the person is required to cease supplying the microorganism to that recipient and to submit a MCAN for that microorganism and significant new use, unless the person is able to document each of the following:


(i) That the person has notified the recipient and EPA enforcement authorities (at the address in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section), in writing within 15 working days of the time the person develops knowledge that the recipient is engaging in a significant new use, that the recipient is engaging in a significant new use without submitting a MCAN.


(ii) That, within 15 working days of notifying the recipient as described in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, the person received from the recipient, in writing, a statement of assurance that the recipient is aware of the terms of the applicable section in subpart M of this part and will not engage in the significant new use.


(iii) That the person has promptly provided EPA enforcement authorities with a copy of the recipient’s statement of assurance described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section. The copy must be sent to the Director, Office of Compliance (2221A), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.


(2) If EPA notifies the manufacturer, importer, or processor that the recipient is engaging in a significant new use after providing the statement of assurance described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section and without submitting a MCAN under this part, the manufacturer, importer, or processor shall immediately cease distribution to that recipient until the manufacturer, importer, or processor or the recipient has submitted a MCAN under this part and the MCAN review period has ended.


(3) If, after receiving a statement of assurance from a recipient under paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, a manufacturer, importer, or processor has knowledge that the recipient is engaging in a significant new use without submitting a MCAN under this part, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must immediately cease distributing the microorganism to that recipient and notify EPA enforcement authorities at the address identified in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section. The manufacturer, importer, or processor may not resume distribution to that recipient until any one of the following has occurred:


(i) The manufacturer, importer, or processor has submitted a MCAN under this part and the MCAN review period has ended.


(ii) The recipient has submitted a MCAN under this part and the MCAN review period has ended.


(iii) The manufacturer, importer, or processor has received notice from EPA enforcement authorities that it may resume distribution to that recipient.


§ 725.912 Exemptions.

Persons identified in § 725.105(c) are not required to submit a MCAN under subpart D of this part for a microorganism identified in subpart M of this part, unless otherwise specified in a specific section in subpart M, if:


(a) The person submits a MCAN for the microorganism prior to the promulgation date of the section in subpart M of this part which identifies the microorganism, and the person receives written notification of compliance from EPA prior to the effective date of such section. The MCAN submitter must comply with any applicable requirement of section 5(b) of the Act. The MCAN must include the information and test data specified in section 5(d)(1) of the Act. For purposes of this exemption, the specific section in subpart M of this part which identifies the microorganism and §§ 725.3, 725.15, 725.65, 725.70, 725.75, 725.100, and 725.900 apply; after the effective date of the section in subpart M of this part which identifies the microorganism, §§ 725.105 and 725.910 apply and § 725.920 continues to apply. EPA will provide the MCAN submitter with written notification of compliance only if one of the following occurs:


(1) EPA is unable to make the finding that the activities described in the MCAN will or may present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, or


(2) EPA and the person negotiate a consent order under section 5(e) of the Act, such order to take effect on the effective date of the section in subpart M of this part which identifies the microorganism.


(b) The person is operating under the terms of a consent order issued under section 5(e) of the Act applicable to that person. If a provision of such section 5(e) order is inconsistent with a specific significant new use identified in subpart M of this part, abiding by the provision of the section 5(e) order exempts the person from submitting a MCAN for that specific significant new use.


§ 725.920 Exports and imports.

(a) Exports. Persons who intend to export a microorganism identified in subpart M of this part, or in any proposed rule which would amend subpart M of this part, are subject to the export notification provisions of section 12(b) of the Act. The regulations that interpret section 12(b) appear at part 707 of this chapter.


(b) Imports. Persons who import a substance identified in a specific section in subpart M of this part are subject to the import certification requirements under section 13 of the Act, which are codified at 19 CFR §§ 12.118 through 12.127 and 127.28(i). The EPA policy in support of the import certification requirements appears at part 707 of this chapter.


§ 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements.

Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with the recordkeeping requirements of § 725.65. In addition, the following requirements apply:


(a) At the time EPA adds a microorganism to subpart M of this part, EPA may specify appropriate recordkeeping requirements. Each manufacturer, importer, and processor of the microorganism shall maintain the records for 3 years from the date of their creation.


(b) The records required to be maintained under this section may include the following:


(1) Records documenting the information contained in the MCAN submitted to EPA.


(2) Records documenting the manufacture and importation volume of the microorganism and the corresponding dates of manufacture and import.


(3) Records documenting volumes of the microorganism purchased domestically by processors of the microorganism, names and addresses of suppliers and corresponding dates of purchase.


(4) Records documenting the names and addresses (including shipment destination address, if different) of all persons outside the site of manufacture or import to whom the manufacturer, importer, or processor directly sells or transfers the microorganism, the date of each sale or transfer, and the quantity of the microorganism sold or transferred on such date.


§ 725.975 EPA approval of alternative control measures.

(a) In certain sections of subpart M of this part, significant new uses for the identified microorganisms are described as the failure to establish and implement programs providing for the use of either: specific measures to control worker exposure to or release of microorganisms which are identified in such sections, or alternative measures to control worker exposure or environmental release which EPA has determined provide substantially the same degree of protection as the specified control measures. Persons who manufacture, import, or process a microorganism identified in such sections and who intend to employ alternative measures to control worker exposure or environmental release must submit a request to EPA for a determination of equivalency before commencing manufacture, import, or processing involving the alternative control measures.


(b) Persons submitting a request for a determination of equivalency to EPA under this part must submit the request to EPA (via CDX) using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. Support documents related to these requests must also be submitted to EPA via CDX using e-PMN software. A request for a determination of equivalency must contain:


(1) The name of the submitter.


(2) The specific identity of the microorganism.


(3) The citation for the specific section in subpart M of this part which pertains to the microorganism for which the request is being submitted.


(4) A detailed description of the activities involved.


(5) The specifications of the alternative worker exposure control measures or environmental release control measures.


(6) A detailed analysis explaining why such alternative control measures provide substantially the same degree of protection as the specific control measures identified in the specific section in subpart M of this part which pertains to the microorganism for which the request is being submitted.


(7) The data and information described in §§ 725.155 and 725.160. If such data and information have already been submitted to EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, the submitter need only document that it was previously submitted, to whom, and the date it was submitted.


(c) Requests for determinations of equivalency will be reviewed by EPA within 45 days. Determinations under this paragraph will be made by the Director, or a designee. Notice of the results of such determinations will be mailed to the submitter.


(d) If EPA notifies the submitter under paragraph (c) of this section that EPA has determined that the alternative control measures provide substantially the same degree of protection as the specified control measures identified in the specific section of subpart M of this part which pertains to the microorganism for which the request is being submitted, the submitter may commence manufacture, import, or processing in accordance with the specifications for alternative worker exposure control measures or environmental release control measures identified in the submitter’s request, and may alter any corresponding notification to workers to reflect such alternative controls. Deviations from the activities described in the EPA notification constitute a significant new use and are subject to the requirements of this part.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 790, Jan. 6, 2010; 78 FR 72828, Dec. 4, 2013]


§ 725.980 Expedited procedures for issuing significant new use rules for microorganisms subject to section 5(e) orders.

(a) Selection of microorganisms. (1) In accordance with the expedited process specified in this section, EPA will issue significant new use notification requirements for each new microorganism that, after MCAN review under subpart D of this part, becomes subject to a final order issued under section 5(e) of the Act, except for an order that prohibits manufacture and import of the microorganism, unless EPA determines that significant new use notification requirements are not needed for the microorganism.


(2) If EPA determines that significant new use notifications requirements are not needed for a microorganism that is subject to a final order issued under section 5(e) of the Act, EPA will issue a notice in the Federal Register explaining why the significant new use requirements are not needed.


(b) Designation of requirements. (1) The significant new use notification and other specific requirements will be based on and be consistent with the provisions included in the final order issued for the microorganism under section 5(e) of the Act. EPA may also designate additional activities as significant new uses which will be subject to notification.


(2) Significant new use requirements and other specific requirements designated under this section will be listed in subpart M of this part. For each microorganism, subpart M of this part will identify:


(i) The microorganism name.


(ii) The activities designated as significant new uses.


(iii) Other specific requirements applicable to the microorganism, including recordkeeping requirements or any other requirements included in the final section 5(e) order.


(c) Procedures for issuing significant new use rules – (1) Possible processes. EPA will issue significant new use rules (SNURs) under this section by one of the following three processes: direct final rulemaking, interim final rulemaking, or notice and comment rulemaking. EPA will use the direct final rulemaking process to issue significant new use rules unless it determines that, in a particular case, one of the other processes is more appropriate.


(2) Notice in the Federal Register. Federal Register documents issued to propose or establish significant new uses under this section will contain the following:


(i) The microorganism identity or, if its specific identity is claimed confidential, an appropriate generic microorganism name and an accession number assigned by EPA.


(ii) The MCAN number.


(iii) A summary of EPA’s findings under section 5(e)(1)(A) of the Act for the final order issued under section 5(e).


(iv) Designation of the significant new uses subject to, or proposed to be subject to, notification and any other applicable requirements.


(v) Any modification of subpart L of this part applicable to the specific microorganism and significant new uses.


(vi) If the Federal Register document establishes a final rule, or notifies the public that a final rule will not be issued after public comment has been received, the document will describe comments received and EPA’s response.


(3) Direct final rulemaking. (i) EPA will use direct final rulemaking to issue a significant new use rule, when specific requirements will be based on and be consistent with the provisions included in the final order issued for the microorganism under section 5(e) of the Act. EPA will issue a final rule in the Federal Register following its decision to develop a significant new use rule under this section for a specific new microorganism.


(ii) The Federal Register document will state that, unless written notice is received by EPA within 30 days of publication that someone wishes to submit adverse or critical comments, the rule will be effective 60 days from the date of publication. The written notice of intent to submit adverse or critical comments should state which SNUR(s) will be the subject of the adverse or critical comments, if several SNURs are established through the direct final rule. If notice is received within 30 days that someone wishes to submit adverse or critical comments, the section(s) of the direct final rule containing the SNUR(s) for which a notice of intent to comment was received will be withdrawn by EPA issuing a document in the final rule section of the Federal Register, and a proposal will be published in the proposed rule section of the Federal Register. The proposal will establish a 30-day comment period.


(iii) If EPA, having considered any timely comments submitted in response to the proposal, decides to establish notification requirements under this section, EPA will issue a final rule adding the microorganism to subpart M of this part and designating the significant new uses subject to notification.


(4) Interim final rulemaking. (i) EPA will use the interim final rulemaking procedure to issue a significant new use rule, when specific requirements will be based on and be consistent with the provisions included in the final order issued for the microorganism under section 5(e) of the Act. The Agency will issue an interim final rule in the Federal Register following its decision to develop a significant new use rule for a specific new microorganism. The document will state EPA’s reasons for using the interim final rulemaking procedure.


(A) The significant new use rule will take effect on the date of publication.


(B) Persons will be given 30 days from the date of publication to submit comments.


(ii) Interim final rules issued under this section shall cease to be in effect 180 days after publication unless, within the 180-day period, EPA issues a final rule in the Federal Register responding to any written comments received during the 30-day comment period specified in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(B) of this section and promulgating final significant new use notification requirements and other requirements for the microorganism.


(5) Notice and comment rulemaking. (i) EPA will use a notice and comment procedure to issue a significant new use rule, when EPA is designating additional activities which are not provisions included in the final order issued for the microorganism under section 5(e) of the Act as significant new uses which will be subject to notification. EPA will issue a proposal in the Federal Register following its decision to develop a significant new use rule under this section for a specific new microorganism. Persons will be given 30 days to comment on whether EPA should establish notification requirements for the microorganism under this part.


(ii) If EPA, having considered any timely comments, decides to establish notification requirements under this section, EPA will issue a final rule adding the microorganism to subpart M of this part and designating the significant new uses subject to notification.


(d) Schedule for issuing significant new use rules. (1) Unless EPA determines that a significant new use rule should not be issued under this section, EPA will issue a proposed rule, a direct final rule, or an interim final rule within 180 days of receipt of a valid notice of commencement under § 725.190.


(2) If EPA receives adverse or critical significant comments following publication of a proposed or interim final rule, EPA will either withdraw the rule or issue a final rule addressing the comments received.


§ 725.984 Modification or revocation of certain notification requirements.

(a) Criteria for modification or revocation. EPA may at any time modify or revoke significant new use notification requirements for a microorganism which has been added to subpart M of this part using the procedures of § 725.980. Such action may be taken under this section if EPA makes one of the following determinations, unless other information shows that the requirements should be retained:


(1) Test data or other information obtained by EPA provide a reasonable basis for concluding that activities designated as significant new uses of the microorganism will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(2) EPA has promulgated a rule under section 4 or 6 of the Act, or EPA or another agency has taken action under another law, for the microorganism that eliminates the need for significant new use notification under section 5(a)(2) of the Act.


(3) EPA has received MCANs for some or all of the activities designated as significant new uses of the microorganism and, after reviewing such MCANs, concluded that there is no need to require additional notice from persons who propose to engage in identical or similar activities.


(4) EPA has examined new information, or has reexamined the test data or other information supporting its finding under section 5(e)(1)(A)(ii)(I) of the Act and has concluded that a rational basis no longer exists for the findings that activities involving the microorganism may present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment required under section 5(e)(1)(A) of the Act.


(5) Certain activities involving the microorganism have been designated as significant new uses pending the completion of testing, and adequate test data developed in accordance with applicable procedures and criteria have been submitted to EPA.


(b) Procedures for limitation or revocation. Modification or revocation of significant new use notification requirements for a microorganism that has been added to subpart M of this part using the procedures described in § 725.980 may occur either at EPA’s initiative or in response to a written request.


(1) Any affected person may request modification or revocation of significant new use notification requirements for a microorganism that has been added to subpart M of this part using the procedures described in § 725.980. The request must be accompanied by information sufficient to support the request. Persons submitting a request to EPA under this part must submit the request to EPA (via CDX) using e-PMN software. See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(ii) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. Support documents related to these requests must also be submitted to EPA via CDX using e-PMN software.


(2) The Director, or a designee, will consider the request, make a determination whether to initiate rulemaking to modify the requirements, and notify the requester of that determination by certified letter. If the request is denied, the letter will explain why EPA has concluded that the significant new use notification requirements for that microorganism should remain in effect.


(3) If EPA concludes that significant new use notification requirements for a microorganism should be limited or revoked, EPA will propose the changes in a notice in the Federal Register, briefly describe the grounds for the action, and provide interested parties an opportunity to comment.


[62 FR 17932, Apr. 11, 1997, as amended at 75 FR 790, Jan. 6, 2010; 78 FR 72828, Dec. 4, 2013]


Subpart M – Significant New Uses for Specific Microorganisms

§ 725.1000 Scope.

This subpart identifies uses of microorganisms which EPA has determined to be significant new uses under the authority of section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act.


§ 725.1075 Burkholderia cepacia complex.

(a) Microorganism and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The microorganisms identified as the Burkholderia cepacia complex defined as containing the following nine species, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, Burkholderia stabilis, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Burkholderia ambifaria, Burkholderia pyrrocinia, Burkholderia cepacia genomovar VIII (Burkholderia anthina), and Burkholderia cepacia genomovars III and VI are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.


(2) The significant new use is any use other than research and development in the degradation of chemicals via injection into subsurface groundwater.


(b) [Reserved]


[68 FR 35320, June 13, 2003]


§ 725.1079 Arsenic detecting strain of E. coli with extra-chromosomal elements, including an intergeneric screening marker (generic).

(a) Microorganism and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The genetically-modified microorganism identified generically as arsenic detecting strain of E. coli with extra-chromosomal elements, including an intergeneric screening marker (MCAN J-18-41) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.


(2) The significant new uses are:


(i) It is a significant new use to manufacture (excluding import) the microorganism in the United States for any use.


(ii) It is a significant new use to use the microorganism other than to detect arsenic in small water samples.


(b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart L of this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph (b).


(1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 725.950(b)(2) through (4) are applicable to manufacturers and processors of this microorganism.


(2) Modification or revocation of certain notification requirements. The provisions of § 725.984 apply to this section.


[86 FR 24336, May 6, 2021]


§ 725.1080 Trichoderma reesei (generic).

(a) Microorganism and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The genetically modified microorganism identified as Trichoderma reesei strain 3CH-3 (MCAN J-19-1) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.


(2)(i) The significant new use is any manufacturing, processing, or use of the microorganism other than in a fermentation system that meets all of the following conditions:


(A) Enzyme production occurs by submerged fermentation (i.e., for enzyme production, growth of the microorganism occurs beneath the surface of the liquid growth medium); and


(B) Any further fermentation, such as saccharification (i.e., addition of Trichoderma reesei fermentation broth to solid plant material or insoluble substrate after the standard industrial fermentation is completed), is initiated only after the inactivation of the microorganism as delineated in § 725.422(d).


(ii) [Reserved]


(b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph (b).


(1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 721.125(a) though (c) and (i) of this chapter, are applicable to manufacturers and processors of this substance.


(2) Limitations or revocation of certain notification requirements. The provisions of § 721.185 of this chapter apply to this section.


[86 FR 22875, Apr. 30, 2021]


PART 745 – LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2605, 2607, 2681-2692 and 42 U.S.C. 4852d.


Source:61 FR 9085, Mar. 6, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

Subparts A-C [Reserved]

Subpart D – Lead-Based Paint Hazards


Source:66 FR 1237, Jan. 5, 2001, unless otherwise noted.

§ 745.61 Scope and applicability.

(a) This subpart identifies lead-based paint hazards.


(b) The standards for lead-based paint hazards apply to target housing and child-occupied facilities.


(c) Nothing in this subpart requires the owner of property(ies) subject to these standards to evaluate the property(ies) for the presence of lead-based paint hazards or take any action to control these conditions if one or more of them is identified.


§ 745.63 Definitions.

The following definitions apply to part 745.


Arithmetic mean means the algebraic sum of data values divided by the number of data values (e.g., the sum of the concentration of lead in several soil samples divided by the number of samples).


Chewable surface means an interior or exterior surface painted with lead-based paint that a young child can mouth or chew. A chewable surface is the same as an “accessible surface” as defined in 42 U.S.C. 4851b(2)). Hard metal substrates and other materials that cannot be dented by the bite of a young child are not considered chewable.


Common area group means a group of common areas that are similar in design, construction, and function. Common area groups include, but are not limited to hallways, stairwells, and laundry rooms.


Concentration means the relative content of a specific substance contained within a larger mass, such as the amount of lead (in micrograms per gram or parts per million by weight) in a sample of dust or soil.


Deteriorated paint means any interior or exterior paint or other coating that is peeling, chipping, chalking or cracking, or any paint or coating located on an interior or exterior surface or fixture that is otherwise damaged or separated from the substrate.


Dripline means the area within 3 feet surrounding the perimeter of a building.


Friction surface means an interior or exterior surface that is subject to abrasion or friction, including, but not limited to, certain window, floor, and stair surfaces.


Impact surface means an interior or exterior surface that is subject to damage by repeated sudden force such as certain parts of door frames.


Interior window sill means the portion of the horizontal window ledge that protrudes into the interior of the room.


Lead-based paint hazard means hazardous lead-based paint, dust-lead hazard or soil-lead hazard as identified in § 745.65.


Loading means the quantity of a specific substance present per unit of surface area, such as the amount of lead in micrograms contained in the dust collected from a certain surface area divided by the surface area in square feet or square meters.


Mid-yard means an area of a residential yard approximately midway between the dripline of a residential building and the nearest property boundary or between the driplines of a residential building and another building on the same property.


Play area means an area of frequent soil contact by children of less than 6 years of age as indicated by, but not limited to, such factors including the following: the presence of play equipment (e.g., sandboxes, swing sets, and sliding boards), toys, or other children’s possessions, observations of play patterns, or information provided by parents, residents, care givers, or property owners.


Residential building means a building containing one or more residential dwellings.


Room means a separate part of the inside of a building, such as a bedroom, living room, dining room, kitchen, bathroom, laundry room, or utility room. To be considered a separate room, the room must be separated from adjoining rooms by built-in walls or archways that extend at least 6 inches from an intersecting wall. Half walls or bookcases count as room separators if built-in. Movable or collapsible partitions or partitions consisting solely of shelves or cabinets are not considered built-in walls. A screened in porch that is used as a living area is a room.


Soil sample means a sample collected in a representative location using ASTM E1727, “Standard Practice for Field Collection of Soil Samples for Lead Determination by Atomic Spectrometry Techniques,” or equivalent method.


Weighted arithmetic mean means the arithmetic mean of sample results weighted by the number of subsamples in each sample. Its purpose is to give influence to a sample relative to the surface area it represents. A single surface sample is comprised of a single subsample. A composite sample may contain from two to four subsamples of the same area as each other and of each single surface sample in the composite. The weighted arithmetic mean is obtained by summing, for all samples, the product of the sample’s result multiplied by the number of subsamples in the sample, and dividing the sum by the total number of subsamples contained in all samples. For example, the weighted arithmetic mean of a single surface sample containing 60 µg/ft
2, a composite sample (three subsamples) containing 100 µg/ft
2, and a composite sample (4 subsamples) containing 110 µg/ft
2 is 100 µg/ft
2. This result is based on the equation [60 + (3*100) + (4*110)]/(1 + 3 + 4).


Window trough means, for a typical double-hung window, the portion of the exterior window sill between the interior window sill (or stool) and the frame of the storm window. If there is no storm window, the window trough is the area that receives both the upper and lower window sashes when they are both lowered. The window trough is sometimes referred to as the window “well.”


Wipe sample means a sample collected by wiping a representative surface of known area, as determined by ASTM E1728, “Standard Practice for Field Collection of Settled Dust Samples Using Wipe Sampling Methods for Lead Determination by Atomic Spectrometry Techniques, or equivalent method, with an acceptable wipe material as defined in ASTM E 1792, “Standard Specification for Wipe Sampling Materials for Lead in Surface Dust.”


§ 745.65 Lead-based paint hazards.

(a) Paint-lead hazard. A paint-lead hazard is any of the following:


(1) Any lead-based paint on a friction surface that is subject to abrasion and where the lead dust levels on the nearest horizontal surface underneath the friction surface (e.g., the window sill, or floor) are equal to or greater than the dust-lead hazard levels identified in paragraph (b) of this section.


(2) Any damaged or otherwise deteriorated lead-based paint on an impact surface that is caused by impact from a related building component (such as a door knob that knocks into a wall or a door that knocks against its door frame.


(3) Any chewable lead-based painted surface on which there is evidence of teeth marks.


(4) Any other deteriorated lead-based paint in any residential building or child-occupied facility or on the exterior of any residential building or child-occupied facility.


(b) Dust-lead hazard. A dust-lead hazard is surface dust in a residential dwelling or child-occupied facility that contains a mass-per-area concentration of lead equal to or exceeding 10 µg/ft
2 on floors or 100 µg/ft
2 on interior window sills based on wipe samples.


(c) Soil-lead hazard. A soil-lead hazard is bare soil on residential real property or on the property of a child-occupied facility that contains total lead equal to or exceeding 400 parts per million (µg/g) in a play area or average of 1,200 parts per million of bare soil in the rest of the yard based on soil samples.


(d) Work practice requirements. Applicable certification, occupant protection, and clearance requirements and work practice standards are found in regulations issued by EPA at 40 CFR part 745, subpart L and in regulations issued by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) at 24 CFR part 35, subpart R. The work practice standards in those regulations do not apply when treating paint-lead hazards of less than:


(1) Two square feet of deteriorated lead-based paint per room or equivalent,


(2) Twenty square feet of deteriorated paint on the exterior building, or


(3) Ten percent of the total surface area of deteriorated paint on an interior or exterior type of component with a small surface area.


[66 FR 1237, Jan. 5, 2001, as amended at 84 FR 32648, July 9, 2019]


Subpart E – Residential Property Renovation


Source:63 FR 29919, June 1, 1998, unless otherwise noted.

§ 745.80 Purpose.

This subpart contains regulations developed under sections 402 and 406 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2682 and 2686) and applies to all renovations performed for compensation in target housing and child-occupied facilities. The purpose of this subpart is to ensure the following:


(a) Owners and occupants of target housing and child-occupied facilities receive information on lead-based paint hazards before these renovations begin; and


(b) Individuals performing renovations regulated in accordance with § 745.82 are properly trained; renovators and firms performing these renovations are certified; and the work practices in § 745.85 are followed during these renovations.


[73 FR 21758, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.81 Effective dates.

(a) Training, certification and accreditation requirements and work practice standards. The training, certification and accreditation requirements and work practice standards in this subpart are applicable in any State or Indian Tribal area that does not have a renovation program that is authorized under subpart Q of this part. The training, certification and accreditation requirements and work practice standards in this subpart will become effective as follows:


(1) Training programs. Effective June 23, 2008, no training program may provide, offer, or claim to provide training or refresher training for EPA certification as a renovator or a dust sampling technician without accreditation from EPA under § 745.225. Training programs may apply for accreditation under § 745.225 beginning April 22, 2009.


(2) Firms. (i) Firms may apply for certification under § 745.89 beginning October 22, 2009.


(ii) On or after April 22, 2010, no firm may perform, offer, or claim to perform renovations without certification from EPA under § 745.89 in target housing or child-occupied facilities, unless the renovation qualifies for one of the exceptions identified in § 745.82(a) or (c).


(3) Individuals. On or after April 22, 2010, all renovations must be directed by renovators certified in accordance with § 745.90(a) and performed by certified renovators or individuals trained in accordance with § 745.90(b)(2) in target housing or child-occupied facilities, unless the renovation qualifies for one of the exceptions identified in § 745.82(a) or (c).


(4) Work practices. (i) On or after April 22, 2010 and before July 6, 2010 all renovations must be performed in accordance with the work practice standards in § 745.85 and the associated recordkeeping requirements in § 745.86 (b)(6) in target housing or child-occupied facilities, unless the renovation qualifies for one of the exceptions identified in § 745.82(a). This does not apply to renovations in target housing for which the firm performing the renovation has obtained a statement signed by the owner that the renovation will occur in the owner’s residence, no child under age 6 resides there, the housing is not a child-occupied facility, and the owner acknowledges that the work practices to be used during the renovation will not necessarily include all of the lead-safe work practices contained in EPA’s renovation, repair, and painting rule. For the purposes of this section, a child resides in the primary residence of his or her custodial parents, legal guardians, and foster parents. A child also resides in the primary residence of an informal caretaker if the child lives and sleeps most of the time at the caretaker’s residence.


(ii) On or after July 6, 2010, all renovations must be performed in accordance with the work practice standards in § 745.85 and the associated recordkeeping requirements in § 745.86(b)(1) and (b)(6) in target housing or child-occupied facilities, unless the renovation qualifies for the exception identified in § 745.82(a).


(5) The suspension and revocation provisions in § 745.91 are effective April 22, 2010.


(b) Renovation-specific pamphlet. Before December 22, 2008, renovators or firms performing renovations in States and Indian Tribal areas without an authorized program may provide owners and occupants with either of the following EPA pamphlets: Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home or Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools. After that date, Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools must be used exclusively.


(c) Pre-Renovation Education Rule. With the exception of the requirement to use the pamphlet entitled Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools, the provisions of the Pre-Renovation Education Rule in this subpart have been in effect since June 1999.


[73 FR 21758, Apr. 22, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 24818, May 6, 2010]


§ 745.82 Applicability.

(a) This subpart applies to all renovations performed for compensation in target housing and child-occupied facilities, except for the following:


(1) Renovations in target housing or child-occupied facilities in which a written determination has been made by an inspector or risk assessor (certified pursuant to either Federal regulations at § 745.226 or a State or Tribal certification program authorized pursuant to § 745.324) that the components affected by the renovation are free of paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams/per square centimeter (mg/cm
2) or 0.5% by weight, where the firm performing the renovation has obtained a copy of the determination.


(2) Renovations in target housing or child-occupied facilities in which a certified renovator, using an EPA recognized test kit as defined in § 745.83 and following the kit manufacturer’s instructions, has tested each component affected by the renovation and determined that the components are free of paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 mg/cm
2 or 0.5% by weight. If the components make up an integrated whole, such as the individual stair treads and risers of a single staircase, the renovator is required to test only one of the individual components, unless the individual components appear to have been repainted or refinished separately.


(3) Renovations in target housing or child-occupied facilities in which a certified renovator has collected a paint chip sample from each painted component affected by the renovation and a laboratory recognized by EPA pursuant to section 405(b) of TSCA as being capable of performing analyses for lead compounds in paint chip samples has determined that the samples are free of paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 mg/cm
2 or 0.5% by weight. If the components make up an integrated whole, such as the individual stair treads and risers of a single staircase, the renovator is required to test only one of the individual components, unless the individual components appear to have been repainted or refinished separately.


(b) The information distribution requirements in § 745.84 do not apply to emergency renovations, which are renovation activities that were not planned but result from a sudden, unexpected event (such as non-routine failures of equipment) that, if not immediately attended to, presents a safety or public health hazard, or threatens equipment and/or property with significant damage. Interim controls performed in response to an elevated blood lead level in a resident child are also emergency renovations. Emergency renovations other than interim controls are also exempt from the warning sign, containment, waste handling, training, and certification requirements in §§ 745.85, 745.89, and 745.90 to the extent necessary to respond to the emergency. Emergency renovations are not exempt from the cleaning requirements of § 745.85(a)(5), which must be performed by certified renovators or individuals trained in accordance with § 745.90(b)(2), the cleaning verification requirements of § 745.85(b), which must be performed by certified renovators, and the recordkeeping requirements of § 745.86(b)(6) and (b)(7).


[73 FR 21758, Apr. 22, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 24818, May 6, 2010; 76 FR 47938, Aug. 5, 2011]


§ 745.83 Definitions.

For purposes of this part, the definitions in § 745.103 as well as the following definitions apply:


Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.


Child-occupied facility means a building, or portion of a building, constructed prior to 1978, visited regularly by the same child, under 6 years of age, on at least two different days within any week (Sunday through Saturday period), provided that each day’s visit lasts at least 3 hours and the combined weekly visits last at least 6 hours, and the combined annual visits last at least 60 hours. Child-occupied facilities may include, but are not limited to, day care centers, preschools and kindergarten classrooms. Child-occupied facilities may be located in target housing or in public or commercial buildings. With respect to common areas in public or commercial buildings that contain child-occupied facilities, the child-occupied facility encompasses only those common areas that are routinely used by children under age 6, such as restrooms and cafeterias. Common areas that children under age 6 only pass through, such as hallways, stairways, and garages are not included. In addition, with respect to exteriors of public or commercial buildings that contain child-occupied facilities, the child-occupied facility encompasses only the exterior sides of the building that are immediately adjacent to the child-occupied facility or the common areas routinely used by children under age 6.


Cleaning verification card means a card developed and distributed, or otherwise approved, by EPA for the purpose of determining, through comparison of wet and dry disposable cleaning cloths with the card, whether post-renovation cleaning has been properly completed.


Component or building component means specific design or structural elements or fixtures of a building or residential dwelling that are distinguished from each other by form, function, and location. These include, but are not limited to, interior components such as: Ceilings, crown molding, walls, chair rails, doors, door trim, floors, fireplaces, radiators and other heating units, shelves, shelf supports, stair treads, stair risers, stair stringers, newel posts, railing caps, balustrades, windows and trim (including sashes, window heads, jambs, sills or stools and troughs), built in cabinets, columns, beams, bathroom vanities, counter tops, and air conditioners; and exterior components such as: Painted roofing, chimneys, flashing, gutters and downspouts, ceilings, soffits, fascias, rake boards, cornerboards, bulkheads, doors and door trim, fences, floors, joists, lattice work, railings and railing caps, siding, handrails, stair risers and treads, stair stringers, columns, balustrades, windowsills or stools and troughs, casings, sashes and wells, and air conditioners.


Dry disposable cleaning cloth means a commercially available dry, electrostatically charged, white disposable cloth designed to be used for cleaning hard surfaces such as uncarpeted floors or counter tops.


Firm means a company, partnership, corporation, sole proprietorship or individual doing business, association, or other business entity; a Federal, State, Tribal, or local government agency; or a nonprofit organization.


HEPA vacuum means a vacuum cleaner which has been designed with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter as the last filtration stage. A HEPA filter is a filter that is capable of capturing particulates of 0.3 microns with 99.97% efficiency. The vacuum cleaner must be designed so that all the air drawn into the machine is expelled through the HEPA filter with none of the air leaking past it. HEPA vacuums must be operated and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.


Interim controls means a set of measures designed to temporarily reduce human exposure or likely exposure to lead-based paint hazards, including specialized cleaning, repairs, maintenance, painting, temporary containment, ongoing monitoring of lead-based paint hazards or potential hazards, and the establishment and operation of management and resident education programs.


Minor repair and maintenance activities are activities, including minor heating, ventilation or air conditioning work, electrical work, and plumbing, that disrupt 6 square feet or less of painted surface per room for interior activities or 20 square feet or less of painted surface for exterior activities where none of the work practices prohibited or restricted by § 745.85(a)(3) are used and where the work does not involve window replacement or demolition of painted surface areas. When removing painted components, or portions of painted components, the entire surface area removed is the amount of painted surface disturbed. Jobs, other than emergency renovations, performed in the same room within the same 30 days must be considered the same job for the purpose of determining whether the job is a minor repair and maintenance activity.


Painted surface means a component surface covered in whole or in part with paint or other surface coatings.


Pamphlet means the EPA pamphlet titled Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools developed under section 406(a) of TSCA for use in complying with section 406(b) of TSCA, or any State or Tribal pamphlet approved by EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 745.326 that is developed for the same purpose. This includes reproductions of the pamphlet when copied in full and without revision or deletion of material from the pamphlet (except for the addition or revision of State or local sources of information). Before December 22, 2008, the term “pamphlet” also means any pamphlet developed by EPA under section 406(a) of TSCA or any State or Tribal pamphlet approved by EPA pursuant to § 745.326.


Person means any natural or judicial person including any individual, corporation, partnership, or association; any Indian Tribe, State, or political subdivision thereof; any interstate body; and any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal Government.


Recognized test kit means a commercially available kit recognized by EPA under § 745.88 as being capable of allowing a user to determine the presence of lead at levels equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams per square centimeter, or more than 0.5% lead by weight, in a paint chip, paint powder, or painted surface.


Renovation means the modification of any existing structure, or portion thereof, that results in the disturbance of painted surfaces, unless that activity is performed as part of an abatement as defined by this part (40 CFR 745.223). The term renovation includes (but is not limited to): The removal, modification or repair of painted surfaces or painted components (e.g., modification of painted doors, surface restoration, window repair, surface preparation activity (such as sanding, scraping, or other such activities that may generate paint dust)); the removal of building components (e.g., walls, ceilings, plumbing, windows); weatherization projects (e.g., cutting holes in painted surfaces to install blown-in insulation or to gain access to attics, planing thresholds to install weather-stripping), and interim controls that disturb painted surfaces. A renovation performed for the purpose of converting a building, or part of a building, into target housing or a child-occupied facility is a renovation under this subpart. The term renovation does not include minor repair and maintenance activities.


Renovator means an individual who either performs or directs workers who perform renovations. A certified renovator is a renovator who has successfully completed a renovator course accredited by EPA or an EPA-authorized State or Tribal program.


Training hour means at least 50 minutes of actual learning, including, but not limited to, time devoted to lecture, learning activities, small group activities, demonstrations, evaluations, and hands-on experience.


Wet disposable cleaning cloth means a commercially available, pre-moistened white disposable cloth designed to be used for cleaning hard surfaces such as uncarpeted floors or counter tops.


Vertical containment means a vertical barrier consisting of plastic sheeting or other impermeable material over scaffolding or a rigid frame, or an equivalent system of containing the work area. Vertical containment is required for some exterior renovations but it may be used on any renovation.


Wet mopping system means a device with the following characteristics: A long handle, a mop head designed to be used with disposable absorbent cleaning pads, a reservoir for cleaning solution, and a built-in mechanism for distributing or spraying the cleaning solution onto a floor, or a method of equivalent efficacy.


Work area means the area that the certified renovator establishes to contain the dust and debris generated by a renovation.


[63 FR 29919, June 1, 1998, as amended at 73 FR 21758, Apr. 22, 2008; 76 FR 47938, Aug. 5, 2011]


§ 745.84 Information distribution requirements.

(a) Renovations in dwelling units. No more than 60 days before beginning renovation activities in any residential dwelling unit of target housing, the firm performing the renovation must:


(1) Provide the owner of the unit with the pamphlet, and comply with one of the following:


(i) Obtain, from the owner, a written acknowledgment that the owner has received the pamphlet.


(ii) Obtain a certificate of mailing at least 7 days prior to the renovation.


(2) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, if the owner does not occupy the dwelling unit, provide an adult occupant of the unit with the pamphlet, and comply with one of the following:


(i) Obtain, from the adult occupant, a written acknowledgment that the occupant has received the pamphlet; or certify in writing that a pamphlet has been delivered to the dwelling and that the firm performing the renovation has been unsuccessful in obtaining a written acknowledgment from an adult occupant. Such certification must include the address of the unit undergoing renovation, the date and method of delivery of the pamphlet, names of the persons delivering the pamphlet, reason for lack of acknowledgment (e.g., occupant refuses to sign, no adult occupant available), the signature of a representative of the firm performing the renovation, and the date of signature.


(ii) Obtain a certificate of mailing at least 7 days prior to the renovation.


(b) Renovations in common areas. No more than 60 days before beginning renovation activities in common areas of multi-unit target housing, the firm performing the renovation must:


(1) Provide the owner with the pamphlet, and comply with one of the following:


(i) Obtain, from the owner, a written acknowledgment that the owner has received the pamphlet.


(ii) Obtain a certificate of mailing at least 7 days prior to the renovation.


(2) Comply with one of the following. (i) Notify in writing, or ensure written notification of, each affected unit and make the pamphlet available upon request prior to the start of renovation. Such notification shall be accomplished by distributing written notice to each affected unit. The notice shall describe the general nature and locations of the planned renovation activities; the expected starting and ending dates; and a statement of how the occupant can obtain the pamphlet and a copy of the records required by § 745.86(c) and (d), at no cost to the occupants, or


(ii) While the renovation is ongoing, post informational signs describing the general nature and locations of the renovation and the anticipated completion date. These signs must be posted in areas where they are likely to be seen by the occupants of all of the affected units. The signs must be accompanied by a posted copy of the pamphlet or information on how interested occupants can review a copy of the pamphlet or obtain a copy from the renovation firm at no cost to occupants. The signs must also include information on how interested occupants can review a copy of the records required by § 745.86(c) and (d) or obtain a copy from the renovation firm at no cost to the occupants.


(3) Prepare, sign, and date a statement describing the steps performed to notify all occupants of the intended renovation activities and to provide the pamphlet.


(4) If the scope, locations, or expected starting and ending dates of the planned renovation activities change after the initial notification, and the firm provided written initial notification to each affected unit, the firm performing the renovation must provide further written notification to the owners and occupants providing revised information on the ongoing or planned activities. This subsequent notification must be provided before the firm performing the renovation initiates work beyond that which was described in the original notice.


(c) Renovations in child-occupied facilities. No more than 60 days before beginning renovation activities in any child-occupied facility, the firm performing the renovation must:


(1)(i) Provide the owner of the building with the pamphlet, and comply with one of the following:


(A) Obtain, from the owner, a written acknowledgment that the owner has received the pamphlet.


(B) Obtain a certificate of mailing at least 7 days prior to the renovation.


(ii) If the child-occupied facility is not the owner of the building, provide an adult representative of the child-occupied facility with the pamphlet, and comply with one of the following:


(A) Obtain, from the adult representative, a written acknowledgment that the adult representative has received the pamphlet; or certify in writing that a pamphlet has been delivered to the facility and that the firm performing the renovation has been unsuccessful in obtaining a written acknowledgment from an adult representative. Such certification must include the address of the child-occupied facility undergoing renovation, the date and method of delivery of the pamphlet, names of the persons delivering the pamphlet, reason for lack of acknowledgment (e.g., representative refuses to sign), the signature of a representative of the firm performing the renovation, and the date of signature.


(B) Obtain a certificate of mailing at least 7 days prior to the renovation.


(2) Provide the parents and guardians of children using the child-occupied facility with the pamphlet, information describing the general nature and locations of the renovation and the anticipated completion date, and information on how interested parents or guardians of children frequenting the child-occupied facility can review a copy of the records required by § 745.86(c) and (d) or obtain a copy from the renovation firm at no cost to the occupants by complying with one of the following:


(i) Mail or hand-deliver the pamphlet and the renovation information to each parent or guardian of a child using the child-occupied facility.


(ii) While the renovation is ongoing, post informational signs describing the general nature and locations of the renovation and the anticipated completion date. These signs must be posted in areas where they can be seen by the parents or guardians of the children frequenting the child-occupied facility. The signs must be accompanied by a posted copy of the pamphlet or information on how interested parents or guardians of children frequenting the child-occupied facility can review a copy of the pamphlet or obtain a copy from the renovation firm at no cost to the parents or guardians. The signs must also include information on how interested parents or guardians of children frequenting the child-occupied facility can review a copy of the records required by § 745.86(c) and (d) or obtain a copy from the renovation firm at no cost to the parents or guardians.


(3) The renovation firm must prepare, sign, and date a statement describing the steps performed to notify all parents and guardians of the intended renovation activities and to provide the pamphlet.


(d) Written acknowledgment. The written acknowledgments required by paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(2)(i), (b)(1)(i), (c)(1)(i)(A), and (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section must:


(1) Include a statement recording the owner or occupant’s name and acknowledging receipt of the pamphlet prior to the start of renovation, the address of the unit undergoing renovation, the signature of the owner or occupant as applicable, and the date of signature.


(2) Be either a separate sheet or part of any written contract or service agreement for the renovation.


(3) Be written in the same language as the text of the contract or agreement for the renovation or, in the case of non-owner occupied target housing, in the same language as the lease or rental agreement or the pamphlet.


[63 FR 29919, June 1, 1998. Redesignated and amended at 73 FR 21760, Apr. 22, 2008; 75 FR 24818, May 6, 2010]


§ 745.85 Work practice standards.

(a) Standards for renovation activities. Renovations must be performed by certified firms using certified renovators as directed in § 745.89. The responsibilities of certified firms are set forth in § 745.89(d) and the responsibilities of certified renovators are set forth in § 745.90(b).


(1) Occupant protection. Firms must post signs clearly defining the work area and warning occupants and other persons not involved in renovation activities to remain outside of the work area. To the extent practicable, these signs must be in the primary language of the occupants. These signs must be posted before beginning the renovation and must remain in place and readable until the renovation and the post-renovation cleaning verification have been completed. If warning signs have been posted in accordance with 24 CFR 35.1345(b)(2) or 29 CFR 1926.62(m), additional signs are not required by this section.


(2) Containing the work area. Before beginning the renovation, the firm must isolate the work area so that no dust or debris leaves the work area while the renovation is being performed. In addition, the firm must maintain the integrity of the containment by ensuring that any plastic or other impermeable materials are not torn or displaced, and taking any other steps necessary to ensure that no dust or debris leaves the work area while the renovation is being performed. The firm must also ensure that containment is installed in such a manner that it does not interfere with occupant and worker egress in an emergency.


(i) Interior renovations. The firm must:


(A) Remove all objects from the work area, including furniture, rugs, and window coverings, or cover them with plastic sheeting or other impermeable material with all seams and edges taped or otherwise sealed.


(B) Close and cover all ducts opening in the work area with taped-down plastic sheeting or other impermeable material.


(C) Close windows and doors in the work area. Doors must be covered with plastic sheeting or other impermeable material. Doors used as an entrance to the work area must be covered with plastic sheeting or other impermeable material in a manner that allows workers to pass through while confining dust and debris to the work area.


(D) Cover the floor surface, including installed carpet, with taped-down plastic sheeting or other impermeable material in the work area 6 feet beyond the perimeter of surfaces undergoing renovation or a sufficient distance to contain the dust, whichever is greater. Floor containment measures may stop at the edge of the vertical barrier when using a vertical containment system consisting of impermeable barriers that extend from the floor to the ceiling and are tightly sealed at joints with the floor, ceiling and walls.


(E) Use precautions to ensure that all personnel, tools, and other items, including the exteriors of containers of waste, are free of dust and debris before leaving the work area.


(ii) Exterior renovations. The firm must:


(A) Close all doors and windows within 20 feet of the renovation. On multi-story buildings, close all doors and windows within 20 feet of the renovation on the same floor as the renovation, and close all doors and windows on all floors below that are the same horizontal distance from the renovation.


(B) Ensure that doors within the work area that will be used while the job is being performed are covered with plastic sheeting or other impermeable material in a manner that allows workers to pass through while confining dust and debris to the work area.


(C) Cover the ground with plastic sheeting or other disposable impermeable material extending 10 feet beyond the perimeter of surfaces undergoing renovation or a sufficient distance to collect falling paint debris, whichever is greater, unless the property line prevents 10 feet of such ground covering. Ground containment measures may stop at the edge of the vertical barrier when using a vertical containment system.


(D) If the renovation will affect surfaces within 10 feet of the property line, the renovation firm must erect vertical containment or equivalent extra precautions in containing the work area to ensure that dust and debris from the renovation does not contaminate adjacent buildings or migrate to adjacent properties. Vertical containment or equivalent extra precautions in containing the work area may also be necessary in other situations in order to prevent contamination of other buildings, other areas of the property, or adjacent buildings or properties.


(3) Prohibited and restricted practices. The work practices listed below are prohibited or restricted during a renovation as follows:


(i) Open-flame burning or torching of painted surfaces is prohibited.


(ii) The use of machines designed to remove paint or other surface coatings through high speed operation such as sanding, grinding, power planing, needle gun, abrasive blasting, or sandblasting, is prohibited on painted surfaces unless such machines have shrouds or containment systems and are equipped with a HEPA vacuum attachment to collect dust and debris at the point of generation. Machines must be operated so that no visible dust or release of air occurs outside the shroud or containment system.


(iii) Operating a heat gun on painted surfaces is permitted only at temperatures below 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit.


(4) Waste from renovations. (i) Waste from renovation activities must be contained to prevent releases of dust and debris before the waste is removed from the work area for storage or disposal. If a chute is used to remove waste from the work area, it must be covered.


(ii) At the conclusion of each work day and at the conclusion of the renovation, waste that has been collected from renovation activities must be stored under containment, in an enclosure, or behind a barrier that prevents release of dust and debris out of the work area and prevents access to dust and debris.


(iii) When the firm transports waste from renovation activities, the firm must contain the waste to prevent release of dust and debris.


(5) Cleaning the work area. After the renovation has been completed, the firm must clean the work area until no dust, debris or residue remains.


(i) Interior and exterior renovations. The firm must:


(A) Collect all paint chips and debris and, without dispersing any of it, seal this material in a heavy-duty bag.


(B) Remove the protective sheeting. Mist the sheeting before folding it, fold the dirty side inward, and either tape shut to seal or seal in heavy-duty bags. Sheeting used to isolate contaminated rooms from non-contaminated rooms must remain in place until after the cleaning and removal of other sheeting. Dispose of the sheeting as waste.


(ii) Additional cleaning for interior renovations. The firm must clean all objects and surfaces in the work area and within 2 feet of the work area in the following manner, cleaning from higher to lower:


(A) Walls. Clean walls starting at the ceiling and working down to the floor by either vacuuming with a HEPA vacuum or wiping with a damp cloth.


(B) Remaining surfaces. Thoroughly vacuum all remaining surfaces and objects in the work area, including furniture and fixtures, with a HEPA vacuum. The HEPA vacuum must be equipped with a beater bar when vacuuming carpets and rugs.


(C) Wipe all remaining surfaces and objects in the work area, except for carpeted or upholstered surfaces, with a damp cloth. Mop uncarpeted floors thoroughly, using a mopping method that keeps the wash water separate from the rinse water, such as the 2-bucket mopping method, or using a wet mopping system.


(b) Standards for post-renovation cleaning verification – (1) Interiors. (i) A certified renovator must perform a visual inspection to determine whether dust, debris or residue is still present. If dust, debris or residue is present, these conditions must be removed by re-cleaning and another visual inspection must be performed.


(ii) After a successful visual inspection, a certified renovator must:


(A) Verify that each windowsill in the work area has been adequately cleaned, using the following procedure.


(1) Wipe the windowsill with a wet disposable cleaning cloth that is damp to the touch. If the cloth matches or is lighter than the cleaning verification card, the windowsill has been adequately cleaned.


(2) If the cloth does not match and is darker than the cleaning verification card, re-clean the windowsill as directed in paragraphs (a)(5)(ii)(B) and (a)(5)(ii)(C) of this section, then either use a new cloth or fold the used cloth in such a way that an unused surface is exposed, and wipe the surface again. If the cloth matches or is lighter than the cleaning verification card, that windowsill has been adequately cleaned.


(3) If the cloth does not match and is darker than the cleaning verification card, wait for 1 hour or until the surface has dried completely, whichever is longer.


(4)After waiting for the windowsill to dry, wipe the windowsill with a dry disposable cleaning cloth. After this wipe, the windowsill has been adequately cleaned.


(B) Wipe uncarpeted floors and countertops within the work area with a wet disposable cleaning cloth. Floors must be wiped using an application device with a long handle and a head to which the cloth is attached. The cloth must remain damp at all times while it is being used to wipe the surface for post-renovation cleaning verification. If the surface within the work area is greater than 40 square feet, the surface within the work area must be divided into roughly equal sections that are each less than 40 square feet. Wipe each such section separately with a new wet disposable cleaning cloth. If the cloth used to wipe each section of the surface within the work area matches the cleaning verification card, the surface has been adequately cleaned.


(1) If the cloth used to wipe a particular surface section does not match the cleaning verification card, re-clean that section of the surface as directed in paragraphs (a)(5)(ii)(B) and (a)(5)(ii)(C) of this section, then use a new wet disposable cleaning cloth to wipe that section again. If the cloth matches the cleaning verification card, that section of the surface has been adequately cleaned.


(2) If the cloth used to wipe a particular surface section does not match the cleaning verification card after the surface has been re-cleaned, wait for 1 hour or until the entire surface within the work area has dried completely, whichever is longer.


(3) After waiting for the entire surface within the work area to dry, wipe each section of the surface that has not yet achieved post-renovation cleaning verification with a dry disposable cleaning cloth. After this wipe, that section of the surface has been adequately cleaned.


(iii) When the work area passes the post-renovation cleaning verification, remove the warning signs.


(2) Exteriors. A certified renovator must perform a visual inspection to determine whether dust, debris or residue is still present on surfaces in and below the work area, including windowsills and the ground. If dust, debris or residue is present, these conditions must be eliminated and another visual inspection must be performed. When the area passes the visual inspection, remove the warning signs.


(c) Optional dust clearance testing. Cleaning verification need not be performed if the contract between the renovation firm and the person contracting for the renovation or another Federal, State, Territorial, Tribal, or local law or regulation requires:


(1) The renovation firm to perform dust clearance sampling at the conclusion of a renovation covered by this subpart.


(2) The dust clearance samples are required to be collected by a certified inspector, risk assessor or dust sampling technician.


(3) The renovation firm is required to re-clean the work area until the dust clearance sample results are below the clearance standards in § 745.227(e)(8) or any applicable State, Territorial, Tribal, or local standard.


(d) Activities conducted after post-renovation cleaning verification. Activities that do not disturb paint, such as applying paint to walls that have already been prepared, are not regulated by this subpart if they are conducted after post-renovation cleaning verification has been performed.


[73 FR 21761, Apr. 22, 2008, as amended at 76 FR 47938, Aug. 5, 2011]


§ 745.86 Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

(a) Firms performing renovations must retain and, if requested, make available to EPA all records necessary to demonstrate compliance with this subpart for a period of 3 years following completion of the renovation. This 3-year retention requirement does not supersede longer obligations required by other provisions for retaining the same documentation, including any applicable State or Tribal laws or regulations.


(b) Records that must be retained pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall include (where applicable):


(1) Records or reports certifying that a determination had been made that lead-based paint was not present on the components affected by the renovation, as described in § 745.82(a). These records or reports include:


(i) Reports prepared by a certified inspector or certified risk assessor (certified pursuant to either Federal regulations at § 745.226 or an EPA-authorized State or Tribal certification program).


(ii) Records prepared by a certified renovator after using EPA-recognized test kits, including an identification of the manufacturer and model of any test kits used, a description of the components that were tested including their locations, and the result of each test kit used.


(iii) Records prepared by a certified renovator after collecting paint chip samples, including a description of the components that were tested including their locations, the name and address of the NLLAP-recognized entity performing the analysis, and the results for each sample.


(2) Signed and dated acknowledgments of receipt as described in § 745.84(a)(1)(i), (a)(2)(i), (b)(1)(i), (c)(1)(i)(A), and (c)(1)(ii)(A).


(3) Certifications of attempted delivery as described in § 745.84(a)(2)(i) and (c)(1)(ii)(A).


(4) Certificates of mailing as described in § 745.84(a)(1)(ii), (a)(2)(ii), (b)(1)(ii), (c)(1)(i)(B), and (c)(1)(ii)(B).


(5) Records of notification activities performed regarding common area renovations, as described in § 745.84(b)(3) and (b)(4), and renovations in child-occupied facilities, as described in § 745.84(c)(2).


(6) Documentation of compliance with the requirements of § 745.85, including documentation that a certified renovator was assigned to the project, that the certified renovator provided on-the-job training for workers used on the project, that the certified renovator performed or directed workers who performed all of the tasks described in § 745.85(a), and that the certified renovator performed the post-renovation cleaning verification described in § 745.85(b). If the renovation firm was unable to comply with all of the requirements of this rule due to an emergency as defined in § 745.82, the firm must document the nature of the emergency and the provisions of the rule that were not followed. This documentation must include a copy of the certified renovator’s training certificate, and a certification by the certified renovator assigned to the project that:


(i) Training was provided to workers (topics must be identified for each worker).


(ii) Warning signs were posted at the entrances to the work area.


(iii) If test kits were used, that the specified brand of kits was used at the specified locations and that the results were as specified.


(v) The work area was contained by:


(A) Removing or covering all objects in the work area (interiors).


(B) Closing and covering all HVAC ducts in the work area (interiors).


(C) Closing all windows in the work area (interiors) or closing all windows in and within 20 feet of the work area (exteriors).


(D) Closing and sealing all doors in the work area (interiors) or closing and sealing all doors in and within 20 feet of the work area (exteriors).


(E) Covering doors in the work area that were being used to allow passage but prevent spread of dust.


(F) Covering the floor surface, including installed carpet, with taped-down plastic sheeting or other impermeable material in the work area 6 feet beyond the perimeter of surfaces undergoing renovation or a sufficient distance to contain the dust, whichever is greater (interiors) or covering the ground with plastic sheeting or other disposable impermeable material anchored to the building extending 10 feet beyond the perimeter of surfaces undergoing renovation or a sufficient distance to collect falling paint debris, whichever is greater, unless the property line prevents 10 feet of such ground covering, weighted down by heavy objects (exteriors).


(G) Installing (if necessary) vertical containment to prevent migration of dust and debris to adjacent property (exteriors).


(iv) If paint chip samples were collected, that the samples were collected at the specified locations, that the specified NLLAP-recognized laboratory analyzed the samples, and that the results were as specified.


(vi) Waste was contained on-site and while being transported off-site.


(vii) The work area was properly cleaned after the renovation by:


(A) Picking up all chips and debris, misting protective sheeting, folding it dirty side inward, and taping it for removal.


(B) Cleaning the work area surfaces and objects using a HEPA vacuum and/or wet cloths or mops (interiors).


(viii) The certified renovator performed the post-renovation cleaning verification (the results of which must be briefly described, including the number of wet and dry cloths used).


(c)(1) When the final invoice for the renovation is delivered or within 30 days of the completion of the renovation, whichever is earlier, the renovation firm must provide information pertaining to compliance with this subpart to the following persons:


(i) The owner of the building; and, if different,


(ii) An adult occupant of the residential dwelling, if the renovation took place within a residential dwelling, or an adult representative of the child-occupied facility, if the renovation took place within a child-occupied facility.


(2) When performing renovations in common areas of multi-unit target housing, renovation firms must post the information required by this subpart or instructions on how interested occupants can obtain a copy of this information. This information must be posted in areas where it is likely to be seen by the occupants of all of the affected units.


(3) The information required to be provided by paragraph (c) of this section may be provided by completing the sample form titled “Sample Renovation Recordkeeping Checklist” or a similar form containing the test kit information required by § 745.86(b)(1)(ii) and the training and work practice compliance information required by § 745.86(b)(6).


(d) If dust clearance sampling is performed in lieu of cleaning verification as permitted by § 745.85(c), the renovation firm must provide, when the final invoice for the renovation is delivered or within 30 days of the completion of the renovation, whichever is earlier, a copy of the dust sampling report to:


(1) The owner of the building; and, if different,


(2) An adult occupant of the residential dwelling, if the renovation took place within a residential dwelling, or an adult representative of the child-occupied facility, if the renovation took place within a child-occupied facility.


(3) When performing renovations in common areas of multi-unit target housing, renovation firms must post these dust sampling reports or information on how interested occupants of the housing being renovated can obtain a copy of the report. This information must be posted in areas where they are likely to be seen by the occupants of all of the affected units.


[73 FR 21761, Apr. 22, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 24819, May 6, 2010; 76 FR 47939, Aug. 5, 2011]


§ 745.87 Enforcement and inspections.

(a) Failure or refusal to comply with any provision of this subpart is a violation of TSCA section 409 (15 U.S.C. 2689).


(b) Failure or refusal to establish and maintain records or to make available or permit access to or copying of records, as required by this subpart, is a violation of TSCA sections 15 and 409 (15 U.S.C. 2614 and 2689).


(c) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection as required by 40 CFR 745.87 and TSCA section 11 (15 U.S.C. 2610) is a violation of sections 15 and 409 (15 U.S.C. 2614 and 2689).


(d) Violators may be subject to civil and criminal sanctions pursuant to TSCA section 16 (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation.


(e) Lead-based paint is assumed to be present at renovations covered by this subpart. EPA may conduct inspections and issue subpoenas pursuant to the provisions of TSCA section 11 (15 U.S.C. 2610) to ensure compliance with this subpart.


[63 FR 29919, June 1, 1998, as amended at 73 FR 21763, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.88 Recognized test kits.

(a) Effective June 23, 2008, EPA recognizes the test kits that have been determined by National Institute of Standards and Technology research to meet the negative response criteria described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. This recognition will last until EPA publicizes its recognition of the first test kit that meets both the negative response and positive response criteria in paragraph (c) of this section.


(b) No other test kits will be recognized until they are tested through EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program or other equivalent EPA approved testing program.


(1) Effective September 1, 2008, to initiate the testing process, a test kit manufacturer must submit a sufficient number of kits, along with the instructions for using the kits, to EPA. The test kit manufacturer should first visit the following website for information on where to apply: http://www.epa.gov/etv/howtoapply.html.


(2) After the kit has been tested through the Environmental Technology Verification Program or other equivalent approved EPA testing program, EPA will review the report to determine whether the required criteria have been met.


(3) Before September 1, 2010, test kits must meet only the negative response criteria in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The recognition of kits that meet only this criteria will last until EPA publicizes its recognition of the first test kits that meets both of the criteria in paragraph (c) of this section.


(4) After September 1, 2010, test kits must meet both of the criteria in paragraph (c) of this section.


(5) If the report demonstrates that the kit meets the required criteria, EPA will issue a notice of recognition to the kit manufacturer, provide them with the report, and post the information on EPA’s website.


(6) If the report demonstrates that the kit does not meet the required criteria, EPA will notify the kit manufacturer and provide them with the report.


(c) Response criteria – (1) Negative response criteria. For paint containing lead at or above the regulated level, 1.0 mg/cm
2 or 0.5% by weight, a demonstrated probability (with 95% confidence) of a negative response less than or equal to 5% of the time.


(2) Positive response criteria. For paint containing lead below the regulated level, 1.0 mg/cm
2 or 0.5% by weight, a demonstrated probability (with 95% confidence) of a positive response less than or equal to 10% of the time.


[73 FR 21763, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.89 Firm certification.

(a) Initial certification. (1) Firms that perform renovations for compensation must apply to EPA for certification to perform renovations or dust sampling. To apply, a firm must submit to EPA a completed “Application for Firms,” signed by an authorized agent of the firm, and pay at least the correct amount of fees. If a firm pays more than the correct amount of fees, EPA will reimburse the firm for the excess amount.


(2) After EPA receives a firm’s application, EPA will take one of the following actions within 90 days of the date the application is received:


(i) EPA will approve a firm’s application if EPA determines that it is complete and that the environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals, or its key employees does not show an unwillingness or inability to maintain compliance with environmental statutes or regulations. An application is complete if it contains all of the information requested on the form and includes at least the correct amount of fees. When EPA approves a firm’s application, EPA will issue the firm a certificate with an expiration date not more than 5 years from the date the application is approved. EPA certification allows the firm to perform renovations covered by this section in any State or Indian Tribal area that does not have a renovation program that is authorized under subpart Q of this part.


(ii) EPA will request a firm to supplement its application if EPA determines that the application is incomplete. If EPA requests a firm to supplement its application, the firm must submit the requested information or pay the additional fees within 30 days of the date of the request.


(iii) EPA will not approve a firm’s application if the firm does not supplement its application in accordance with paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section or if EPA determines that the environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals, or its key employees demonstrates an unwillingness or inability to maintain compliance with environmental statutes or regulations. EPA will send the firm a letter giving the reason for not approving the application. EPA will not refund the application fees. A firm may reapply for certification at any time by filing a new, complete application that includes the correct amount of fees.


(b) Re-certification. To maintain its certification, a firm must be re-certified by EPA every 5 years.


(1) Timely and complete application. To be re-certified, a firm must submit a complete application for re-certification. A complete application for re-certification includes a completed “Application for Firms” which contains all of the information requested by the form and is signed by an authorized agent of the firm, noting on the form that it is submitted as a re-certification. A complete application must also include at least the correct amount of fees. If a firm pays more than the correct amount of fees, EPA will reimburse the firm for the excess amount.


(i) An application for re-certification is timely if it is postmarked 90 days or more before the date the firm’s current certification expires. If the firm’s application is complete and timely, the firm’s current certification will remain in effect until its expiration date or until EPA has made a final decision to approve or disapprove the re-certification application, whichever is later.


(ii) If the firm submits a complete re-certification application less than 90 days before its current certification expires, and EPA does not approve the application before the expiration date, the firm’s current certification will expire and the firm will not be able to conduct renovations until EPA approves its re-certification application.


(iii) If the firm fails to obtain recertification before the firm’s current certification expires, the firm must not perform renovations or dust sampling until it is certified anew pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section.


(2) EPA action on an application. After EPA receives a firm’s application for re-certification, EPA will review the application and take one of the following actions within 90 days of receipt:


(i) EPA will approve a firm’s application if EPA determines that it is timely and complete and that the environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals, or its key employees does not show an unwillingness or inability to maintain compliance with environmental statutes or regulations. When EPA approves a firm’s application for re-certification, EPA will issue the firm a new certificate with an expiration date 5 years from the date that the firm’s current certification expires. EPA certification allows the firm to perform renovations or dust sampling covered by this section in any State or Indian Tribal area that does not have a renovation program that is authorized under subpart Q of this part.


(ii) EPA will request a firm to supplement its application if EPA determines that the application is incomplete.


(iii) EPA will not approve a firm’s application if it is not received or is not complete as of the date that the firm’s current certification expires, or if EPA determines that the environmental compliance history of the firm, its principals, or its key employees demonstrates an unwillingness or inability to maintain compliance with environmental statutes or regulations. EPA will send the firm a letter giving the reason for not approving the application. EPA will not refund the application fees. A firm may reapply for certification at any time by filing a new application and paying the correct amount of fees.


(c) Amendment of certification. A firm must amend its certification within 90 days of the date a change occurs to information included in the firm’s most recent application. If the firm fails to amend its certification within 90 days of the date the change occurs, the firm may not perform renovations or dust sampling until its certification is amended.


(1) To amend a certification, a firm must submit a completed “Application for Firms,” signed by an authorized agent of the firm, noting on the form that it is submitted as an amendment and indicating the information that has changed. The firm must also pay at least the correct amount of fees.


(2) If additional information is needed to process the amendment, or the firm did not pay the correct amount of fees, EPA will request the firm to submit the necessary information or fees. The firm’s certification is not amended until the firm complies with the request.


(3) Amending a certification does not affect the certification expiration date.


(d) Firm responsibilities. Firms performing renovations must ensure that:


(1) All individuals performing renovation activities on behalf of the firm are either certified renovators or have been trained by a certified renovator in accordance with § 745.90.


(2) A certified renovator is assigned to each renovation performed by the firm and discharges all of the certified renovator responsibilities identified in § 745.90.


(3) All renovations performed by the firm are performed in accordance with the work practice standards in § 745.85.


(4) The pre-renovation education requirements of § 745.84 have been performed.


(5) The recordkeeping requirements of § 745.86 are met.


[73 FR 21764, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.90 Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.

(a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (1) To become a certified renovator or certified dust sampling technician, an individual must successfully complete the appropriate course accredited by EPA under § 745.225 or by a State or Tribal program that is authorized under subpart Q of this part. The course completion certificate serves as proof of certification. EPA renovator certification allows the certified individual to perform renovations covered by this section in any State or Indian Tribal area that does not have a renovation program that is authorized under subpart Q of this part. EPA dust sampling technician certification allows the certified individual to perform dust clearance sampling under § 745.85(c) in any State or Indian Tribal area that does not have a renovation program that is authorized under subpart Q of this part.


(2) Individuals who have successfully completed an accredited abatement worker or supervisor course, or individuals who successfully completed an EPA, HUD, or EPA/HUD model renovation training course before October 4, 2011 may take an accredited refresher renovator training course that includes hands-on training in lieu of the initial renovator training course to become a certified renovator.


(3) Individuals who have successfully completed an accredited lead-based paint inspector or risk assessor course October 4, 2011 may take an accredited refresher dust sampling technician course in lieu of the initial training to become a certified dust sampling technician. Individuals who are currently certified as lead-based paint inspectors or risk assessors may act as certified dust sampling technicians without further training.


(4) To maintain renovator certification or dust sampling technician certification, an individual must complete a renovator or dust sampling technician refresher course accredited by EPA under § 745.225 or by a State or Tribal program that is authorized under subpart Q of this part within 5 years of the date the individual completed the initial course described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. If the individual does not complete a refresher course within this time, the individual must re-take the initial course to become certified again. Individuals who complete a renovator course accredited by EPA or an EPA authorized program on or before March 31, 2010, must complete a renovator refresher course accredited by EPA or an EPA authorized program on or before March 31, 2016, to maintain renovator certification. Individuals who completed a renovator course accredited by EPA or an EPA authorized program between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, will have one year added to their original 5-year certification. Individuals who take a renovator refresher course that does not include hands-on training will be certified for 3 years from the date they complete the training. Individuals who take a refresher training course that includes hands-on training will be certified for 5 years. Individuals who take the renovator refresher without hands-on training must, for their next refresher course, take a refresher course that includes hands-on training to maintain renovator certification.


(b) Renovator responsibilities. Certified renovators are responsible for ensuring compliance with § 745.85 at all renovations to which they are assigned. A certified renovator:


(1) Must perform all of the tasks described in § 745.85(b) and must either perform or direct workers who perform all of the tasks described in § 745.85(a).


(2) Must provide training to workers on the work practices required by § 745.85(a) that they will be using in performing their assigned tasks.


(3) Must be physically present at the work site when the signs required by § 745.85(a)(1) are posted, while the work area containment required by § 745.85(a)(2) is being established, and while the work area cleaning required by § 745.85(a)(5) is performed.


(4) Must regularly direct work being performed by other individuals to ensure that the work practices required by § 745.85(a) are being followed, including maintaining the integrity of the containment barriers and ensuring that dust or debris does not spread beyond the work area.


(5) Must be available, either on-site or by telephone, at all times that renovations are being conducted.


(6) When requested by the party contracting for renovation services, must use an acceptable test kit to determine whether components to be affected by the renovation contain lead-based paint.


(7) Must have with them at the work site copies of their initial course completion certificate and their most recent refresher course completion certificate.


(8) Must prepare the records required by § 745.86(b)(1)(ii) and (6).


(c) Dust sampling technician responsibilities. When performing optional dust clearance sampling under § 745.85(c), a certified dust sampling technician:


(1) Must collect dust samples in accordance with § 745.227(e)(8), must send the collected samples to a laboratory recognized by EPA under TSCA section 405(b), and must compare the results to the clearance levels in accordance with § 745.227(e)(8).


(2) Must have with them at the work site copies of their initial course completion certificate and their most recent refresher course completion certificate.


[73 FR 21765, Apr. 22, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 24819, May 6, 2010; 76 FR 47939, Aug. 5, 2011; 80 FR 20446, Apr. 16, 2015; 81 FR 7995, Feb. 17, 2016]


§ 745.91 Suspending, revoking, or modifying an individual’s or firm’s certification.

(a)(1) Grounds for suspending, revoking, or modifying an individual’s certification. EPA may suspend, revoke, or modify an individual’s certification if the individual fails to comply with Federal lead-based paint statutes or regulations. EPA may also suspend, revoke, or modify a certified renovator’s certification if the renovator fails to ensure that all assigned renovations comply with § 745.85. In addition to an administrative or judicial finding of violation, execution of a consent agreement in settlement of an enforcement action constitutes, for purposes of this section, evidence of a failure to comply with relevant statutes or regulations.


(2) Grounds for suspending, revoking, or modifying a firm’s certification. EPA may suspend, revoke, or modify a firm’s certification if the firm:


(i) Submits false or misleading information to EPA in its application for certification or re-certification.


(ii) Fails to maintain or falsifies records required in § 745.86.


(iii) Fails to comply, or an individual performing a renovation on behalf of the firm fails to comply, with Federal lead-based paint statutes or regulations. In addition to an administrative or judicial finding of violation, execution of a consent agreement in settlement of an enforcement action constitutes, for purposes of this section, evidence of a failure to comply with relevant statutes or regulations.


(b) Process for suspending, revoking, or modifying certification. (1) Prior to taking action to suspend, revoke, or modify an individual’s or firm’s certification, EPA will notify the affected entity in writing of the following:


(i) The legal and factual basis for the proposed suspension, revocation, or modification.


(ii) The anticipated commencement date and duration of the suspension, revocation, or modification.


(iii) Actions, if any, which the affected entity may take to avoid suspension, revocation, or modification, or to receive certification in the future.


(iv) The opportunity and method for requesting a hearing prior to final suspension, revocation, or modification.


(2) If an individual or firm requests a hearing, EPA will:


(i) Provide the affected entity an opportunity to offer written statements in response to EPA’s assertions of the legal and factual basis for its proposed action.


(ii) Appoint an impartial official of EPA as Presiding Officer to conduct the hearing.


(3) The Presiding Officer will:


(i) Conduct a fair, orderly, and impartial hearing within 90 days of the request for a hearing.


(ii) Consider all relevant evidence, explanation, comment, and argument submitted.


(iii) Notify the affected entity in writing within 90 days of completion of the hearing of his or her decision and order. Such an order is a final agency action which may be subject to judicial review. The order must contain the commencement date and duration of the suspension, revocation, or modification.


(4) If EPA determines that the public health, interest, or welfare warrants immediate action to suspend the certification of any individual or firm prior to the opportunity for a hearing, it will:


(i) Notify the affected entity in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(iii) of this section, explaining why it is necessary to suspend the entity’s certification before an opportunity for a hearing.


(ii) Notify the affected entity of its right to request a hearing on the immediate suspension within 15 days of the suspension taking place and the procedures for the conduct of such a hearing.


(5) Any notice, decision, or order issued by EPA under this section, any transcript or other verbatim record of oral testimony, and any documents filed by a certified individual or firm in a hearing under this section will be available to the public, except as otherwise provided by section 14 of TSCA or by part 2 of this title. Any such hearing at which oral testimony is presented will be open to the public, except that the Presiding Officer may exclude the public to the extent necessary to allow presentation of information which may be entitled to confidential treatment under section 14 of TSCA or part 2 of this title.


(6) EPA will maintain a publicly available list of entities whose certification has been suspended, revoked, modified, or reinstated.


(7) Unless the decision and order issued under paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section specify otherwise:


(i) An individual whose certification has been suspended must take a refresher training course (renovator or dust sampling technician) in order to make his or her certification current.


(ii) An individual whose certification has been revoked must take an initial renovator or dust sampling technician course in order to become certified again.


(iii) A firm whose certification has been revoked must reapply for certification after the revocation ends in order to become certified again. If the firm’s certification has been suspended and the suspension ends less than 5 years after the firm was initially certified or re-certified, the firm does not need to do anything to re-activate its certification.


[73 FR 21765, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.92 Fees for the accreditation of renovation and dust sampling technician training and the certification of renovation firms.

(a) Persons who must pay fees. Fees in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section must be paid by:


(1) Training programs – (i) Non-exempt training programs. All non-exempt training programs applying to EPA for the accreditation and re-accreditation of training programs in one or more of the following disciplines: Renovator, dust sampling technician.


(ii) Exemption. No fee shall be imposed on any training program operated by a State, federally recognized Indian Tribe, local government, or non-profit organization. This exemption does not apply to the certification of firms or individuals.


(2) Firms. All firms applying to EPA for certification and re-certification to conduct renovations.


(b) Fee amounts – (1) Certification and accreditation fees. Initial and renewal certification and accreditation fees are specified in the following table:


Training Program
Accreditation
Re-accreditation (every 4 years, see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details)
Initial Renovator or Dust Sampling Technician Course$560$340
Refresher Renovator or Dust Sampling Technician Course$400$310
Renovation FirmCertificationRe-certification (every 5 years see 40 CFR 745.89(b))
Firm$300$300
Combined Renovation and Lead-based Paint Activities Firm Application$550$550
Combined Renovation and Lead-based Paint Activities Tribal Firm Application$20$20
Tribal Firm$20$20

(2) Lost certificate. A $15 fee will be charged for the replacement of a firm certificate.


(c) Certificate replacement. Firms seeking certificate replacement must:


(1) Complete the applicable portions of the “Application for Firms” in accordance with the instructions provided.


(2) Submit the application and a payment of $15 in accordance with the instructions provided with the application package.


(3) Accreditation or certification amendments. No fee will be charged for accreditation or certification amendments.


(d) Failure to remit fees. (1) EPA will not provide certification, re-certification, accreditation, or re-accreditation for any firm or training program that does not remit fees described in paragraph (b) of this section in accordance with the procedures specified in 40 CFR 745.89.


(2) EPA will not replace a certificate for any firm that does not remit the $15 fee in accordance with the procedures specified in paragraph (c) of this section.


[74 FR 11869, Mar. 20, 2009, as amended at 76 FR 47939, Aug. 5, 2011]


Subpart F – Disclosure of Known Lead-Based Paint and/or Lead-Based Paint Hazards Upon Sale or Lease of Residential Property

§ 745.100 Purpose.

This subpart implements the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 4852d, which impose certain requirements on the sale or lease of target housing. Under this subpart, a seller or lessor of target housing shall disclose to the purchaser or lessee the presence of any known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards; provide available records and reports; provide the purchaser or lessee with a lead hazard information pamphlet; give purchasers a 10-day opportunity to conduct a risk assessment or inspection; and attach specific disclosure and warning language to the sales or leasing contract before the purchaser or lessee is obligated under a contract to purchase or lease target housing.


§ 745.101 Scope and applicability.

This subpart applies to all transactions to sell or lease target housing, including subleases, with the exception of the following:


(a) Sales of target housing at foreclosure.


(b) Leases of target housing that have been found to be lead-based paint free by an inspector certified under the Federal certification program or under a federally accredited State or tribal certification program. Until a Federal certification program or federally accredited State certification program is in place within the State, inspectors shall be considered qualified to conduct an inspection for this purpose if they have received certification under any existing State or tribal inspector certification program. The lessor has the option of using the results of additional test(s) by a certified inspector to confirm or refute a prior finding.


(c) Short-term leases of 100 days or less, where no lease renewal or extension can occur.


(d) Renewals of existing leases in target housing in which the lessor has previously disclosed all information required under § 745.107 and where no new information described in § 745.107 has come into the possession of the lessor. For the purposes of this paragraph, renewal shall include both renegotiation of existing lease terms and/or ratification of a new lease.


§ 745.102 Effective dates.

The requirements in this subpart take effect in the following manner:


(a) For owners of more than four residential dwellings, the requirements shall take effect on September 6, 1996.


(b) For owners of one to four residential dwellings, the requirements shall take effect on December 6, 1996.


§ 745.103 Definitions.

The following definitions apply to this subpart.


The Act means the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992, 42 U.S.C. 4852d.


Agent means any party who enters into a contract with a seller or lessor, including any party who enters into a contract with a representative of the seller or lessor, for the purpose of selling or leasing target housing. This term does not apply to purchasers or any purchaser’s representative who receives all compensation from the purchaser.


Available means in the possession of or reasonably obtainable by the seller or lessor at the time of the disclosure.


Common area means a portion of a building generally accessible to all residents/users including, but not limited to, hallways, stairways, laundry and recreational rooms, playgrounds, community centers, and boundary fences.


Contract for the purchase and sale of residential real property means any contract or agreement in which one party agrees to purchase an interest in real property on which there is situated one or more residential dwellings used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, in whole or in part, as the home or residence of one or more persons.


EPA means the Environmental Protection Agency.


Evaluation means a risk assessment and/or inspection.


Foreclosure means any of the various methods, statutory or otherwise, known in different jurisdictions, of enforcing payment of a debt, by the taking and selling of real property.


Housing for the elderly means retirement communities or similar types of housing reserved for households composed of one or more persons 62 years of age or more at the time of initial occupancy.


HUD means the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.


Inspection means:


(1) A surface-by-surface investigation to determine the presence of lead-based paint as provided in section 302(c) of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning and Prevention Act [42 U.S.C. 4822], and


(2) The provision of a report explaining the results of the investigation.


Lead-based paint means paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligram per square centimeter or 0.5 percent by weight.


Lead-based paint free housing means target housing that has been found to be free of paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligram per square centimeter or 0.5 percent by weight.


Lead-based paint hazard means any condition that causes exposure to lead from lead-contaminated dust, lead-contaminated soil, or lead-contaminated paint that is deteriorated or present in accessible surfaces, friction surfaces, or impact surfaces that would result in adverse human health effects as established by the appropriate Federal agency.


Lessee means any entity that enters into an agreement to lease, rent, or sublease target housing, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations.


Lessor means any entity that offers target housing for lease, rent, or sublease, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations.


Owner means any entity that has legal title to target housing, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations, except where a mortgagee holds legal title to property serving as collateral for a mortgage loan, in which case the owner would be the mortgagor.


Purchaser means an entity that enters into an agreement to purchase an interest in target housing, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations.


Reduction means measures designed to reduce or eliminate human exposure to lead-based paint hazards through methods including interim controls and abatement.


Residential dwelling means:


(1) A single-family dwelling, including attached structures such as porches and stoops; or


(2) A single-family dwelling unit in a structure that contains more than one separate residential dwelling unit, and in which each such unit is used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, in whole or in part, as the residence of one or more persons.


Risk assessment means an on-site investigation to determine and report the existence, nature, severity, and location of lead-based paint hazards in residential dwellings, including:


(1) Information gathering regarding the age and history of the housing and occupancy by children under age 6;


(2) Visual inspection;


(3) Limited wipe sampling or other environmental sampling techniques;


(4) Other activity as may be appropriate; and


(5) Provision of a report explaining the results of the investigation.


Secretary means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.


Seller means any entity that transfers legal title to target housing, in whole or in part, in return for consideration, including but not limited to individuals, partnerships, corporations, trusts, government agencies, housing agencies, Indian tribes, and nonprofit organizations. The term “seller” also includes:


(1) An entity that transfers shares in a cooperatively owned project, in return for consideration; and


(2) An entity that transfers its interest in a leasehold, in jurisdictions or circumstances where it is legally permissible to separate the fee title from the title to the improvement, in return for consideration.


Target housing means any housing constructed prior to 1978, except housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities (unless any child who is less than 6 years of age resides or is expected to reside in such housing) or any 0-bedroom dwelling.


TSCA means the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601.


0-bedroom dwelling means any residential dwelling in which the living area is not separated from the sleeping area. The term includes efficiencies, studio apartments, dormitory housing, military barracks, and rentals of individual rooms in residential dwellings.


§ 745.107 Disclosure requirements for sellers and lessors.

(a) The following activities shall be completed before the purchaser or lessee is obligated under any contract to purchase or lease target housing that is not otherwise an exempt transaction pursuant to § 745.101. Nothing in this section implies a positive obligation on the seller or lessor to conduct any evaluation or reduction activities.


(1) The seller or lessor shall provide the purchaser or lessee with an EPA-approved lead hazard information pamphlet. Such pamphlets include the EPA document entitled Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home (EPA #747-K-94-001) or an equivalent pamphlet that has been approved for use in that State by EPA.


(2) The seller or lessor shall disclose to the purchaser or lessee the presence of any known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or leased. The seller or lessor shall also disclose any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.


(3) The seller or lessor shall disclose to each agent the presence of any known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or leased and the existence of any available records or reports pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards. The seller or lessor shall also disclose any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.


(4) The seller or lessor shall provide the purchaser or lessee with any records or reports available to the seller or lessor pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or leased. This requirement includes records or reports regarding common areas. This requirement also includes records or reports regarding other residential dwellings in multifamily target housing, provided that such information is part of an evaluation or reduction of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing as a whole.


(b) If any of the disclosure activities identified in paragraph (a) of this section occurs after the purchaser or lessee has provided an offer to purchase or lease the housing, the seller or lessor shall complete the required disclosure activities prior to accepting the purchaser’s or lessee’s offer and allow the purchaser or lessee an opportunity to review the information and possibly amend the offer.


§ 745.110 Opportunity to conduct an evaluation.

(a) Before a purchaser is obligated under any contract to purchase target housing, the seller shall permit the purchaser a 10-day period (unless the parties mutually agree, in writing, upon a different period of time) to conduct a risk assessment or inspection for the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards.


(b) Not withstanding paragraph (a) of this section, a purchaser may waive the opportunity to conduct the risk assessment or inspection by so indicating in writing.


§ 745.113 Certification and acknowledgment of disclosure.

(a) Seller requirements. Each contract to sell target housing shall include an attachment containing the following elements, in the language of the contract (e.g., English, Spanish):


(1) A Lead Warning Statement consisting of the following language:



Every purchaser of any interest in residential real property on which a residential dwelling was built prior to 1978 is notified that such property may present exposure to lead from lead-based paint that may place young children at risk of developing lead poisoning. Lead poisoning in young children may produce permanent neurological damage, including learning disabilities, reduced intelligence quotient, behavioral problems, and impaired memory. Lead poisoning also poses a particular risk to pregnant women. The seller of any interest in residential real property is required to provide the buyer with any information on lead-based paint hazards from risk assessments or inspections in the seller’s possession and notify the buyer of any known lead-based paint hazards. A risk assessment or inspection for possible lead-based paint hazards is recommended prior to purchase.


(2) A statement by the seller disclosing the presence of known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being sold or indicating no knowledge of the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards. The seller shall also provide any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.


(3) A list of any records or reports available to the seller pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the housing that have been provided to the purchaser. If no such records or reports are available, the seller shall so indicate.


(4) A statement by the purchaser affirming receipt of the information set out in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this section and the lead hazard information pamphlet required under 15 U.S.C. 2696.


(5) A statement by the purchaser that he/she has either:


(i) Received the opportunity to conduct the risk assessment or inspection required by § 745.110(a); or


(ii) Waived the opportunity.


(6) When one or more agents are involved in the transaction to sell target housing on behalf of the seller, a statement that:


(i) The agent has informed the seller of the seller’s obligations under 42 U.S.C. 4852d; and


(ii) The agent is aware of his/her duty to ensure compliance with the requirements of this subpart.


(7) The signatures of the sellers, agents, and purchasers certifying to the accuracy of their statements to the best of their knowledge, along with the dates of signature.


(b) Lessor requirements. Each contract to lease target housing shall include, as an attachment or within the contract, the following elements, in the language of the contract (e.g., English, Spanish):


(1) A Lead Warning Statement with the following language:



Housing built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Lead from paint, paint chips, and dust can pose health hazards if not managed properly. Lead exposure is especially harmful to young children and pregnant women. Before renting pre-1978 housing, lessors must disclose the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the dwelling. Lessees must also receive a federally approved pamphlet on lead poisoning prevention.


(2) A statement by the lessor disclosing the presence of known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the target housing being leased or indicating no knowledge of the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards. The lessor shall also disclose any additional information available concerning the known lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, such as the basis for the determination that lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards exist, the location of the lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards, and the condition of the painted surfaces.


(3) A list of any records or reports available to the lessor pertaining to lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the housing that have been provided to the lessee. If no such records or reports are available, the lessor shall so indicate.


(4) A statement by the lessee affirming receipt of the information set out in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section and the lead hazard information pamphlet required under 15 U.S.C. 2696.


(5) When one or more agents are involved in the transaction to lease target housing on behalf of the lessor, a statement that:


(i) The agent has informed the lessor of the lessor as obligations under 42 U.S.C. 4852d; and


(ii) The agent is aware of his/her duty to ensure compliance with the requirements of this subpart.


(6) The signatures of the lessors, agents, and lessees, certifying to the accuracy of their statements, to the best of their knowledge, along with the dates of signature.


(c) Retention of Certification and Acknowledgment Information. (1) The seller, and any agent, shall retain a copy of the completed attachment required under paragraph (a) of this section for no less than 3 years from the completion date of the sale. The lessor, and any agent, shall retain a copy of the completed attachment or lease contract containing the information required under paragraph (b) of this section for no less than 3 years from the commencement of the leasing period.


(2) This recordkeeping requirement is not intended to place any limitations on civil suits under the Act, or to otherwise affect a lessee’s or purchaser’s rights under the civil penalty provisions of 42 U.S.C. 4852d(b)(3).


(d) The seller, lessor, or agent shall not be responsible for the failure of a purchaser’s or lessee’s legal representative (where such representative receives all compensation from the purchaser or lessee) to transmit disclosure materials to the purchaser or lessee, provided that all required parties have completed and signed the necessary certification and acknowledgment language required under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.


§ 745.115 Agent responsibilities.

(a) Each agent shall ensure compliance with all requirements of this subpart. To ensure compliance, the agent shall:


(1) Inform the seller or lessor of his/her obligations under §§ 745.107, 745.110, and 745.113.


(2) Ensure that the seller or lessor has performed all activities required under §§ 745.107, 745.110, and 745.113, or personally ensure compliance with the requirements of §§ 745.107, 745.110, and 745.113.


(b) If the agent has complied with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the agent shall not be liable for the failure to disclose to a purchaser or lessee the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards known by a seller or lessor but not disclosed to the agent.


§ 745.118 Enforcement.

(a) Any person who knowingly fails to comply with any provision of this subpart shall be subject to civil monetary penalties in accordance with the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 3545 and 24 CFR part 30.


(b) The Secretary is authorized to take such action as may be necessary to enjoin any violation of this subpart in the appropriate Federal district court.


(c) Any person who knowingly violates the provisions of this subpart shall be jointly and severally liable to the purchaser or lessee in an amount equal to 3 times the amount of damages incurred by such individual.


(d) In any civil action brought for damages pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 4852d(b)(3), the appropriate court may award court costs to the party commencing such action, together with reasonable attorney fees and any expert witness fees, if that party prevails.


(e) Failure or refusal to comply with § 745.107 (disclosure requirements for sellers and lessors), § 745.110 (opportunity to conduct an evaluation), § 745.113 (certification and acknowledgment of disclosure), or § 745.115 (agent responsibilities) is a violation of 42 U.S.C. 4852d(b)(5) and of TSCA section 409 (15 U.S.C. 2689).


(f) Violators may be subject to civil and criminal sanctions pursuant to TSCA section 16 (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation. For purposes of enforcing this subpart, the penalty for each violation applicable under 15 U.S.C. 2615 shall not be more than $11,000 for all violations occuring after July 28, 1997; all violations occuring on or prior to that date are subject to a penalty not more than $10,000.


[61 FR 9085, Mar. 6, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 35041, June 27, 1997]


§ 745.119 Impact on State and local requirements.

Nothing in this subpart shall relieve a seller, lessor, or agent from any responsibility for compliance with State or local laws, ordinances, codes, or regulations governing notice or disclosure of known lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards. Neither HUD nor EPA assumes any responsibility for ensuring compliance with such State or local requirements.


Subparts G-K [Reserved]

Subpart L – Lead-Based Paint Activities


Source:61 FR 45813, Aug. 29, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

§ 745.220 Scope and applicability.

(a) This subpart contains procedures and requirements for the accreditation of training programs for lead-based paint activities and renovations, procedures and requirements for the certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities, and work practice standards for performing such activities. This subpart also requires that, except as discussed below, all lead-based paint activities, as defined in this subpart, be performed by certified individuals and firms.


(b) This subpart applies to all individuals and firms who are engaged in lead-based paint activities as defined in § 745.223, except persons who perform these activities within residential dwellings that they own, unless the residential dwelling is occupied by a person or persons other than the owner or the owner’s immediate family while these activities are being performed, or a child residing in the building has been identified as having an elevated blood lead level. This subpart applies only in those States or Indian Country that do not have an authorized State or Tribal program pursuant to § 745.324 of subpart Q.


(c) Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government having jurisdiction over any property or facility, or engaged in any activity resulting, or which may result, in a lead-based paint hazard, and each officer, agent, or employee thereof shall be subject to, and comply with, all Federal, State, interstate, and local requirements, both substantive and procedural, including the requirements of this subpart regarding lead-based paint, lead-based paint activities, and lead-based paint hazards.


(d) While this subpart establishes specific requirements for performing lead-based paint activities should they be undertaken, nothing in this subpart requires that the owner or occupant undertake any particular lead-based paint activity.


[61 FR 45813, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 73 FR 21766, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.223 Definitions.

The definitions in subpart A apply to this subpart. In addition, the following definitions apply.


Abatement means any measure or set of measures designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards. Abatement includes, but is not limited to:


(1) The removal of paint and dust, the permanent enclosure or encapsulation of lead-based paint, the replacement of painted surfaces or fixtures, or the removal or permanent covering of soil, when lead-based paint hazards are present in such paint, dust or soil; and


(2) All preparation, cleanup, disposal, and post-abatement clearance testing activities associated with such measures.


(3) Specifically, abatement includes, but is not limited to:


(i) Projects for which there is a written contract or other documentation, which provides that an individual or firm will be conducting activities in or to a residential dwelling or child-occupied facility that:


(A) Shall result in the permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards; or


(B) Are designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards and are described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition.


(ii) Projects resulting in the permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards, conducted by firms or individuals certified in accordance with § 745.226, unless such projects are covered by paragraph (4) of this definition;


(iii) Projects resulting in the permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards, conducted by firms or individuals who, through their company name or promotional literature, represent, advertise, or hold themselves out to be in the business of performing lead-based paint activities as identified and defined by this section, unless such projects are covered by paragraph (4) of this definition; or


(iv) Projects resulting in the permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards, that are conducted in response to State or local abatement orders.


(4) Abatement does not include renovation, remodeling, landscaping or other activities, when such activities are not designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards, but, instead, are designed to repair, restore, or remodel a given structure or dwelling, even though these activities may incidentally result in a reduction or elimination of lead-based paint hazards. Furthermore, abatement does not include interim controls, operations and maintenance activities, or other measures and activities designed to temporarily, but not permanently, reduce lead-based paint hazards.


Accredited training program means a training program that has been accredited by EPA pursuant to § 745.225 to provide training for individuals engaged in lead-based paint activities.


Adequate quality control means a plan or design which ensures the authenticity, integrity, and accuracy of samples, including dust, soil, and paint chip or paint film samples. Adequate quality control also includes provisions for representative sampling.


Business day means Monday through Friday with the exception of Federal holidays.


Certified firm means a company, partnership, corporation, sole proprietorship, association, or other business entity that performs lead-based paint activities to which EPA has issued a certificate of approval pursuant to § 745.226(f).


Certified inspector means an individual who has been trained by an accredited training program, as defined by this section, and certified by EPA pursuant to § 745.226 to conduct inspections. A certified inspector also samples for the presence of lead in dust and soil for the purposes of abatement clearance testing.


Certified abatement worker means an individual who has been trained by an accredited training program, as defined by this section, and certified by EPA pursuant to § 745.226 to perform abatements.


Certified project designer means an individual who has been trained by an accredited training program, as defined by this section, and certified by EPA pursuant to § 745.226 to prepare abatement project designs, occupant protection plans, and abatement reports.


Certified risk assessor means an individual who has been trained by an accredited training program, as defined by this section, and certified by EPA pursuant to § 745.226 to conduct risk assessments. A risk assessor also samples for the presence of lead in dust and soil for the purposes of abatement clearance testing.


Certified supervisor means an individual who has been trained by an accredited training program, as defined by this section, and certified by EPA pursuant to § 745.226 to supervise and conduct abatements, and to prepare occupant protection plans and abatement reports.


Child-occupied facility means a building, or portion of a building, constructed prior to 1978, visited regularly by the same child, 6 years of age or under, on at least two different days within any week (Sunday through Saturday period), provided that each day’s visit lasts at least 3 hours and the combined weekly visit lasts at least 6 hours, and the combined annual visits last at least 60 hours. Child-occupied facilities may include, but are not limited to, day-care centers, preschools and kindergarten classrooms.


Clearance levels are values that indicate the amount of lead in dust on a surface following completion of an abatement activity. To achieve clearance when dust sampling is required, values below these levels must be achieved.


Common area means a portion of a building that is generally accessible to all occupants. Such an area may include, but is not limited to, hallways, stairways, laundry and recreational rooms, playgrounds, community centers, garages, and boundary fences.


Component or building component means specific design or structural elements or fixtures of a building, residential dwelling, or child-occupied facility that are distinguished from each other by form, function, and location. These include, but are not limited to, interior components such as: ceilings, crown molding, walls, chair rails, doors, door trim, floors, fireplaces, radiators and other heating units, shelves, shelf supports, stair treads, stair risers, stair stringers, newel posts, railing caps, balustrades, windows and trim (including sashes, window heads, jambs, sills or stools and troughs), built in cabinets, columns, beams, bathroom vanities, counter tops, and air conditioners; and exterior components such as: painted roofing, chimneys, flashing, gutters and downspouts, ceilings, soffits, fascias, rake boards, cornerboards, bulkheads, doors and door trim, fences, floors, joists, lattice work, railings and railing caps, siding, handrails, stair risers and treads, stair stringers, columns, balustrades, window sills or stools and troughs, casings, sashes and wells, and air conditioners.


Containment means a process to protect workers and the environment by controlling exposures to the lead-contaminated dust and debris created during an abatement.


Course agenda means an outline of the key topics to be covered during a training course, including the time allotted to teach each topic.


Course test means an evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the training which shall test the trainees’ knowledge and retention of the topics covered during the course.


Course test blue print means written documentation identifying the proportion of course test questions devoted to each major topic in the course curriculum.


Deteriorated paint means paint that is cracking, flaking, chipping, peeling, or otherwise separating from the substrate of a building component.


Discipline means one of the specific types or categories of lead-based paint activities identified in this subpart for which individuals may receive training from accredited programs and become certified by EPA. For example, “abatement worker” is a discipline.


Distinct painting history means the application history, as indicated by its visual appearance or a record of application, over time, of paint or other surface coatings to a component or room.


Documented methodologies are methods or protocols used to sample for the presence of lead in paint, dust, and soil.


Elevated blood lead level (EBL) means an excessive absorption of lead that is a confirmed concentration of lead in whole blood of 20 µg/dl (micrograms of lead per deciliter of whole blood) for a single venous test or of 15-19 µg/dl in two consecutive tests taken 3 to 4 months apart.


Encapsulant means a substance that forms a barrier between lead-based paint and the environment using a liquid-applied coating (with or without reinforcement materials) or an adhesively bonded covering material.


Encapsulation means the application of an encapsulant.


Enclosure means the use of rigid, durable construction materials that are mechanically fastened to the substrate in order to act as a barrier between lead-based paint and the environment.


Guest instructor means an individual designated by the training program manager or principal instructor to provide instruction specific to the lecture, hands-on activities, or work practice components of a course.


Hands-on skills assessment means an evaluation which tests the trainees’ ability to satisfactorily perform the work practices and procedures identified in § 745.225(d), as well as any other skill taught in a training course.


Hazardous waste means any waste as defined in 40 CFR 261.3.


Inspection means a surface-by-surface investigation to determine the presence of lead-based paint and the provision of a report explaining the results of the investigation.


Interim certification means the status of an individual who has successfully completed the appropriate training course in a discipline from an accredited training program, as defined by this section, but has not yet received formal certification in that discipline from EPA pursuant to § 745.226. Interim certifications expire 6 months after the completion of the training course, and is equivalent to a certificate for the 6-month period.


Interim controls means a set of measures designed to temporarily reduce human exposure or likely exposure to lead-based paint hazards, including specialized cleaning, repairs, maintenance, painting, temporary containment, ongoing monitoring of lead-based paint hazards or potential hazards, and the establishment and operation of management and resident education programs.


Lead-based paint means paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams per square centimeter or more than 0.5 percent by weight.


Lead-based paint activities means, in the case of target housing and child-occupied facilities, inspection, risk assessment, and abatement, as defined in this subpart.


Lead-based paint activities courses means initial and refresher training courses (worker, supervisor, inspector, risk assessor, project designer) provided by accredited training programs.


Lead-based paint hazard means any condition that causes exposure to lead from lead-contaminated dust, lead-contaminated soil, or lead-contaminated paint that is deteriorated or present in accessible surfaces, friction surfaces, or impact surfaces that would result in adverse human health effects as identified by the Administrator pursuant to TSCA section 403.


Lead-hazard screen is a limited risk assessment activity that involves limited paint and dust sampling as described in § 745.227(c).


Living area means any area of a residential dwelling used by one or more children age 6 and under, including, but not limited to, living rooms, kitchen areas, dens, play rooms, and children’s bedrooms.


Local government means a county, city, town, borough, parish, district, association, or other public body (including an agency comprised of two or more of the foregoing entities) created under State law.


Multi-family dwelling means a structure that contains more than one separate residential dwelling unit, which is used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, in whole or in part, as the home or residence of one or more persons.


Nonprofit means an entity which has demonstrated to any branch of the Federal Government or to a State, municipal, tribal or territorial government, that no part of its net earnings inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.


Paint in poor condition means more than 10 square feet of deteriorated paint on exterior components with large surface areas; or more than 2 square feet of deteriorated paint on interior components with large surface areas (e.g., walls, ceilings, floors, doors); or more than 10 percent of the total surface area of the component is deteriorated on interior or exterior components with small surface areas (window sills, baseboards, soffits, trim).


Permanently covered soil means soil which has been separated from human contact by the placement of a barrier consisting of solid, relatively impermeable materials, such as pavement or concrete. Grass, mulch, and other landscaping materials are not considered permanent covering.


Person means any natural or judicial person including any individual, corporation, partnership, or association; any Indian Tribe, State, or political subdivision thereof; any interstate body; and any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government.


Principal instructor means the individual who has the primary responsibility for organizing and teaching a particular course.


Recognized laboratory means an environmental laboratory recognized by EPA pursuant to TSCA section 405(b) as being capable of performing an analysis for lead compounds in paint, soil, and dust.


Reduction means measures designed to reduce or eliminate human exposure to lead-based paint hazards through methods including interim controls and abatement.


Residential dwelling means (1) a detached single family dwelling unit, including attached structures such as porches and stoops; or (2) a single family dwelling unit in a structure that contains more than one separate residential dwelling unit, which is used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, in whole or in part, as the home or residence of one or more persons.


Risk assessment means (1) an on-site investigation to determine the existence, nature, severity, and location of lead-based paint hazards, and (2) the provision of a report by the individual or the firm conducting the risk assessment, explaining the results of the investigation and options for reducing lead-based paint hazards.


Start date means the first day of any lead-based paint activities training course or lead-based paint abatement activity.


Start date provided to EPA means the start date included in the original notification or the most recent start date provided to EPA in an updated notification.


State means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States.


Target housing means any housing constructed prior to 1978, except housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities (unless any one or more children age 6 years or under resides or is expected to reside in such housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities) or any 0-bedroom dwelling.


Training curriculum means an established set of course topics for instruction in an accredited training program for a particular discipline designed to provide specialized knowledge and skills.


Training hour means at least 50 minutes of actual learning, including, but not limited to, time devoted to lecture, learning activities, small group activities, demonstrations, evaluations, and/or hands-on experience.


Training manager means the individual responsible for administering a training program and monitoring the performance of principal instructors and guest instructors.


Training provider means any organization or entity accredited under § 745.225 to offer lead-based paint activities courses.


Visual inspection for clearance testing means the visual examination of a residential dwelling or a child-occupied facility following an abatement to determine whether or not the abatement has been successfully completed.


Visual inspection for risk assessment means the visual examination of a residential dwelling or a child-occupied facility to determine the existence of deteriorated lead-based paint or other potential sources of lead-based paint hazards.


[61 FR 45813, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 31097, June 9, 1999; 66 FR 1239, Jan. 5, 2001; 69 FR 18495, Apr. 8, 2004; 86 FR 994, Jan. 7, 2021]


§ 745.225 Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child occupied facilities.

(a) Scope. (1) A training program may seek accreditation to offer courses in any of the following disciplines: Inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, project designer, abatement worker, renovator, and dust sampling technician. A training program may also seek accreditation to offer refresher courses for each of the above listed disciplines.


(2) Training programs may first apply to EPA for accreditation of their lead-based paint activities courses or refresher courses pursuant to this section on or after August 31, 1998. Training programs may first apply to EPA for accreditation of their renovator or dust sampling technician courses or refresher courses pursuant to this section on or after April 22, 2009.


(3) A training program must not provide, offer, or claim to provide EPA- accredited lead-based paint activities courses without applying for and receiving accreditation from EPA as required under paragraph (b) of this section on or after March 1, 1999. A training program must not provide, offer, or claim to provide EPA-accredited renovator or dust sampling technician courses without applying for and receiving accreditation from EPA as required under paragraph (b) of this section on or after June 23, 2008.


(4) Accredited training programs, training program managers, and principal instructors must comply with all of the requirements of this section including approved terms of the application and all of the requirements and limitations specified in any accreditation documents issued to training programs.


(b) Application process. The following are procedures a training program must follow to receive EPA accreditation to offer lead-based paint activities courses, renovator courses, or dust sampling technician courses:


(1) A training program seeking accreditation shall submit a written application to EPA containing the following information:


(i) The training program’s name, address, and telephone number.


(ii) A list of courses for which it is applying for accreditation. For the purposes of this section, courses taught in different languages and electronic learning courses are considered different courses, and each must independently meet the accreditation requirements.


(iii) The name and documentation of the qualifications of the training program manager.


(iv) The name(s) and documentation of qualifications of any principal instructor(s).


(v) A statement signed by the training program manager certifying that the training program meets the requirements established in paragraph (c) of this section. If a training program uses EPA-recommended model training materials, or training materials approved by a State or Indian Tribe that has been authorized by EPA under subpart Q of this part, the training program manager shall include a statement certifying that, as well.


(vi) If a training program does not use EPA-recommended model training materials, its application for accreditation shall also include:


(A) A copy of the student and instructor manuals, or other materials to be used for each course.


(B) A copy of the course agenda for each course.


(C) When applying for accreditation of a course in a language other than English, a signed statement from a qualified, independent translator that they had compared the course to the English language version and found the translation to be accurate.


(vii) All training programs shall include in their application for accreditation the following:


(A) A description of the facilities and equipment to be used for lecture and hands-on training.


(B) A copy of the course test blueprint for each course.


(C) A description of the activities and procedures that will be used for conducting the assessment of hands-on skills for each course.


(D) A copy of the quality control plan as described in paragraph (c)(9) of this section.


(2) If a training program meets the requirements in paragraph (c) of this section, then EPA shall approve the application for accreditation no more than 180 days after receiving a complete application from the training program. In the case of approval, a certificate of accreditation shall be sent to the applicant. In the case of disapproval, a letter describing the reasons for disapproval shall be sent to the applicant. Prior to disapproval, EPA may, at its discretion, work with the applicant to address inadequacies in the application for accreditation. EPA may also request additional materials retained by the training program under paragraph (i) of this section. If a training program’s application is disapproved, the program may reapply for accreditation at any time.


(3) A training program may apply for accreditation to offer courses or refresher courses in as many disciplines as it chooses. A training program may seek accreditation for additional courses at any time as long as the program can demonstrate that it meets the requirements of this section.


(4) A training program applying for accreditation must submit the appropriate fees in accordance with § 745.238.


(c) Requirements for the accreditation of training programs. A training program accredited by EPA to offer lead-based paint activities courses, renovator courses, or dust sampling technician courses must meet the following requirements:


(1) The training program shall employ a training manager who has:


(i) At least 2 years of experience, education, or training in teaching workers or adults; or


(ii) A bachelor’s or graduate degree in building construction technology, engineering, industrial hygiene, safety, public health, education, business administration or program management or a related field; or


(iii) Two years of experience in managing a training program specializing in environmental hazards; and


(iv) Demonstrated experience, education, or training in the construction industry including: Lead or asbestos abatement, painting, carpentry, renovation, remodeling, occupational safety and health, or industrial hygiene.


(2) The training manager shall designate a qualified principal instructor for each course who has:


(i) Demonstrated experience, education, or training in teaching workers or adults; and


(ii) Successfully completed at least 16 hours of any EPA-accredited or EPA-authorized State or Tribal-accredited lead-specific training for instructors of lead-based paint activities courses or 8 hours of any EPA-accredited or EPA-authorized State or Tribal-accredited lead-specific training for instructors of renovator or dust sampling technician courses; and


(iii) Demonstrated experience, education, or training in lead or asbestos abatement, painting, carpentry, renovation, remodeling, occupational safety and health, or industrial hygiene.


(3) The principal instructor shall be responsible for the organization of the course, course delivery, and oversight of the teaching of all course material. The training manager may designate guest instructors as needed for a portion of the course to provide instruction specific to the lecture, hands-on activities, or work practice components of a course. However, the principal instructor is primarily responsible for teaching the course materials and must be present to provide instruction (or oversight of portions of the course taught by guest instructors) for the course for which he has been designated the principal instructor.


(4) The following documents shall be recognized by EPA as evidence that training managers and principal instructors have the education, work experience, training requirements or demonstrated experience, specifically listed in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section. This documentation must be submitted with the accreditation application and retained by the training program as required by the recordkeeping requirements contained in paragraph (i) of this section. Those documents include the following:


(i) Official academic transcripts or diploma as evidence of meeting the education requirements.


(ii) Resumes, letters of reference, or documentation of work experience, as evidence of meeting the work experience requirements.


(iii) Certificates from train-the-trainer courses and lead-specific training courses, as evidence of meeting the training requirements.


(5) The training program shall ensure the availability of, and provide adequate facilities for, the delivery of the lecture, course test, hands-on training, and assessment activities. This includes providing training equipment that reflects current work practices and maintaining or updating the equipment and facilities as needed.


(6) To become accredited in the following disciplines, the training program shall provide training courses that meet the following training requirements:


(i) The inspector course shall last a minimum of 24 training hours, with a minimum of 8 hours devoted to hands-on training activities. The minimum curriculum requirements for the inspector course are contained in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.


(ii) The risk assessor course shall last a minimum of 16 training hours, with a minimum of 4 hours devoted to hands-on training activities. The minimum curriculum requirements for the risk assessor course are contained in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.


(iii) The supervisor course shall last a minimum of 32 training hours, with a minimum of 8 hours devoted to hands-on activities. The minimum curriculum requirements for the supervisor course are contained in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.


(iv) The project designer course shall last a minimum of 8 training hours. The minimum curriculum requirements for the project designer course are contained in paragraph (d)(4) of this section.


(v) The abatement worker course shall last a minimum of 16 training hours, with a minimum of 8 hours devoted to hands-on training activities. The minimum curriculum requirements for the abatement worker course are contained in paragraph (d)(5) of this section.


(vi) The renovator course must last a minimum of 8 training hours, with a minimum of 2 hours devoted to hands-on training activities. The minimum curriculum requirements for the renovator course are contained in paragraph (d)(6) of this section.


(vii) The dust sampling technician course must last a minimum of 8 training hours, with a minimum of 2 hours devoted to hands-on training activities. The minimum curriculum requirements for the dust sampling technician course are contained in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.


(viii) Electronic learning and other alternative course delivery methods are permitted for the classroom portion of renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses but not the hands-on portion of these courses, or for final course tests or proficiency tests described in paragraph (c)(7) of this section. Electronic learning courses must comply with the following requirements:


(A) A unique identifier must be assigned to each student for them to use to launch and re-launch the course.


(B) The training provider must track each student’s course log-ins, launches, progress, and completion, and maintain these records in accordance with paragraph (i) of this section.


(C) The course must include periodic knowledge checks equivalent to the number and content of the knowledge checks contained in EPA’s model course, but at least 16 over the entire course. The knowledge checks must be successfully completed before the student can go on to the next module.


(D) There must be a test of at least 20 questions at the end of the electronic learning portion of the course, of which 80% must be answered correctly by the student for successful completion of the electronic learning portion of the course. The test must be designed so that students to do not receive feedback on their test answers until after they have completed and submitted the test.


(E) Each student must be able to save or print a copy of an electronic learning course completion certificate. The electronic certificate must not be susceptible to easy editing.


(7) For each course offered, the training program shall conduct either a course test at the completion of the course, and if applicable, a hands-on skills assessment, or in the alternative, a proficiency test for that discipline. Each student must successfully complete the hands-on skills assessment and receive a passing score on the course test to pass any course, or successfully complete a proficiency test.


(i) The training manager is responsible for maintaining the validity and integrity of the hands-on skills assessment or proficiency test to ensure that it accurately evaluates the trainees’ performance of the work practices and procedures associated with the course topics contained in paragraph (d) of this section.


(ii) The training manager is responsible for maintaining the validity and integrity of the course test to ensure that it accurately evaluates the trainees’ knowledge and retention of the course topics.


(iii) The course test shall be developed in accordance with the test blueprint submitted with the training accreditation application.


(8) The training program shall issue unique course completion certificates to each individual who passes the training course. The course completion certificate shall include:


(i) The name, a unique identification number, and address of the individual.


(ii) The name of the particular course that the individual completed.


(iii) Dates of course completion/test passage.


(iv) For initial inspector, risk assessor, project designer, supervisor, or abatement worker course completion certificates, the expiration date of interim certification, which is 6 months from the date of course completion.


(v) The name, address, and telephone number of the training program.


(vi) The language in which the course was taught.


(vii) For renovator and dust sampling technician course completion certificates, a photograph of the individual. The photograph must be an accurate and recognizable image of the individual. As reproduced on the certificate, the photograph must not be smaller than 1 square inch.


(viii) For renovator course completion certificates, the expiration date of certification.


(9) The training manager shall develop and implement a quality control plan. The plan shall be used to maintain and improve the quality of the training program over time. This plan shall contain at least the following elements:


(i) Procedures for periodic revision of training materials and the course test to reflect innovations in the field.


(ii) Procedures for the training manager’s annual review of principal instructor competency.


(10) Courses offered by the training program must teach the work practice standards contained in § 745.85 or § 745.227, as applicable, in such a manner that trainees are provided with the knowledge needed to perform the renovations or lead-based paint activities they will be responsible for conducting.


(11) The training manager shall be responsible for ensuring that the training program complies at all times with all of the requirements in this section.


(12) The training manager shall allow EPA to audit the training program to verify the contents of the application for accreditation as described in paragraph (b) of this section.


(13) The training manager must provide notification of renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses offered.


(i) The training manager must provide EPA with notification of all renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses offered except for any renovator course without hands-on training delivered via electronic learning. The original notification must be received by EPA at least 7 business days prior to the start date of any renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities course.


(ii) The training manager must provide EPA updated notification when renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses will begin on a date other than the start date specified in the original notification, as follows:


(A) For renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses beginning prior to the start date provided to EPA, an updated notification must be received by EPA at least 7 business days before the new start date.


(B) For renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses beginning after the start date provided to EPA, an updated notification must be received by EPA at least 2 business days before the start date provided to EPA.


(iii) The training manager must update EPA of any change in location of renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses at least 7 business days prior to the start date provided to EPA.


(iv) The training manager must update EPA regarding any course cancellations, or any other change to the original notification. Updated notifications must be received by EPA at least 2 business days prior to the start date provided to EPA.


(v) Each notification, including updates, must include the following:


(A) Notification type (original, update, cancellation).


(B) Training program name, EPA accreditation number, address, and telephone number.


(C) Course discipline, type (initial/refresher), and the language in which instruction will be given.


(D) Date(s) and time(s) of training.


(E) Training location(s) telephone number, and address.


(F) Principal instructor’s name.


(G) Training manager’s name and signature.


(vi) Notification must be accomplished using any of the following methods: Written notification, or electronically using the Agency’s Central Data Exchange (CDX). Written notification of lead-based paint activities course schedules can be accomplished by using either the sample form titled “Lead-Based Paint Training Notification” or a similar form containing the information required in paragraph (c)(13)(v) of this section. All written notifications must be delivered to EPA by U.S. Postal Service, fax, commercial delivery service, or hand delivery (persons submitting notification by U.S. Postal Service are reminded that they should allow 3 additional business days for delivery in order to ensure that EPA receives the notification by the required date). Instructions and sample forms can be obtained from the NLIC at 1-800-424-LEAD(5323), or on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/lead. Hearing- or speech-impaired persons may reach the above telephone number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at 1-800-877-8339.


(vii) Renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses must not begin on a date, or at a location other than that specified in the original notification unless an updated notification identifying a new start date or location is submitted, in which case the course must begin on the new start date and/or location specified in the updated notification.


(viii) No training program shall provide renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses without first notifying EPA of such activities in accordance with the requirements of this paragraph.


(14) The training manager must provide notification following completion of renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities courses.


(i) The training manager must provide EPA notification after the completion of any renovator, dust sampling, or lead-based paint activities course. This notification must be received by EPA no later than 10 business days following course completion. Notifications for any e-learning renovator refresher course that does not include hands-on training must be submitted via the Central Data Exchange no later than the 10th day of the month and include all students trained in the previous month.


(ii) The notification must include the following:


(A) Training program name, EPA accreditation number, address, and telephone number.


(B) Course discipline and type (initial/refresher).


(C) Date(s) of training.


(D) The following information for each student who took the course:


(1) Name.


(2) Address.


(3) Date of birth.


(4) Course completion certificate number.


(5) Course test score.


(6) For renovator or dust sampling technician courses, a digital photograph of the student.


(7) For renovator refresher courses, the expiration date of certification.


(E) Training manager’s name and signature.


(iii) Notification must be accomplished using any of the following methods: Written notification, or electronically using the Agency’s Central Data Exchange (CDX). Written notification following renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities training courses can be accomplished by using either the sample form titled “Lead-Based Paint Training Course Follow-up” or a similar form containing the information required in paragraph (c)(14)(ii) of this section. All written notifications must be delivered to EPA by U.S. Postal Service, fax, commercial delivery service, or hand delivery (persons submitting notification by U.S. Postal Service are reminded that they should allow 3 additional business days for delivery in order to ensure that EPA receives the notification by the required date). Instructions and sample forms can be obtained from the NLIC at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323), or on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/lead.


(d) Minimum training curriculum requirements. A training program accredited by EPA to offer lead-based paint courses in the specific disciplines listed in this paragraph (d) must ensure that its courses of study include, at a minimum, the following course topics.


(1) Inspector. Instruction in the topics described in paragraphs (d)(1)(iv), (v), (vi), and (vii) of this section must be included in the hands-on portion of the course.


(i) Role and responsibilities of an inspector.


(ii) Background information on lead and its adverse health effects.


(iii) Background information on Federal, State, and local regulations and guidance that pertains to lead-based paint and lead- based paint activities.


(iv) Lead-based paint inspection methods, including selection of rooms and components for sampling or testing.


(v) Paint, dust, and soil sampling methodologies.


(vi) Clearance standards and testing, including random sampling.


(vii) Preparation of the final inspection report.


(viii) Recordkeeping.


(2) Risk assessor. Instruction in the topics described in paragraphs (d)(2)(iv), (vi), and (vii) of this section must be included in the hands-on portion of the course.


(i) Role and responsibilities of a risk assessor.


(ii) Collection of background information to perform a risk assessment.


(iii) Sources of environmental lead contamination such as paint, surface dust and soil, water, air, packaging, and food.


(iv) Visual inspection for the purposes of identifying potential sources of lead-based paint hazards.


(v) Lead hazard screen protocol.


(vi) Sampling for other sources of lead exposure.


(vii) Interpretation of lead-based paint and other lead sampling results, including all applicable Federal or State guidance or regulations pertaining to lead-based paint hazards.


(viii) Development of hazard control options, the role of interim controls, and operations and maintenance activities to reduce lead-based paint hazards.


(ix) Preparation of a final risk assessment report.


(3) Supervisor. Instruction in the topics described in paragraphs (d)(3)(v), (vii), (viii), (ix), and (x) of this section must be included in the hands-on portion of the course.


(i) Role and responsibilities of a supervisor.


(ii) Background information on lead and its adverse health effects.


(iii) Background information on Federal, State, and local regulations and guidance that pertain to lead-based paint abatement.


(iv) Liability and insurance issues relating to lead-based paint abatement.


(v) Risk assessment and inspection report interpretation.


(vi) Development and implementation of an occupant protection plan and abatement report.


(vii) Lead-based paint hazard recognition and control.


(viii) Lead-based paint abatement and lead-based paint hazard reduction methods, including restricted practices.


(ix) Interior dust abatement/cleanup or lead-based paint hazard control and reduction methods.


(x) Soil and exterior dust abatement or lead-based paint hazard control and reduction methods.


(xi) Clearance standards and testing.


(xii) Cleanup and waste disposal.


(xiii) Recordkeeping.


(4) Project designer. (i) Role and responsibilities of a project designer.


(ii) Development and implementation of an occupant protection plan for large-scale abatement projects.


(iii) Lead-based paint abatement and lead-based paint hazard reduction methods, including restricted practices for large-scale abatement projects.


(iv) Interior dust abatement/cleanup or lead hazard control and reduction methods for large-scale abatement projects.


(v) Clearance standards and testing for large scale abatement projects.


(vi) Integration of lead-based paint abatement methods with modernization and rehabilitation projects for large scale abatement projects.


(5) Abatement worker. Instruction in the topics described in paragraphs (d)(5)(iv), (v), (vi), and (vii) of this section must be included in the hands-on portion of the course.


(i) Role and responsibilities of an abatement worker.


(ii) Background information on lead and its adverse health effects.


(iii) Background information on Federal, State and local regulations and guidance that pertain to lead-based paint abatement.


(iv) Lead-based paint hazard recognition and control.


(v) Lead-based paint abatement and lead-based paint hazard reduction methods, including restricted practices.


(vi) Interior dust abatement methods/cleanup or lead-based paint hazard reduction.


(vii) Soil and exterior dust abatement methods or lead-based paint hazard reduction.


(6) Renovator. Instruction in the topics described in paragraphs (d)(6)(iv), (vi), (vii), and (viii) of this section must be included in the hands-on portion of the course.


(i) Role and responsibility of a renovator.


(ii) Background information on lead and its adverse health effects.


(iii) Background information on EPA, HUD, OSHA, and other Federal, State, and local regulations and guidance that pertains to lead-based paint and renovation activities.


(iv) Procedures for using acceptable test kits to determine whether paint is lead-based paint.


(v) Procedures for collecting a paint chip sample and sending it to a laboratory recognized by EPA under section 405(b) of TSCA.


(vi) Renovation methods to minimize the creation of dust and lead-based paint hazards.


(vii) Interior and exterior containment and cleanup methods.


(viii) Methods to ensure that the renovation has been properly completed, including cleaning verification and clearance testing.


(ix) Waste handling and disposal.


(x) Providing on-the-job training to other workers.


(xi) Record preparation.


(7) Dust sampling technician. Instruction in the topics described in paragraphs (d)(6)(iv) and (vi) of this section must be included in the hands-on portion of the course.


(i) Role and responsibility of a dust sampling technician.


(ii) Background information on lead and its adverse health effects.


(iii) Background information on Federal, State, and local regulations and guidance that pertains to lead-based paint and renovation activities.


(iv) Dust sampling methodologies.


(v) Clearance standards and testing.


(vi) Report preparation.


(e) Requirements for the accreditation of refresher training programs. A training program may seek accreditation to offer refresher training courses in any of the following disciplines: Inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, project designer, abatement worker, renovator, and dust sampling technician. A training program accredited by EPA to offer refresher training must meet the following minimum requirements:


(1) Each refresher course shall review the curriculum topics of the full-length courses listed under paragraph (d) of this section, as appropriate. In addition, to become accredited to offer refresher training courses, training programs shall ensure that their courses of study include, at a minimum, the following:


(i) An overview of current safety practices relating to lead-based paint in general, as well as specific information pertaining to the appropriate discipline.


(ii) Current laws and regulations relating to lead-based paint in general, as well as specific information pertaining to the appropriate discipline.


(iii) Current technologies relating to lead-based paint in general, as well as specific information pertaining to the appropriate discipline.


(2) Refresher courses for inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, and abatement worker must last a minimum of 8 training hours. Refresher courses for project designer, renovator, and dust sampling technician must last a minimum of 4 training hours. Refresher courses for all disciplines except renovator and project designer must include a hands-on component. Renovators must take a refresher course that includes hands-on training at least every other recertification.


(3) Except for renovator and project designer courses, for all other courses offered, the training program shall conduct a hands-on assessment. With the exception of project designer courses, the training program shall conduct a course test at the completion of the course. Renovators must take a refresher course that includes hands-on training at least every other recertification.


(4) A training program may apply for accreditation of a refresher course concurrently with its application for accreditation of the corresponding training course as described in paragraph (b) of this section. If so, EPA shall use the approval procedure described in paragraph (b) of this section. In addition, the minimum requirements contained in paragraphs (c)(1) through (5), (c)(6)(viii) and (c)(7) through (14), and (e)(1) through (3) of this section shall also apply.


(5) A training program seeking accreditation to offer refresher training courses only shall submit a written application to EPA containing the following information:


(i) The refresher training program’s name, address, and telephone number.


(ii) A list of courses for which it is applying for accreditation.


(iii) The name and documentation of the qualifications of the training program manager.


(iv) The name(s) and documentation of the qualifications of the principal instructor(s).


(v) A statement signed by the training program manager certifying that the refresher training program meets the minimum requirements established in paragraph (c) of this section, except for the requirements in paragraph (c)(6) of this section. If a training program uses EPA-developed model training materials, or training materials approved by a State or Indian Tribe that has been authorized by EPA under § 745.324 to develop its refresher training course materials, the training manager shall include a statement certifying that, as well.


(vi) If the refresher training course materials are not based on EPA-developed model training materials, the training program’s application for accreditation shall include:


(A) A copy of the student and instructor manuals to be used for each course.


(B) A copy of the course agenda for each course.


(vii) All refresher training programs shall include in their application for accreditation the following:


(A) A description of the facilities and equipment to be used for lecture and hands-on training.


(B) A copy of the course test blueprint for each course.


(C) A description of the activities and procedures that will be used for conducting the assessment of hands-on skills for each course (if applicable).


(D) A copy of the quality control plan as described in paragraph (c)(9) of this section.


(viii) The requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) through (5), (c)(6)(viii) and (c)(7) through (14) of this section apply to refresher training providers.


(ix) If a refresher training program meets the requirements listed in this paragraph, then EPA shall approve the application for accreditation no more than 180 days after receiving a complete application from the refresher training program. In the case of approval, a certificate of accreditation shall be sent to the applicant. In the case of disapproval, a letter describing the reasons for disapproval shall be sent to the applicant. Prior to disapproval, EPA may, at its discretion, work with the applicant to address inadequacies in the application for accreditation. EPA may also request additional materials retained by the refresher training program under paragraph (i) of this section. If a refresher training program’s application is disapproved, the program may reapply for accreditation at any time.


(f) Re-accreditation of training programs. (1) Unless re-accredited, a training program’s accreditation, including refresher training accreditation, shall expire 4 years after the date of issuance. If a training program meets the requirements of this section, the training program shall be reaccredited.


(2) A training program seeking re-accreditation shall submit an application to EPA no later than 180 days before its accreditation expires. If a training program does not submit its application for re-accreditation by that date, EPA cannot guarantee that the program will be re-accredited before the end of the accreditation period.


(3) The training program’s application for re-accreditation shall contain:


(i) The training program’s name, address, and telephone number.


(ii) A list of courses for which it is applying for re-accreditation.


(iii) The name and qualifications of the training program manager.


(iv) The name(s) and qualifications of the principal instructor(s).


(v) A description of any changes to the training facility, equipment or course materials since its last application was approved that adversely affects the students’ ability to learn.


(vi) A statement signed by the program manager stating:


(A) That the training program complies at all times with all requirements in paragraphs (c) and (e) of this section, as applicable; and


(B) The recordkeeping and reporting requirements of paragraph (i) of this section shall be followed.


(vii) A payment of appropriate fees in accordance with § 745.238.


(4) Upon request, the training program shall allow EPA to audit the training program to verify the contents of the application for re-accreditation as described in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.


(g) Suspension, revocation, and modification of accredited training programs. (1) EPA may, after notice and an opportunity for hearing, suspend, revoke, or modify training program accreditation, including refresher training accreditation, if a training program, training manager, or other person with supervisory authority over the training program has:


(i) Misrepresented the contents of a training course to EPA and/or the student population.


(ii) Failed to submit required information or notifications in a timely manner.


(iii) Failed to maintain required records.


(iv) Falsified accreditation records, instructor qualifications, or other accreditation-related information or documentation.


(v) Failed to comply with the training standards and requirements in this section.


(vi) Failed to comply with Federal, State, or local lead-based paint statutes or regulations.


(vii) Made false or misleading statements to EPA in its application for accreditation or re-accreditation which EPA relied upon in approving the application.


(2) In addition to an administrative or judicial finding of violation, execution of a consent agreement in settlement of an enforcement action constitutes, for purposes of this section, evidence of a failure to comply with relevant statutes or regulations.


(h) Procedures for suspension, revocation or modification of training program accreditation. (1) Prior to taking action to suspend, revoke, or modify the accreditation of a training program, EPA shall notify the affected entity in writing of the following:


(i) The legal and factual basis for the suspension, revocation, or modification.


(ii) The anticipated commencement date and duration of the suspension, revocation, or modification.


(iii) Actions, if any, which the affected entity may take to avoid suspension, revocation, or modification, or to receive accreditation in the future.


(iv) The opportunity and method for requesting a hearing prior to final EPA action to suspend, revoke or modify accreditation.


(v) Any additional information, as appropriate, which EPA may provide.


(2) If a hearing is requested by the accredited training program, EPA shall:


(i) Provide the affected entity an opportunity to offer written statements in response to EPA’s assertions of the legal and factual basis for its proposed action, and any other explanations, comments, and arguments it deems relevant to the proposed action.


(ii) Provide the affected entity such other procedural opportunities as EPA may deem appropriate to ensure a fair and impartial hearing.


(iii) Appoint an official of EPA as Presiding Officer to conduct the hearing. No person shall serve as Presiding Officer if he or she has had any prior connection with the specific matter.


(3) The Presiding Officer appointed pursuant to paragraph (h)(2) of this section shall:


(i) Conduct a fair, orderly, and impartial hearing within 90 days of the request for a hearing.


(ii) Consider all relevant evidence, explanation, comment, and argument submitted.


(iii) Notify the affected entity in writing within 90 days of completion of the hearing of his or her decision and order. Such an order is a final agency action which may be subject to judicial review.


(4) If EPA determines that the public health, interest, or welfare warrants immediate action to suspend the accreditation of any training program prior to the opportunity for a hearing, it shall:


(i) Notify the affected entity of its intent to immediately suspend training program accreditation for the reasons listed in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. If a suspension, revocation, or modification notice has not previously been issued pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section, it shall be issued at the same time the emergency suspension notice is issued.


(ii) Notify the affected entity in writing of the grounds for the immediate suspension and why it is necessary to suspend the entity’s accreditation before an opportunity for a suspension, revocation or modification hearing.


(iii) Notify the affected entity of the anticipated commencement date and duration of the immediate suspension.


(iv) Notify the affected entity of its right to request a hearing on the immediate suspension within 15 days of the suspension taking place and the procedures for the conduct of such a hearing.


(5) Any notice, decision, or order issued by EPA under this section, any transcripts or other verbatim record of oral testimony, and any documents filed by an accredited training program in a hearing under this section shall be available to the public, except as otherwise provided by section 14 of TSCA or by 40 CFR part 2. Any such hearing at which oral testimony is presented shall be open to the public, except that the Presiding Officer may exclude the public to the extent necessary to allow presentation of information which may be entitled to confidential treatment under section 14 of TSCA or 40 CFR part 2.


(6) The public shall be notified of the suspension, revocation, modification or reinstatement of a training program’s accreditation through appropriate mechanisms.


(7) EPA shall maintain a list of parties whose accreditation has been suspended, revoked, modified or reinstated.


(i) Training program recordkeeping requirements. (1) Accredited training programs shall maintain, and make available to EPA, upon request, the following records:


(i) All documents specified in paragraph (c)(4) of this section that demonstrate the qualifications listed in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section of the training manager and principal instructors.


(ii) Current curriculum/course materials and documents reflecting any changes made to these materials.


(iii) The course test blueprint.


(iv) Information regarding how the hands-on assessment is conducted including, but not limited to:


(A) Who conducts the assessment.


(B) How the skills are graded.


(C) What facilities are used.


(D) The pass/fail rate.


(v) The quality control plan as described in paragraph (c)(9) of this section.


(vi) Results of the students’ hands-on skills assessments and course tests, and a record of each student’s course completion certificate.


(vii) Any other material not listed in paragraphs (i)(1)(i) through (i)(1)(vi) of this section that was submitted to EPA as part of the program’s application for accreditation.


(viii) For renovator refresher and dust sampling technician refresher courses, a copy of each trainee’s prior course completion certificate showing that each trainee was eligible to take the refresher course.


(ix) For course modules delivered in an electronic format, a record of each student’s log-ins, launches, progress, and completion, and a copy of the electronic learning completion certificate for each student.


(2) The training program must retain records pertaining to renovator, dust sampling technician and lead-based paint activities courses at the address specified on the training program accreditation application (or as modified in accordance with paragraph (i)(3) of this section) for the following minimum periods:


(i) Records pertaining to lead-based paint activities courses must be retained for a minimum of 3 years and 6 months.


(ii) Records pertaining to renovator or dust sampling technician courses offered before April 22, 2010 must be retained until July 1, 2015.


(iii) Records pertaining to renovator or dust sampling technician courses offered on or after April 22, 2010 must be retained for a minimum of 5 years.


(3) The training program shall notify EPA in writing within 30 days of changing the address specified on its training program accreditation application or transferring the records from that address.


(j) Amendment of accreditation. (1) A training program must amend its accreditation within 90 days of the date a change occurs to information included in the program’s most recent application. If the training program fails to amend its accreditation within 90 days of the date the change occurs, the program may not provide renovator, dust sampling technician, or lead-based paint activities training until its accreditation is amended.


(2) To amend an accreditation, a training program must submit a completed “Accreditation Application for Training Providers,” signed by an authorized agent of the training provider, noting on the form that it is submitted as an amendment and indicating the information that has changed.


(3) Training managers, principal instructors, permanent training locations. If the amendment includes a new training program manager, any new or additional principal instructor(s), or any new permanent training location(s), the training provider is not permitted to provide training under the new training manager or offer courses taught by any new principal instructor(s) or at the new training location(s) until EPA either approves the amendment or 30 days have elapsed, whichever occurs earlier. Except:


(i) If the amendment includes a new training program manager or new or additional principal instructor that was identified in a training provider accreditation application that EPA has already approved under this section, the training provider may begin to provide training under the new training manager or offer courses taught by the new principal instructor on an interim basis as soon as the provider submits the amendment to EPA. The training provider may continue to provide training under the new training manager or offer courses taught by the new principal instructor if EPA approves the amendment or if EPA does not disapprove the amendment within 30 days.


(ii) If the amendment includes a new permanent training location, the training provider may begin to provide training at the new permanent training location on an interim basis as soon as the provider submits the amendment to EPA. The training provider may continue to provide training at the new permanent training location if EPA approves the amendment or if EPA does not disapprove the amendment within 30 days.


[76 FR 47939, Aug. 5, 2011, as amended at 81 FR 7995, Feb. 17, 2016]


§ 745.226 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities.

(a) Certification of individuals. (1) Individuals seeking certification by EPA to engage in lead-based paint activities must either:


(i) Submit to EPA an application demonstrating that they meet the requirements established in paragraphs (b) or (c) of this section for the particular discipline for which certification is sought; or


(ii) Submit to EPA an application with a copy of a valid lead-based paint activities certification (or equivalent) from a State or Tribal program that has been authorized by EPA pursuant to subpart Q of this part.


(2) Individuals may first apply to EPA for certification to engage in lead-based paint activities pursuant to this section on or after March 1, 1999.


(3) Following the submission of an application demonstrating that all the requirements of this section have been meet, EPA shall certify an applicant as an inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, project designer, or abatement worker, as appropriate.


(4) Upon receiving EPA certification, individuals conducting lead-based paint activities shall comply with the work practice standards for performing the appropriate lead-based paint activities as established in § 745.227.


(5) It shall be a violation of TSCA for an individual to conduct any of the lead-based paint activities described in § 745.227 after March 1, 2000, if that individual has not been certified by EPA pursuant to this section to do so.


(6) Individuals applying for certification must submit the appropriate fees in accordance with § 745.238.


(b) Inspector, risk assessor or supervisor. (1) To become certified by EPA as an inspector, risk assessor, or supervisor, pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, an individual must:


(i) Successfully complete an accredited course in the appropriate discipline and receive a course completion certificate from an accredited training program.


(ii) Pass the certification exam in the appropriate discipline offered by EPA; and,


(iii) Meet or exceed the following experience and/or education requirements:


(A) Inspectors. (1) No additional experience and/or education requirements.


(2) [Reserved]


(B) Risk assessors. (1) Successful completion of an accredited training course for inspectors; and


(2) Bachelor’s degree and 1 year of experience in a related field (e.g., lead, asbestos, environmental remediation work, or construction), or an Associates degree and 2 years experience in a related field (e.g., lead, asbestos, environmental remediation work, or construction); or


(3) Certification as an industrial hygienist, professional engineer, registered architect and/or certification in a related engineering/health/environmental field (e.g., safety professional, environmental scientist); or


(4) A high school diploma (or equivalent), and at least 3 years of experience in a related field (e.g., lead, asbestos, environmental remediation work or construction).


(C) Supervisor: (1) One year of experience as a certified lead-based paint abatement worker; or


(2) At least 2 years of experience in a related field (e.g., lead, asbestos, or environmental remediation work) or in the building trades.


(2) The following documents shall be recognized by EPA as evidence of meeting the requirements listed in (b)(2)(iii) of this paragraph:


(i) Official academic transcripts or diploma, as evidence of meeting the education requirements.


(ii) Resumes, letters of reference, or documentation of work experience, as evidence of meeting the work experience requirements.


(iii) Course completion certificates from lead-specific or other related training courses, issued by accredited training programs, as evidence of meeting the training requirements.


(3) In order to take the certification examination for a particular discipline an individual must:


(i) Successfully complete an accredited course in the appropriate discipline and receive a course completion certificate from an accredited training program.


(ii) Meet or exceed the education and/or experience requirements in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.


(4) The course completion certificate shall serve as interim certification for an individual until the next available opportunity to take the certification exam. Such interim certification shall expire 6 months after issuance.


(5) After passing the appropriate certification exam and submitting an application demonstrating that he/she meets the appropriate training, education, and/or experience prerequisites described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, an individual shall be issued a certificate by EPA. To maintain certification, an individual must be re-certified as described in paragraph (e) of this section.


(6) An individual may take the certification exam no more than three times within 6 months of receiving a course completion certificate.


(7) If an individual does not pass the certification exam and receive a certificate within 6 months of receiving his/her course completion certificate, the individual must retake the appropriate course from an accredited training program before reapplying for certification from EPA.


(c) Abatement worker and project designer. (1) To become certified by EPA as an abatement worker or project designer, pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, an individual must:


(i) Successfully complete an accredited course in the appropriate discipline and receive a course completion certificate from an accredited training program.


(ii) Meet or exceed the following additional experience and/or education requirements:


(A) Abatement workers. (1) No additional experience and/or education requirements.


(2) [Reserved]


(B) Project designers. (1) Successful completion of an accredited training course for supervisors.


(2) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, architecture, or a related profession, and 1 year of experience in building construction and design or a related field; or


(3) Four years of experience in building construction and design or a related field.


(2) The following documents shall be recognized by EPA as evidence of meeting the requirements listed in this paragraph:


(i) Official academic transcripts or diploma, as evidence of meeting the education requirements.


(ii) Resumes, letters of reference, or documentation of work experience, as evidence of meeting the work experience requirements.


(iii) Course completion certificates from lead-specific or other related training courses, issued by accredited training programs, as evidence of meeting the training requirements.


(3) The course completion certificate shall serve as an interim certification until certification from EPA is received, but shall be valid for no more than 6 months from the date of completion.


(4) After successfully completing the appropriate training courses and meeting any other qualifications described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, an individual shall be issued a certificate from EPA. To maintain certification, an individual must be re-certified as described in paragraph (e) of this section.


(d) Certification based on prior training. (1) Any individual who received training in a lead-based paint activity between October 1, 1990, and March 1, 1999 shall be eligible for certification by EPA under the alternative procedures contained in this paragraph. Individuals who have received lead-based paint activities training at an EPA-authorized State or Tribal accredited training program shall also be eligible for certification by EPA under the following alternative procedures:


(i) Applicants for certification as an inspector, risk assessor, or supervisor shall:


(A) Demonstrate that the applicant has successfully completed training or on-the-job training in the conduct of a lead-based paint activity.


(B) Demonstrate that the applicant meets or exceeds the education and/or experience requirements in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section.


(C) Successfully complete an accredited refresher training course for the appropriate discipline.


(D) Pass a certification exam administered by EPA for the appropriate discipline.


(ii) Applicants for certification as an abatement worker or project designer shall:


(A) Demonstrate that the applicant has successfully completed training or on-the-job training in the conduct of a lead-based paint activity.


(B) Demonstrate that the applicant meets the education and/or experience requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) of this section; and


(C) Successfully complete an accredited refresher training course for the appropriate discipline.


(2) Individuals shall have until March 1, 2000, to apply to EPA for certification under the above procedures. After that date, all individuals wishing to obtain certification must do so through the procedures described in paragraph (a), and paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, according to the discipline for which certification is being sought.


(e) Re-certification. (1) To maintain certification in a particular discipline, a certified individual shall apply to and be re-certified by EPA in that discipline by EPA either:


(i) Every 3 years if the individual completed a training course with a course test and hands-on assessment; or


(ii) Every 5 years if the individual completed a training course with a proficiency test.


(2) An individual shall be re-certified if the individual successfully completes the appropriate accredited refresher training course and submits a valid copy of the appropriate refresher course completion certificate.


(3) Individuals applying for re-certification must submit the appropriate fees in accordance with § 745.238.


(f) Certification of firms. (1) All firms which perform or offer to perform any of the lead-based paint activities described in § 745.227 after March 1, 2000, shall be certified by EPA.


(2) A firm seeking certification shall submit to EPA a letter attesting that the firm shall only employ appropriately certified employees to conduct lead-based paint activities, and that the firm and its employees shall follow the work practice standards in § 745.227 for conducting lead-based paint activities.


(3) From the date of receiving the firm’s letter requesting certification, EPA shall have 90 days to approve or disapprove the firm’s request for certification. Within that time, EPA shall respond with either a certificate of approval or a letter describing the reasons for a disapproval.


(4) The firm shall maintain all records pursuant to the requirements in § 745.227.


(5) Firms may first apply to EPA for certification to engage in lead-based paint activities pursuant to this section on or after March 1, 1999.


(6) Firms applying for certification must submit the appropriate fees in accordance with § 745.238.


(7) To maintain certification a firm shall submit appropriate fees in accordance with § 745.238 every 3 years.


(g) Suspension, revocation, and modification of certifications of individuals engaged in lead-based paint activities. (1) EPA may, after notice and opportunity for hearing, suspend, revoke, or modify an individual’s certification if an individual has:


(i) Obtained training documentation through fraudulent means.


(ii) Gained admission to and completed an accredited training program through misrepresentation of admission requirements.


(iii) Obtained certification through misrepresentation of certification requirements or related documents dealing with education, training, professional registration, or experience.


(iv) Performed work requiring certification at a job site without having proof of certification.


(v) Permitted the duplication or use of the individual’s own certificate by another.


(vi) Performed work for which certification is required, but for which appropriate certification has not been received.


(vii) Failed to comply with the appropriate work practice standards for lead-based paint activities at § 745.227.


(viii) Failed to comply with Federal, State, or local lead-based paint statutes or regulations.


(2) In addition to an administrative or judicial finding of violation, for purposes of this section only, execution of a consent agreement in settlement of an enforcement action constitutes evidence of a failure to comply with relevant statutes or regulations.


(h) Suspension, revocation, and modification of certifications of firms engaged in lead-based paint activities. (1) EPA may, after notice and opportunity for hearing, suspend, revoke, or modify a firm’s certification if a firm has:


(i) Performed work requiring certification at a job site with individuals who are not certified.


(ii) Failed to comply with the work practice standards established in § 745.227.


(iii) Misrepresented facts in its letter of application for certification to EPA.


(iv) Failed to maintain required records.


(v) Failed to comply with Federal, State, or local lead-based paint statutes or regulations.


(2) In addition to an administrative or judicial finding of violation, for purposes of this section only, execution of a consent agreement in settlement of an enforcement action constitutes evidence of a failure to comply with relevant statutes or regulations.


(i) Procedures for suspension, revocation, or modification of the certification of individuals or firms. (1) If EPA decides to suspend, revoke, or modify the certification of any individual or firm, it shall notify the affected entity in writing of the following:


(i) The legal and factual basis for the suspension, revocation, or modification.


(ii) The commencement date and duration of the suspension, revocation, or modification.


(iii) Actions, if any, which the affected entity may take to avoid suspension, revocation, or modification or to receive certification in the future.


(iv) The opportunity and method for requesting a hearing prior to final EPA action to suspend, revoke, or modify certification.


(v) Any additional information, as appropriate, which EPA may provide.


(2) If a hearing is requested by the certified individual or firm, EPA shall:


(i) Provide the affected entity an opportunity to offer written statements in response to EPA’s assertion of the legal and factual basis and any other explanations, comments, and arguments it deems relevant to the proposed action.


(ii) Provide the affected entity such other procedural opportunities as EPA may deem appropriate to ensure a fair and impartial hearing.


(iii) Appoint an official of EPA as Presiding Officer to conduct the hearing. No person shall serve as Presiding Officer if he or she has had any prior connection with the specific matter.


(3) The Presiding Officer shall:


(i) Conduct a fair, orderly, and impartial hearing within 90 days of the request for a hearing;


(ii) Consider all relevant evidence, explanation, comment, and argument submitted; and


(iii) Notify the affected entity in writing within 90 days of completion of the hearing of his or her decision and order. Such an order is a final EPA action subject to judicial review.


(4) If EPA determines that the public health, interest, or welfare warrants immediate action to suspend the certification of any individual or firm prior to the opportunity for a hearing, it shall:


(i) Notify the affected entity of its intent to immediately suspend certification for the reasons listed in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. If a suspension, revocation, or modification notice has not previously been issued, it shall be issued at the same time the immediate suspension notice is issued.


(ii) Notify the affected entity in writing of the grounds upon which the immediate suspension is based and why it is necessary to suspend the entity’s accreditation before an opportunity for a hearing to suspend, revoke, or modify the individual’s or firm’s certification.


(iii) Notify the affected entity of the commencement date and duration of the immediate suspension.


(iv) Notify the affected entity of its right to request a hearing on the immediate suspension within 15 days of the suspension taking place and the procedures for the conduct of such a hearing.


(5) Any notice, decision, or order issued by EPA under this section, transcript or other verbatim record of oral testimony, and any documents filed by a certified individual or firm in a hearing under this section shall be available to the public, except as otherwise provided by section 14 of TSCA or by part 2 of this title. Any such hearing at which oral testimony is presented shall be open to the public, except that the Presiding Officer may exclude the public to the extent necessary to allow presentation of information which may be entitled to confidential treatment under section 14 of TSCA or part 2 of this title.


[61 FR 45813, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 31098, June 9, 1999; 64 FR 42851, Aug. 6, 1999]


§ 745.227 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities.

(a) Effective date, applicability, and terms. (1) Beginning on March 1, 2000, all lead-based paint activities shall be performed pursuant to the work practice standards contained in this section.


(2) When performing any lead-based paint activity described by the certified individual as an inspection, lead-hazard screen, risk assessment or abatement, a certified individual must perform that activity in compliance with the appropriate requirements below.


(3) Documented methodologies that are appropriate for this section are found in the following: The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing; the EPA Guidance on Residential Lead-Based Paint, Lead-Contaminated Dust, and Lead-Contaminated Soil; the EPA Residential Sampling for Lead: Protocols for Dust and Soil Sampling (EPA report number 7474-R-95-001); Regulations, guidance, methods or protocols issued by States and Indian Tribes that have been authorized by EPA; and other equivalent methods and quidelines.


(4) Clearance levels are appropriate for the purposes of this section may be found in the EPA Guidance on Residential Lead-Based Paint, Lead-Contaminated Dust, and Lead Contaminiated Soil or other equivalent guidelines.


(b) Inspection. (1) An inspection shall be conducted only by a person certified by EPA as an inspector or risk assessor and, if conducted, must be conducted according to the procedures in this paragraph.


(2) When conducting an inspection, the following locations shall be selected according to documented methodologies and tested for the presence of lead-based paint:


(i) In a residential dwelling and child-occupied facility, each component with a distinct painting history and each exterior component with a distinct painting history shall be tested for lead-based paint, except those components that the inspector or risk assessor determines to have been replaced after 1978, or to not contain lead-based paint; and


(ii) In a multi-family dwelling or child-occupied facility, each component with a distinct painting history in every common area, except those components that the inspector or risk assessor determines to have been replaced after 1978, or to not contain lead-based paint.


(3) Paint shall be sampled in the following manner:


(i) The analysis of paint to determine the presence of lead shall be conducted using documented methodologies which incorporate adequate quality control procedures; and/or


(ii) All collected paint chip samples shall be analyzed according to paragraph (f) of this section to determine if they contain detectable levels of lead that can be quantified numerically.


(4) The certified inspector or risk assessor shall prepare an inspection report which shall include the following information:


(i) Date of each inspection.


(ii) Address of building.


(iii) Date of construction.


(iv) Apartment numbers (if applicable).


(v) Name, address, and telephone number of the owner or owners of each residential dwelling or child-occupied facility.


(vi) Name, signature, and certification number of each certified inspector and/or risk assessor conducting testing.


(vii) Name, address, and telephone number of the certified firm employing each inspector and/or risk assessor, if applicable.


(viii) Each testing method and device and/or sampling procedure employed for paint analysis, including quality control data and, if used, the serial number of any x-ray fluorescence (XRF) device.


(ix) Specific locations of each painted component tested for the presence of lead-based paint.


(x) The results of the inspection expressed in terms appropriate to the sampling method used.


(c) Lead hazard screen. (1) A lead hazard screen shall be conducted only by a person certified by EPA as a risk assessor.


(2) If conducted, a lead hazard screen shall be conducted as follows:


(i) Background information regarding the physical characteristics of the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility and occupant use patterns that may cause lead-based paint exposure to one or more children age 6 years and under shall be collected.


(ii) A visual inspection of the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility shall be conducted to:


(A) Determine if any deteriorated paint is present, and


(B) Locate at least two dust sampling locations.


(iii) If deteriorated paint is present, each surface with deteriorated paint, which is determined, using documented methodologies, to be in poor condition and to have a distinct painting history, shall be tested for the presence of lead.


(iv) In residential dwellings, two composite dust samples shall be collected, one from the floors and the other from the windows, in rooms, hallways or stairwells where one or more children, age 6 and under, are most likely to come in contact with dust.


(v) In multi-family dwellings and child-occupied facilities, in addition to the floor and window samples required in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, the risk assessor shall also collect composite dust samples from common areas where one or more children, age 6 and under, are most likely to come into contact with dust.


(3) Dust samples shall be collected and analyzed in the following manner:


(i) All dust samples shall be taken using documented methodologies that incorporate adequate quality control procedures.


(ii) All collected dust samples shall be analyzed according to paragraph (f) of this section to determine if they contain detectable levels of lead that can be quantified numerically.


(4) Paint shall be sampled in the following manner:


(i) The analysis of paint to determine the presence of lead shall be conducted using documented methodologies which incorporate adequate quality control procedures; and/or


(ii) All collected paint chip samples shall be analyzed according to paragraph (f) of this section to determine if they contain detectable levels of lead that can be quantified numerically.


(5) The risk assessor shall prepare a lead hazard screen report, which shall include the following information:


(i) The information required in a risk assessment report as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, including paragraphs (d)(11)(i) through (d)(11)(xiv), and excluding paragraphs (d)(11)(xv) through (d)(11)(xviii) of this section. Additionally, any background information collected pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section shall be included in the risk assessment report; and


(ii) Recommendations, if warranted, for a follow-up risk assessment, and as appropriate, any further actions.


(d) Risk assessment. (1) A risk assessment shall be conducted only by a person certified by EPA as a risk assessor and, if conducted, must be conducted according to the procedures in this paragraph.


(2) A visual inspection for risk assessment of the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility shall be undertaken to locate the existence of deteriorated paint, assess the extent and causes of the deterioration, and other potential lead-based paint hazards.


(3) Background information regarding the physical characteristics of the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility and occupant use patterns that may cause lead-based paint exposure to one or more children age 6 years and under shall be collected.


(4) The following surfaces which are determined, using documented methodologies, to have a distinct painting history, shall be tested for the presence of lead:


(i) Each friction surface or impact surface with visibly deteriorated paint; and


(ii) All other surfaces with visibly deteriorated paint.


(5) In residential dwellings, dust samples (either composite or single-surface samples) from the interior window sill(s) and floor shall be collected and analyzed for lead concentration in all living areas where one or more children, age 6 and under, are most likely to come into contact with dust.


(6) For multi-family dwellings and child-occupied facilities, the samples required in paragraph (d)(4) of this section shall be taken. In addition, interior window sill and floor dust samples (either composite or single-surface samples) shall be collected and analyzed for lead concentration in the following locations:


(i) Common areas adjacent to the sampled residential dwelling or child-occupied facility; and


(ii) Other common areas in the building where the risk assessor determines that one or more children, age 6 and under, are likely to come into contact with dust.


(7) For child-occupied facilities, interior window sill and floor dust samples (either composite or single-surface samples) shall be collected and analyzed for lead concentration in each room, hallway or stairwell utilized by one or more children, age 6 and under, and in other common areas in the child-occupied facility where one or more children, age 6 and under, are likely to come into contact with dust.


(8) Soil samples shall be collected and analyzed for lead concentrations in the following locations:


(i) Exterior play areas where bare soil is present; and


(ii) The rest of the yard (i.e., non-play areas) where bare soil is present.


(iii) Dripline/foundation areas where bare soil is present.


(9) Any paint, dust, or soil sampling or testing shall be conducted using documented methodologies that incorporate adequate quality control procedures.


(10) Any collected paint chip, dust, or soil samples shall be analyzed according to paragraph (f) of this section to determine if they contain detectable levels of lead that can be quantified numerically.


(11) The certified risk assessor shall prepare a risk assessment report which shall include the following information:


(i) Date of assessment.


(ii) Address of each building.


(iii) Date of construction of buildings.


(iv) Apartment number (if applicable).


(v) Name, address, and telephone number of each owner of each building.


(vi) Name, signature, and certification of the certified risk assessor conducting the assessment.


(vii) Name, address, and telephone number of the certified firm employing each certified risk assessor if applicable.


(viii) Name, address, and telephone number of each recognized laboratory conducting analysis of collected samples.


(ix) Results of the visual inspection.


(x) Testing method and sampling procedure for paint analysis employed.


(xi) Specific locations of each painted component tested for the presence of lead.


(xii) All data collected from on-site testing, including quality control data and, if used, the serial number of any XRF device.


(xiii) All results of laboratory analysis on collected paint, soil, and dust samples.


(xiv) Any other sampling results.


(xv) Any background information collected pursuant to paragraph (d)(3) of this section.


(xvi) To the extent that they are used as part of the lead-based paint hazard determination, the results of any previous inspections or analyses for the presence of lead-based paint, or other assessments of lead-based paint-related hazards.


(xvii) A description of the location, type, and severity of identified lead-based paint hazards and any other potential lead hazards.


(xviii) A description of interim controls and/or abatement options for each identified lead-based paint hazard and a suggested prioritization for addressing each hazard. If the use of an encapsulant or enclosure is recommended, the report shall recommend a maintenance and monitoring schedule for the encapsulant or enclosure.


(e) Abatement. (1) An abatement shall be conducted only by an individual certified by EPA, and if conducted, shall be conducted according to the procedures in this paragraph.


(2) A certified supervisor is required for each abatement project and shall be onsite during all work site preparation and during the post-abatement cleanup of work areas. At all other times when abatement activities are being conducted, the certified supervisor shall be onsite or available by telephone, pager or answering service, and able to be present at the work site in no more than 2 hours.


(3) The certified supervisor and the certified firm employing that supervisor shall ensure that all abatement activities are conducted according to the requirements of this section and all other Federal, State and local requirements.


(4) A certified firm must notify EPA of lead-based paint abatement activities as follows:


(i) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section, EPA must be notified prior to conducting lead-based paint abatement activities. The original notification must be received by EPA at least 5 business days before the start date of any lead-based paint abatement activities.


(ii) Notification for lead-based paint abatement activities required in response to an elevated blood lead level (EBL) determination, or Federal, State, Tribal, or local emergency abatement order should be received by EPA as early as possible before, but must be received no later than the start date of the lead-based paint abatement activities. Should the start date and/or location provided to EPA change, an updated notification must be received by EPA on or before the start date provided to EPA. Documentation showing evidence of an EBL determination or a copy of the Federal/State/Tribal/local emergency abatement order must be included in the written notification to take advantage of this abbreviated notification period.


(iii) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section, updated notification must be provided to EPA for lead-based paint abatement activities that will begin on a date other than the start date specified in the original notification, as follows:


(A) For lead-based paint abatement activities beginning prior to the start date provided to EPA an updated notification must be received by EPA at least 5 business days before the new start date included in the notification.


(B) For lead-based paint abatement activities beginning after the start date provided to EPA an updated notification must be received by EPA on or before the start date provided to EPA.


(iv) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section, updated notification must be provided to EPA for any change in location of lead-based paint abatement activities at least 5 business days prior to the start date provided to EPA.


(v) Updated notification must be provided to EPA when lead-based paint abatement activities are canceled, or when there are other significant changes including, but not limited to, when the square footage or acreage to be abated changes by more than 20%. This updated notification must be received by EPA on or before the start date provided to EPA, or if work has already begun, within 24 hours of the change.


(vi) The following must be included in each notification:


(A) Notification type (original, updated, cancellation).


(B) Date when lead-based paint abatement activities will start.


(C) Date when lead-based paint abatement activities will end (approximation using best professional judgement).


(D) Firm’s name, EPA certification number, address, telephone number.


(E) Type of building (e.g., single family dwelling, multi-family dwelling, child-occupied facilities) on/in which abatement work will be performed.


(F) Property name (if applicable).


(G) Property address including apartment or unit number(s) (if applicable) for abatement work.


(H) Documentation showing evidence of an EBL determination or a copy of the Federal/State/Tribal/local emergency abatement order, if using the abbreviated time period as described in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section.


(I) Name and EPA certification number of the project supervisor.


(J) Approximate square footage/acreage to be abated.


(K) Brief description of abatement activities to be performed.


(L) Name, title, and signature of the representative of the certified firm who prepared the notification.


(vii) Notification must be accomplished using any of the following methods: Written notification, or electronically using the Agency’s Central Data Exchange (CDX). Written notification can be accomplished using either the sample form titled “Notification of Lead-Based Paint Abatement Activities” or similar form containing the information required in paragraph (e)(4)(vi) of this section. All written notifications must be delivered by U.S. Postal Service, fax, commercial delivery service, or hand delivery (persons submitting notification by U.S. Postal Service are reminded that they should allow 3 additional business days for delivery in order to ensure that EPA receives the notification by the required date). Instructions and sample forms can be obtained from the NLIC at 1-800-424-LEAD(5323), or on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/lead.


(viii) Lead-based paint abatement activities shall not begin on a date, or at a location other than that specified in either an original or updated notification, in the event of changes to the original notification.


(ix) No firm or individual shall engage in lead-based paint abatement activities, as defined in § 745.223, prior to notifying EPA of such activities according to the requirements of this paragraph.


(5) A written occupant protection plan shall be developed for all abatement projects and shall be prepared according to the following procedures:


(i) The occupant protection plan shall be unique to each residential dwelling or child-occupied facility and be developed prior to the abatement. The occupant protection plan shall describe the measures and management procedures that will be taken during the abatement to protect the building occupants from exposure to any lead-based paint hazards.


(ii) A certified supervisor or project designer shall prepare the occupant protection plan.


(6) The work practices listed below shall be restricted during an abatement as follows:


(i) Open-flame burning or torching of lead-based paint is prohibited;


(ii) Machine sanding or grinding or abrasive blasting or sandblasting of lead-based paint is prohibited unless used with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) exhaust control which removes particles of 0.3 microns or larger from the air at 99.97 percent or greater efficiency;


(iii) Dry scraping of lead-based paint is permitted only in conjunction with heat guns or around electrical outlets or when treating defective paint spots totaling no more than 2 square feet in any one room, hallway or stairwell or totaling no more than 20 square feet on exterior surfaces; and


(iv) Operating a heat gun on lead-based paint is permitted only at temperatures below 1100 degrees Fahrenheit.


(7) If conducted, soil abatement shall be conducted in one of the following ways:


(i) If the soil is removed:


(A) The soil shall be replaced by soil with a lead concentration as close to local background as practicable, but no greater than 400 ppm.


(B) The soil that is removed shall not be used as top soil at another residential property or child-occupied facility.


(ii) If soil is not removed, the soil shall be permanently covered, as defined in § 745.223.


(8) The following post-abatement clearance procedures shall be performed only by a certified inspector or risk assessor:


(i) Following an abatement, a visual inspection shall be performed to determine if deteriorated painted surfaces and/or visible amounts of dust, debris or residue are still present. If deteriorated painted surfaces or visible amounts of dust, debris or residue are present, these conditions must be eliminated prior to the continuation of the clearance procedures.


(ii) Following the visual inspection and any post-abatement cleanup required by paragraph (e)(8)(i) of this section, clearance sampling for lead in dust shall be conducted. Clearance sampling may be conducted by employing single-surface sampling or composite sampling techniques.


(iii) Dust samples for clearance purposes shall be taken using documented methodologies that incorporate adequate quality control procedures.


(iv) Dust samples for clearance purposes shall be taken a minimum of 1 hour after completion of final post-abatement cleanup activities.


(v) The following post-abatement clearance activities shall be conducted as appropriate based upon the extent or manner of abatement activities conducted in or to the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility:


(A) After conducting an abatement with containment between abated and unabated areas, one dust sample shall be taken from one interior window sill and from one window trough (if present) and one dust sample shall be taken from the floors of each of no less than four rooms, hallways or stairwells within the containment area. In addition, one dust sample shall be taken from the floor outside the containment area. If there are less than four rooms, hallways or stairwells within the containment area, then all rooms, hallways or stairwells shall be sampled.


(B) After conducting an abatement with no containment, two dust samples shall be taken from each of no less than four rooms, hallways or stairwells in the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility. One dust sample shall be taken from one interior window sill and window trough (if present) and one dust sample shall be taken from the floor of each room, hallway or stairwell selected. If there are less than four rooms, hallways or stairwells within the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility then all rooms, hallways or stairwells shall be sampled.


(C) Following an exterior paint abatement, a visible inspection shall be conducted. All horizontal surfaces in the outdoor living area closest to the abated surface shall be found to be cleaned of visible dust and debris. In addition, a visual inspection shall be conducted to determine the presence of paint chips on the dripline or next to the foundation below any exterior surface abated. If paint chips are present, they must be removed from the site and properly disposed of, according to all applicable Federal, State and local requirements.


(vi) The rooms, hallways or stairwells selected for sampling shall be selected according to documented methodologies.


(vii) The certified inspector or risk assessor shall compare the residual lead level (as determined by the laboratory analysis) from each single surface dust sample with clearance levels in paragraph (e)(8)(viii) of this section for lead in dust on floors, interior window sills, and window troughs or from each composite dust sample with the applicable clearance levels for lead in dust on floors, interior window sills, and window troughs divided by half the number of subsamples in the composite sample. If the residual lead level in a single surface dust sample equals or exceeds the applicable clearance level or if the residual lead level in a composite dust sample equals or exceeds the applicable clearance level divided by half the number of subsamples in the composite sample, the components represented by the failed sample shall be recleaned and retested.


(viii) The clearance levels for lead in dust are 10 µg/ft
2 for floors, 100 µg/ft
2 for interior window sills, and 400 µg/ft
2 for window troughs.


(9) In a multi-family dwelling with similarly constructed and maintained residential dwellings, random sampling for the purposes of clearance may be conducted provided:


(i) The certified individuals who abate or clean the residential dwellings do not know which residential dwelling will be selected for the random sample.


(ii) A sufficient number of residential dwellings are selected for dust sampling to provide a 95 percent level of confidence that no more than 5 percent or 50 of the residential dwellings (whichever is smaller) in the randomly sampled population exceed the appropriate clearance levels.


(iii) The randomly selected residential dwellings shall be sampled and evaluated for clearance according to the procedures found in paragraph (e)(8) of this section.


(10) An abatement report shall be prepared by a certified supervisor or project designer. The abatement report shall include the following information:


(i) Start and completion dates of abatement.


(ii) The name and address of each certified firm conducting the abatement and the name of each supervisor assigned to the abatement project.


(iii) The occupant protection plan prepared pursuant to paragraph (e)(5) of this section.


(iv) The name, address, and signature of each certified risk assessor or inspector conducting clearance sampling and the date of clearance testing.


(v) The results of clearance testing and all soil analyses (if applicable) and the name of each recognized laboratory that conducted the analyses.


(vi) A detailed written description of the abatement, including abatement methods used, locations of rooms and/or components where abatement occurred, reason for selecting particular abatement methods for each component, and any suggested monitoring of encapsulants or enclosures.


(f) Collection and laboratory analysis of samples. Any paint chip, dust, or soil samples collected pursuant to the work practice standards contained in this section shall be:


(1) Collected by persons certified by EPA as an inspector or risk assessor; and


(2) Analyzed by a laboratory recognized by EPA pursuant to section 405(b) of TSCA as being capable of performing analyses for lead compounds in paint chip, dust, and soil samples.


(g) Composite dust sampling. Composite dust sampling may only be conducted in the situations specified in paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section. If such sampling is conducted, the following conditions shall apply:


(1) Composite dust samples shall consist of at least two subsamples;


(2) Every component that is being tested shall be included in the sampling; and


(3) Composite dust samples shall not consist of subsamples from more than one type of component.


(h) Determinations. (1) Lead-based paint is present:


(i) On any surface that is tested and found to contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams per square centimeter or equal to or in excess of 0.5% by weight; and


(ii) On any surface like a surface tested in the same room equivalent that has a similar painting history and that is found to be lead-based paint.


(2) A paint-lead hazard is present:


(i) On any friction surface that is subject to abrasion and where the lead dust levels on the nearest horizontal surface underneath the friction surface (e.g., the window sill or floor) are equal to or greater than the dust hazard levels identified in § 745.227(b);


(ii) On any chewable lead-based paint surface on which there is evidence of teeth marks;


(iii) Where there is any damaged or otherwise deteriorated lead-based paint on an impact surface that is cause by impact from a related building component (such as a door knob that knocks into a wall or a door that knocks against its door frame; and


(iv) If there is any other deteriorated lead-based paint in any residential building or child-occupied facility or on the exterior of any residential building or child-occupied facility.


(3) A dust-lead hazard is present in a residential dwelling or child occupied facility:


(i) In a residential dwelling on floors and interior window sills when the weighted arithmetic mean lead loading for all single surface or composite samples of floors and interior window sills are equal to or greater than 10 µg/ft
2 for floors and 100 µg/ft
2 for interior window sills, respectively;


(ii) On floors or interior window sills in an unsampled residential dwelling in a multi-family dwelling, if a dust-lead hazard is present on floors or interior window sills, respectively, in at least one sampled residential unit on the property; and


(iii) On floors or interior window sills in an unsampled common area in a multi-family dwelling, if a dust-lead hazard is present on floors or interior window sills, respectively, in at least one sampled common area in the same common area group on the property.


(4) A soil-lead hazard is present:


(i) In a play area when the soil-lead concentration from a composite play area sample of bare soil is equal to or greater than 400 parts per million; or


(ii) In the rest of the yard when the arithmetic mean lead concentration from a composite sample (or arithmetic mean of composite samples) of bare soil from the rest of the yard (i.e., non-play areas) for each residential building on a property is equal to or greater than 1,200 parts per million.


(i) Recordkeeping. All reports or plans required in this section shall be maintained by the certified firm or individual who prepared the report for no fewer than 3 years. The certified firm or individual also shall provide copies of these reports to the building owner who contracted for its services.


[61 FR 45813, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 42852, Aug. 6, 1999; 66 FR 1239, Jan. 5, 2001; 69 FR 18496, Apr. 8, 2004; 84 FR 32648, July 9, 2019; 86 FR 994, Jan. 7, 2021]


§ 745.228 Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. [Reserved]

§ 745.229 Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. [Reserved]

§ 745.230 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. [Reserved]

§ 745.233 Lead-based paint activities requirements.

Lead-based paint activities, as defined in this part, shall only be conducted according to the procedures and work practice standards contained in § 745.227 of this subpart. No individual or firm may offer to perform or perform any lead-based paint activity as defined in this part, unless certified to perform that activity according to the procedures in § 745.226.


§ 745.235 Enforcement.

(a) Failure or refusal to comply with any requirement of § 745.225, § 745.226, § 745.227, or § 745.233 is a prohibited act under sections 15 and 409 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. 2614, 2689).


(b) Failure or refusal to establish, maintain, provide, copy, or permit access to records or reports as required by § 745.225, § 745.226, or § 745.227 is a prohibited act under sections 15 and 409 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. 2614, 2689).


(c) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection as required by § 745.237 and section 11 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. 2610) is a prohibited act under sections 15 and 409 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. 2614, 2689).


(d) In addition to the above, any individual or firm that performs any of the following acts shall be deemed to have committed a prohibited act under sections 15 and 409 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. 2614, 2689). These include the following:


(i) Obtaining certification through fraudulent representation;


(ii) Failing to obtain certification from EPA and performing work requiring certification at a job site; or


(iii) Fraudulently obtaining certification and engaging in any lead-based paint activities requiring certification.


(e) Violators are subject to civil and criminal sanctions pursuant to section 16 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation.


§ 745.237 Inspections.

EPA may conduct reasonable inspections pursuant to the provisions of section 11 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. 2610) to ensure compliance with this subpart.


§ 745.238 Fees for accreditation and certification of lead-based paint activities.

(a) Purpose. To establish and impose fees for certified individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities and persons operating accredited training programs under section 402(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).


(b) Persons who must pay fees. Fees in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section must be paid by:


(1) Training programs. (i) All non-exempt training programs applying to EPA for the accreditation and re-accreditation of training programs in one or more of the following disciplines: inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, project designer, abatement worker.


(ii) Exemptions. No fee shall be imposed on any training program operated by a State, federally recognized Indian Tribe, local government, or nonprofit organization. This exemption does not apply to the certification of firms or individuals.


(2) Firms and individuals. All firms and individuals seeking certification and re-certification from EPA to engage in lead-based paint activities in one or more of the following disciplines: inspector, risk assessor, supervisor, project designer, abatement worker.


(c) Fee amounts – (1) Certification and accreditation fees. Initial and renewal certification and accreditation fees are specified in the following table:


Training Program
Accreditation
Re-accreditation (every 4 years, see 40 CFR 745.225(f)(1) for details)
Initial Course

Inspector

Risk assessor

Supervisor

Worker

Project Designer


$870

$870

$870

$870

$870


$620

$620

$620

$620

$620
Refresher Course

Inspector

Risk assessor

Supervisor

Worker

Project Designer


$690

$690

$690

$690

$690


$580

$580

$580

$580

$580
Lead-based Paint Activities – IndividualCertificationRe-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(e)(1) for details)
Inspector

Risk assessor

Supervisor

Worker

Project designer

Tribal certification (each discipline)
$410

$410

$410

$310

$410

$10
$410

$410

$410

$310

$410

$10
Lead-based Paint Activities – FirmCertificationRe-certification (every 3 years, see 40 CFR 745.226(f)(7) for details)
Firm$550$550
Combined Renovation and Lead-based Paint Activities Firm Application$550$550
Combined Renovation and Lead-based Paint Activities Tribal Firm Application$20$20
Tribal Firm$20$20

(2) Certification examination fee. Individuals required to take a certification exam in accordance with § 745.226 will be assessed a fee of $70 for each exam attempt.


(3) Lost identification card or certificate. A $15 fee shall be charged for replacement of an identification card or certificate. (See replacement procedure in paragraph (e) of this section.)


(4) Accreditation amendment fees. No fee will be charged for accreditation amendments.


(d) Application/payment procedure – (1) Certification and re-certification – (i) Individuals. Submit a completed application (titled “Application for Individuals to Conduct Lead-based Paint Activities”), the materials described at § 745.226, and the application fee(s) described in paragraph (c) of this section.


(ii) Firms. Submit a completed application (titled “Application for Firms ”), the materials described at § 745.226, and the application fee(s) described in paragraph (c) of this section.


(2) Accreditation and re-accreditation. Submit a completed application (titled “Accreditation Application for Training Programs”), the materials described at § 745.225, and the application fee described in paragraph (c) of this section.


(3) Application forms. Application forms and instructions can be obtained from the National Lead Information Center at: 1-800-424-LEAD.


(e) Identification card replacement and certificate replacement. (1) Parties seeking identification card or certificate replacement shall complete the applicable portions of the appropriate application in accordance with the instructions provided. The appropriate applications are:


(i) Individuals. “Application for Individuals to Conduct Lead-based Paint Activities.”


(ii) Firms. “Application for Firms.”


(iii) Training programs. “Accreditation Application for Training Programs.”


(2) Submit application and payment in the amount specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section in accordance with the instructions provided with the application package.


(f) Adjustment of fees. (1) EPA will collect fees reflecting the costs associated with the administration and enforcement of subpart L of this part with the exception of costs associated with the accreditation of training programs operated by a State, federally recognized Indian Tribe, local government, and nonprofit organization. In order to do this, EPA will periodically adjust the fees to reflect changed economic conditions.


(2) The fees will be evaluated based on the cost to administer and enforce the program, and the number of applicants. New fee schedules will be published in the Federal Register.


(g) Failure to remit a fee. (1) EPA will not provide certification, re-certification, accreditation, or re-accreditation for any individual, firm, or training program which does not remit fees described in paragraph (c) of this section in accordance with the procedures specified in paragraph (d) of this section.


(2) EPA will not replace identification cards or certificates for any individual, firm, or training program which does not remit fees described in paragraph (c) of this section in accordance with the procedures specified in paragraph (e) of this section.


[64 FR 31098, June 9, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 11870, Mar. 20, 2009; 76 FR 47945, Aug. 5, 2011; 81 FR 7996, Feb. 17, 2016]


§ 745.239 Effective dates.

This subpart L shall apply in any State or Indian Country that does not have an authorized program under subpart Q, effective August 31, 1998. In such States or Indian Country:


(a) Training programs shall not provide, offer or claim to provide training or refresher training for certification without accreditation from EPA pursuant to § 745.225 on or after March 1, 1999.


(b) No individual or firm shall perform, offer, or claim to perform lead-based paint activities, as defined in this subpart, without certification from EPA to conduct such activities pursuant to § 745.226 on or after March 1, 2000.


(c) All lead-based paint activities shall be performed pursuant to the work practice standards contained in § 745.227 on or after March 1, 2000.


[61 FR 45813, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 42852, Aug. 6, 1999]


Subparts M-P [Reserved]

Subpart Q – State and Indian Tribal Programs


Source:61 FR 45825, Aug. 29, 1996, unless otherwise noted.

§ 745.320 Scope and purpose.

(a) This subpart establishes the requirements that State or Tribal programs must meet for authorization by the Administrator to administer and enforce the standards, regulations, or other requirements established under TSCA section 402 and/or section 406 and establishes the procedures EPA will follow in approving, revising, and withdrawing approval of State or Tribal programs.


(b) For State or Tribal lead-based paint training and certification programs, a State or Indian Tribe may seek authorization to administer and enforce §§ 745.225, 745.226, and 745.227. The provisions of §§ 745.220, 745.223, 745.233, 745.235, 745.237, and 745.239 shall be applicable for the purposes of such program authorization.


(c) A State or Indian Tribe may seek authorization to administer and enforce all of the provisions of subpart E of this part, just the pre-renovation education provisions of subpart E of this part, or just the training, certification, accreditation, and work practice provisions of subpart E of this part. The provisions of §§ 745.324 and 745.326 apply for the purposes of such program authorizations.


(d) A State or Indian Tribe applying for program authorization may seek either interim approval or final approval of the compliance and enforcement portion of the State or Tribal lead-based paint program pursuant to the procedures at § 745.327(a).


(e) State or Tribal submissions for program authorization shall comply with the procedures set out in this subpart.


(f) Any State or Tribal program approved by the Administrator under this subpart shall at all times comply with the requirements of this subpart.


(g) In many cases States will lack authority to regulate activities in Indian Country. This lack of authority does not impair a State’s ability to obtain full program authorization in accordance with this subpart. EPA will administer the program in Indian Country if neither the State nor Indian Tribe has been granted program authorization by EPA.


[61 FR 45825, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 73 FR 21767, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.323 Definitions.

The definitions in subpart A apply to this subpart. In addition, the definitions in § 745.223 and the following definitions apply:


Indian Country means (1) all land within the limits of any American Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the U.S. government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and including rights-of-way running throughout the reservation; (2) all dependent Indian communities within the borders of the United States whether within the original or subsequently acquired territory thereof, and whether within or outside the limits of a State; and (3) all Indian allotments, the Indian titles which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same.


Indian Tribe means any Indian Tribe, band, nation, or community recognized by the Secretary of the Interior and exercising substantial governmental duties and powers.


§ 745.324 Authorization of State or Tribal programs.

(a) Application content and procedures. (1) Any State or Indian Tribe that seeks authorization from EPA to administer and enforce the provisions of subpart E or subpart L of this part must submit an application to the Administrator in accordance with this paragraph.


(2) Before developing an application for authorization, a State or Indian Tribe shall disseminate a public notice of intent to seek such authorization and provide an opportunity for a public hearing.


(3) A State or Tribal application shall include:


(i) A transmittal letter from the State Governor or Tribal Chairperson (or equivalent official) requesting program approval.


(ii) A summary of the State or Tribal program. This summary will be used to provide notice to residents of the State or Tribe.


(iii) A description of the State or Tribal program in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.


(iv) An Attorney General’s or Tribal Counsel’s (or equivalent) statement in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.


(v) Copies of all applicable State or Tribal statutes, regulations, standards, and other materials that provide the State or Indian Tribe with the authority to administer and enforce a lead-based paint program.


(4) After submitting an application, the Agency will publish a Federal Register notice that contains an announcement of the receipt of the State or Tribal application, the summary of the program as provided by the State or Tribe, and a request for public comments to be mailed to the appropriate EPA Regional Office. This comment period shall last for no less than 45 days. EPA will consider these comments during its review of the State or Tribal application.


(5) Within 60 days of submission of a State or Tribal application, EPA will, if requested, conduct a public hearing in each State or Indian Country seeking program authorization and will consider all comments submitted at that hearing during the review of the State or Tribal application.


(b) Program description. A State or Indian Tribe seeking to administer and enforce a program under this subpart must submit a description of the program. The description of the State or Tribal program must include:


(1)(i) The name of the State or Tribal agency that is or will be responsible for administering and enforcing the program, the name of the official in that agency designated as the point of contact with EPA, and addresses and phone numbers where this official can be contacted.


(ii) Where more than one agency is or will be responsible for administering and enforcing the program, the State or Indian Tribe must designate a primary agency to oversee and coordinate administration and enforcement of the program and serve as the primary contact with EPA.


(iii) In the event that more than one agency is or will be responsible for administering and enforcing the program, the application must also include a description of the functions to be performed by each agency. The desciption shall explain and how the program will be coordinated by the primary agency to ensure consistency and effective administration of the within the State or Indian Tribe.


(2) To demonstrate that the State or Tribal program is at least as protective as the Federal program, fulfilling the criteria in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, the State or Tribal application must include:


(i) A description of the program that demonstrates that the program contains all of the elements specified in § 745.325, § 745.326, or both; and


(ii) An analysis of the State or Tribal program that compares the program to the Federal program in subpart E or subpart L of this part, or both. This analysis must demonstrate how the program is, in the State’s or Indian Tribe’s assessment, at least as protective as the elements in the Federal program at subpart E or subpart L of this part, or both. EPA will use this analysis to evaluate the protectiveness of the State or Tribal program in making its determination pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.


(3) To demonstrate that the State or Tribal program provides adequate enforcement, fulfilling the criteria in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, the State or Tribal application must include a description of the State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program that demonstrates that the program contains all of the elements specified at § 745.327. This description shall include copies of all policies, certifications, plans, reports, and other materials that demonstrate that the State or Tribal program contains all of the elements specified at § 745.327.


(4)(i) The program description for an Indian Tribe shall also include a map, legal description, or other information sufficient to identify the geographical extent of the territory over which the Indian Tribe exercises jurisdiction.


(ii) The program description for an Indian Tribe shall also include a demonstration that the Indian Tribe:


(A) Is recognized by the Secretary of the Interior.


(B) has an existing government exercising substantial governmental duties and powers.


(C) has adequate civil regulatory jurisdiction (as shown in the Tribal legal certification in paragraph (c)(2) of this section) over the subject matter and entities regulated.


(D) is reasonably expected to be capable of administering the Federal program for which it is seeking authorization.


(iii) If the Administrator has previously determined that an Indian Tribe has met the prerequisites in paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section for another EPA program, the Indian Tribe need provide only that information unique to the lead-based paint program required by paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(C) and (D) of this section.


(c) Attorney General’s statement. (1) A State or Indian Tribe must submit a written statement signed by the Attorney General or Tribal Counsel (or equivalent) certifying that the laws and regulations of the State or Indian Tribe provide adequate legal authority to administer and enforce the State or Tribal program. This statement shall include citations to the specific statutes and regulations providing that legal authority.


(2) The Tribal legal certification (the equivalent to the Attorney General’s statement) may also be submitted and signed by an independent attorney retained by the Indian Tribe for representation in matters before EPA or the courts pertaining to the Indian Tribe’s program. The certification shall include an assertion that the attorney has the authority to represent the Indian Tribe with respect to the Indian Tribe’s authorization application.


(3) If a State application seeks approval of its program to operate in Indian Country, the required legal certification shall include an analysis of the applicant’s authority to implement its provisions in Indian Country. The applicant shall include a map delineating the area over which it seeks to operate the program.


(d) Program certification. (1) At the time of submitting an application, a State may also certify to the Administrator that the State program meets the requirements contained in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (e)(2)(ii) of this section.


(2) If this certification is contained in a State’s application, the program shall be deemed to be authorized by EPA until such time as the Administrator disapproves the program application or withdraws the program authorization. A program shall not be deemed authorized pursuant to this subpart to the extent that jurisdiction is asserted over Indian Country, including non-member fee lands within an Indian reservation.


(3) If the application does not contain such certification, the State program will be authorized only after the Administrator authorizes the program in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.


(4) This certification shall take the form of a letter from the Governor or the Attorney General to the Administrator. The certification shall reference the program analysis in paragraph (b)(3) of this section as the basis for concluding that the State program is at least as protective as the Federal program, and provides adequate enforcement.


(e) EPA approval. (1) EPA will fully review and consider all portions of a State or Tribal application.


(2) Within 180 days of receipt of a complete State or Tribal application, the Administrator shall either authorize the program or disapprove the application. The Administrator shall authorize the program, after notice and the opportunity for public comment and a public hearing, only if the Administrator finds that:


(i) The State or Tribal program is at least as protective of human health and the environment as the corresponding Federal program under subpart E or subpart L of this part, or both; and


(ii) The State or Tribal program provides adequate enforcement.


(3) EPA shall notify in writing the State or Indian Tribe of the Administrator’s decision to authorize the State or Tribal program or disapprove the State’s or Indian Tribe’s application.


(4) If the State or Indian Tribe applies for authorization of State or Tribal programs under both subpart E and subpart L, EPA may, as appropriate, authorize one program and disapprove the other.


(f) EPA administration and enforcement. (1) If a State or Indian Tribe does not have an authorized program to administer and enforce subpart L of this part in effect by August 31, 1998, the Administrator shall, by such date, establish and enforce the provisions of subpart L of this part as the Federal program for that State or Indian Country.


(2) If a State or Indian Tribe does not have an authorized program to administer and enforce the pre-renovation education requirements of subpart E of this part by August 31, 1998, the Administrator will, by such date, enforce those provisions of subpart E of this part as the Federal program for that State or Indian Country. If a State or Indian Tribe does not have an authorized program to administer and enforce the training, certification and accreditation requirements and work practice standards of subpart E of this part by April 22, 2009, the Administrator will, by such date, enforce those provisions of subpart E of this part as the Federal program for that State or Indian Country.


(3) Upon authorization of a State or Tribal program, pursuant to paragraph (d) or (e) of this section, it shall be an unlawful act under sections 15 and 409 of TSCA for any person to fail or refuse to comply with any requirements of such program.


(g) Oversight. EPA shall periodically evaluate the adequacy of a State’s or Indian Tribe’s implementation and enforcement of its authorized programs.


(h) Reports. Beginning 12 months after the date of program authorization, the primary agency for each State or Indian Tribe that has an authorized program shall submit a written report to the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in which the State or Indian Tribe is located. This report shall be submitted at least once every 12 months for the first 3 years after program authorization. If these reports demonstrate successful program implementation, the Agency will automatically extend the reporting interval to every 2 years. If the subsequent reports demonstrate problems with implementation, EPA will require a return to annual reporting until the reports demonstrate successful program implementation, at which time the Agency will extend the reporting interval to every 2 years. The report shall include the following information:


(1) Any significant changes in the content or administration of the State or Tribal program implemented since the previous reporting period; and


(2) All information regarding the lead-based paint enforcement and compliance activities listed at § 745.327(d) “Summary on Progress and Performance.”


(i) Withdrawal of authorization. (1) If EPA concludes that a State or Indian Tribe is not administering and enforcing an authorized program in compliance with the standards, regulations, and other requirements of sections 401 through 412 of TSCA and this subpart, the Administrator shall notify the primary agency for the State or Indian Tribe in writing and indicate EPA’s intent to withdraw authorization of the program.


(2) The Notice of Intent to Withdraw shall:


(i) Identify the program aspects that EPA believes are inadequate and provide a factual basis for such findings.


(ii) Include copies of relevant documents.


(iii) Provide an opportunity for the State or Indian Tribe to respond either in writing or at a meeting with appropriate EPA officials.


(3) EPA may request that an informal conference be held between representatives of the State or Indian Tribe and EPA officials.


(4) Prior to issuance of a withdrawal, a State or Indian Tribe may request that EPA hold a public hearing. At this hearing, EPA, the State or Indian Tribe, and the public may present facts bearing on whether the State’s or Indian Tribe’s authorization should be withdrawn.


(5) If EPA finds that deficiencies warranting withdrawal did not exist or were corrected by the State or Indian Tribe, EPA may rescind its Notice of Intent to Withdraw authorization.


(6) Where EPA finds that deficiencies in the State or Tribal program exist that warrant withdrawal, an agreement to correct the deficiencies shall be jointly prepared by the State or Indian Tribe and EPA. The agreement shall describe the deficiencies found in the program, specify the steps the State or Indian Tribe has taken or will take to remedy the deficiencies, and establish a schedule, no longer than 180 days, for each remedial action to be initiated.


(7) If the State or Indian Tribe does not respond within 60 days of issuance of the Notice of Intent to Withdraw or an agreement is not reached within 180 days after EPA determines that a State or Indian Tribe is not in compliance with the Federal program, the Agency shall issue an order withdrawing the State’s or Indian Tribe’s authorization.


(8) By the date of such order, the Administrator will establish and enforce the provisions of subpart E or subpart L of this part, or both, as the Federal program for that State or Indian Country.


[61 FR 45825, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 73 FR 21767, Apr. 22, 2008]


§ 745.325 Lead-based paint activities: State and Tribal program requirements.

(a) Program elements. To receive authorization from EPA, a State or Tribal program must contain at least the following program elements for lead-based paint activities:


(1) Procedures and requirements for the accreditation of lead-based paint activities training programs.


(2) Procedures and requirements for the certification of individuals engaged in lead-based paint activities.


(3) Work practice standards for the conduct of lead-based paint activities.


(4) Requirements that all lead-based paint activities be conducted by appropriately certified contractors.


(5) Development of the appropriate infrastructure or government capacity to effectively carry out a State or Tribal program.


(b) Accreditation of training programs. The State or Indian Tribe must have either:


(1) Procedures and requirements for the accreditation of training programs that establish:


(i) Requirements for the accreditation of training programs, including but not limited to:


(A) Training curriculum requirements.


(B) Training hour requirements.


(C) Hands-on training requirements.


(D) Trainee competency and proficiency requirements.


(E) Requirements for training program quality control.


(ii) Procedures for the re-accreditation of training programs.


(iii) Procedures for the oversight of training programs.


(iv) Procedures for the suspension, revocation, or modification of training program accreditations; or


(2) Procedures or regulations, for the purposes of certification, for the acceptance of training offered by an accredited training provider in a State or Tribe authorized by EPA.


(c) Certification of individuals. The State or Indian Tribe must have requirements for the certification of individuals that:


(1) Ensure that certified individuals:


(i) Are trained by an accredited training program; and


(ii) Possess appropriate education or experience qualifications for certification.


(2) Establish procedures for re-certification.


(3) Require the conduct of lead-based paint activities in accordance with work practice standards established by the State or Indian Tribe.


(4) Establish procedures for the suspension, revocation, or modification of certifications.


(5) Establish requirements and procedures for the administration of a third-party certification exam.


(d) Work practice standards for the conduct of lead-based paint activities. The State or Indian Tribe must have requirements or standards that ensure that lead-based paint activities are conducted reliably, effectively, and safely. At a minimum the State’s or Indian Tribe’s work practice standards for conducting inspections, risk assessments, and abatements must contain the requirements specified in paragraphs (d)(1), (d)(2), and (d)(3) of this section.


(1) The work practice standards for the inspection for the presence of lead-based paint must require that:


(i) Inspections are conducted only by individuals certified by the appropriate State or Tribal authority to conduct inspections.


(ii) Inspections are conducted in a way that identifies the presence of lead-based paint on painted surfaces within the interior or on the exterior of a residential dwelling or child-occupied facility.


(iii) Inspections are conducted in a way that uses documented methodologies that incorporate adequate quality control procedures.


(iv) A report is developed that clearly documents the results of the inspection.


(v) Records are retained by the certified inspector or the firm.


(2) The work practice standards for risk assessment must require that:


(i) Risk assessments are conducted only by individuals certified by the appropriate State or Tribal authority to conduct risk assessments.


(ii) Risk assessments are conducted in a way that identifies and reports the presence of lead-based paint hazards.


(iii) Risk assessments consist of, at least:


(A) An assessment, including a visual inspection, of the physical characteristics of the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility;


(B) Environmental sampling for lead in paint, dust, and soil;


(C) Environmental sampling requirements for lead in paint, dust, and soil that allow for comparison to the standards for lead-based paint hazards established or revised by the State or Indian Tribe pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section; and


(D) A determination of the presence of lead-based paint hazards made by comparing the results of visual inspection and environmental sampling to the standards for lead-based paint hazards established or revised by the State or Indian Tribe pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section.


(iv) The program elements required in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(C) and (d)(2)(iii)(D) of this section shall be adopted in accordance with the schedule for the demonstration required in paragraph (e) of this section.


(v) The risk assessor develops a report that clearly presents the results of the assessment and recommendations for the control or elimination of all identified hazards.


(vi) The certified risk assessor or the firm retains the appropriate records.


(3) The work practice standards for abatement must require that:


(i) Abatements are conducted only by individuals certified by the appropriate State or Tribal authority to conduct or supervise abatements.


(ii) Abatements permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards and are conducted in a way that does not increase the hazards of lead-based paint to the occupants of the dwelling or child-occupied facility.


(iii) Abatements include post-abatement lead in dust clearance sampling and conformance with clearance levels established or adopted by the State or Indian Tribe.


(iv) The abatement contractor develops a report that describes areas of the residential dwelling or child-occupied facility abated and the techniques employed.


(v) The certified abatement contractor or the firm retains appropriate records.


(e) Revisions to lead-based paint activities program requirements. When EPA publishes in the Federal Register revisions to the lead-based paint activities program requirements contained in subpart L of this part:


(1) A State or Tribe with a lead-based paint activities program approved before the effective date of the revisions to the lead-based paint activities program requirements in subpart L of this part must demonstrate that it meets the requirements of this section in a report that it submits pursuant to § 745.324(h) but no later than two years after the effective date of the revisions.


(2) A State or Tribe with an application for approval of a lead-based paint activities program submitted but not approved before the effective date of the revisions to the lead-based paint activities program requirements in subpart L of this part must demonstrate that it meets the requirements of this section either by amending its application or in a report that it submits pursuant to § 745.324(h) but no later than two years after the effective date of the revisions.


(3) A State or Tribe submitting its application for approval of a lead-based paint activities program on or after the effective date of the revisions must demonstrate in its application that it meets the requirements of the new lead-based paint activities program requirements in subpart L of this part.


[61 FR 45825, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 1240, Jan. 5, 2001; 84 FR 32648, July 9, 2019]


§ 745.326 Renovation: State and Tribal program requirements.

(a) Program elements. To receive authorization from EPA, a State or Tribal program must contain the following program elements:


(1) For pre-renovation education programs, procedures and requirements for the distribution of lead hazard information to owners and occupants of target housing and child-occupied facilities before renovations for compensation.


(2) For renovation training, certification, accreditation, and work practice standards programs:


(i) Procedures and requirements for the accreditation of renovation and dust sampling technician training programs. A State and Tribal program is not required to include procedures and requirements for the dust sampling technician training discipline if the State or Tribal program requires dust sampling to be performed by a certified lead-based paint inspector or risk assessor.


(ii) Procedures and requirements for accredited initial and refresher training for renovators and dust sampling technicians and on-the-job training for other individuals who perform renovations.


(iii) Procedures and requirements for the certification of individuals and/or firms.


(iv) Requirements that all renovations be conducted by appropriately certified individuals and/or firms.


(v) Work practice standards for the conduct of renovations.


(3) For all renovation programs, development of the appropriate infrastructure or government capacity to effectively carry out a State or Tribal program.


(b) Pre-renovation education. To be considered at least as protective as the Federal program, the State or Tribal program must:


(1) Establish clear standards for identifying renovation activities that trigger the information distribution requirements.


(2) Establish procedures for distributing the lead hazard information to owners and occupants of housing and child-occupied facilities prior to renovation activities.


(3) Require that the information to be distributed include either the pamphlet titled Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools, developed by EPA under section 406(a) of TSCA, or an alternate pamphlet or package of lead hazard information that has been submitted by the State or Tribe, reviewed by EPA, and approved by EPA for that State or Tribe. Such information must contain renovation-specific information similar to that in Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools, must meet the content requirements prescribed by section 406(a) of TSCA, and must be in a format that is readable to the diverse audience of housing and child-occupied facility owners and occupants in that State or Tribe.


(i) A State or Tribe with a pre-renovation education program approved before June 23, 2008, must demonstrate that it meets the requirements of this section no later than the first report that it submits pursuant to § 745.324(h) on or after April 22, 2009.


(ii) A State or Tribe with an application for approval of a pre-renovation education program submitted but not approved before June 23, 2008, must demonstrate that it meets the requirements of this section either by amending its application or in the first report that it submits pursuant to § 745.324(h) of this part on or after April 22, 2009.


(iii) A State or Indian Tribe submitting its application for approval of a pre-renovation education program on or after June 23, 2008, must demonstrate in its application that it meets the requirements of this section.


(c) Accreditation of training programs. To be considered at least as protective as the Federal program, the State or Tribal program must meet the requirements of either paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section:


(1) The State or Tribal program must establish accreditation procedures and requirements, including:


(i) Procedures and requirements for the accreditation of training programs, including, but not limited to:


(A) Training curriculum requirements.


(B) Training hour requirements.


(C) Hands-on training requirements.


(D) Trainee competency and proficiency requirements.


(E) Requirements for training program quality control.


(ii) Procedures and requirements for the re-accreditation of training programs.


(iii) Procedures for the oversight of training programs.


(iv) Procedures and standards for the suspension, revocation, or modification of training program accreditations; or


(2) The State or Tribal program must establish procedures and requirements for the acceptance of renovation training offered by training providers accredited by EPA or a State or Tribal program authorized by EPA under this subpart.


(d) Certification of individuals and/or renovation firms. To be considered at least as protective as the Federal program, the State or Tribal program must:


(1) Establish procedures and requirements that ensure that individuals who perform or direct renovations are properly trained. These procedures and requirements must include:


(i) A requirement that renovations be performed and directed by at least one individual who has been trained by an accredited training program.


(ii) Procedures and requirements for accredited refresher training for these individuals.


(iii) Procedures and requirements for individuals who have received accredited training to provide on-the-job training for those individuals who perform renovations but do not receive accredited training. A State and Tribal program is not required to include procedures and requirements for on-the-job training for renovation workers if the State or Tribal program requires accredited initial and refresher training for all persons who perform renovations.


(2) Establish procedures and requirements for the formal certification and re-certification of renovation firms.


(3) Establish procedures for the suspension, revocation, or modification of certifications.


(e) Work practice standards for renovations. To be considered at least as protective as the Federal program, the State or Tribal program must establish standards that ensure that renovations are conducted reliably, effectively, and safely. At a minimum, the State or Tribal program must contain the following requirements:


(1) Renovations must be conducted only by certified renovation firms, using trained individuals.


(2) Renovations are conducted using lead-safe work practices that are at least as protective to occupants as the requirements in § 745.85.


(3) Certified individuals and/or renovation firms must retain appropriate records.


(f) Revisions to renovation program requirements. When EPA publishes in the Federal Register revisions to the renovation program requirements contained in subparts E and L of this part:


(1) A State or Tribe with a renovation program approved before the effective date of the revisions to the renovation program requirements in subparts E and L of this part must demonstrate that it meets the requirements of this section no later than the first report that it submits pursuant to § 745.324(h) but no later than 2 years after the effective date of the revisions.


(2) A State or Tribe with an application for approval of a renovation program submitted but not approved before the effective date of the revisions to the renovation program requirements in subparts E and L of this part must demonstrate that it meets the requirements of this section either by amending its application or in the first report that it submits pursuant to § 745.324(h) of this part but no later than 2 years after the effective date of the revisions.


(3) A State or Tribe submitting its application for approval of a renovation program on or after the effective date of the revisions must demonstrate in its application that it meets the requirements of the new renovation program requirements in subparts E and L of this part.


[73 FR 21768, Apr. 22, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 24819, May 6, 2010; 76 FR 47945, Aug. 5, 2011]


§ 745.327 State or Indian Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement programs.

(a) Approval of compliance and enforcement programs. A State or Indian Tribe seeking authorization of a lead-based paint program can apply for and receive either interim or final approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of its lead-based paint program. Indian Tribes are not required to exercise criminal enforcement jurisdiction as a condition for program authorization.


(1) Interim approval. Interim approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of the State or Tribal lead-based paint program may be granted by EPA only once, and subject to a specific expiration date.


(i) To be considered adequate for purposes of obtaining interim approval for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program, a State or Indian Tribe must, in its application described at § 745.324(a):


(A) Demonstrate it has the legal authority and ability to immediately implement the elements in paragraph (b) of this section. This demonstration shall include a statement that the State or Indian Tribe, during the interim approval period, shall carry out a level of compliance monitoring and enforcement necessary to ensure that the State or Indian Tribe addresses any significant risks posed by noncompliance with lead-based paint activity requirements.


(B) Present a plan with time frames identified for implementing in the field each element in paragraph (c) of this section. All elements of paragraph (c) of this section must be fully implemented no later than 3 years from the date of EPA’s interim approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program. A statement of resources must be included in the State or Tribal plan which identifies what resources the State or Indian Tribe intends to devote to the administration of its lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program.


(C) Agree to submit to EPA the Summary on Progress and Performance of lead-based paint compliance and enforcement activities as described at paragraph (d) of this section.


(ii) Any interim approval granted by EPA for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program will expire no later than 3 years from the date of EPA’s interim approval. One hundred and eighty days prior to this expiration date, a State or Indian Tribe shall apply to EPA for final approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program. Final approval shall be given to any State or Indian Tribe which has in place all of the elements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. If a State or Indian Tribe does not receive final approval for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program by the date 3 years after the date of EPA’s interim approval, the Administrator shall, by such date, initiate the process to withdraw the State or Indian Tribe’s authorization pursuant to § 745.324(i).


(2) Final approval. Final approval of the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program can be granted by EPA either through the application process described at § 745.324(a), or, for States or Indian Tribes which previously received interim approval as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, through a separate application addressing only the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program.


(i) For the compliance and enforcement program to be considered adequate for final approval through the application described at § 745.324(a), a State or Indian Tribe must, in its application:


(A) Demonstrate it has the legal authority and ability to immediately implement the elements in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.


(B) Submit a statement of resources which identifies what resources the State or Indian Tribe intends to devote to the administration of its lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program.


(C) Agree to submit to EPA the Summary on Progress and Performance of lead-based paint compliance and enforcement activities as described at paragraph (d) of this section.


(ii) For States or Indian Tribes which previously received interim approval as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, in order for the State or Tribal compliance and enforcement program to be considered adequate for final approval through a separate application addressing only the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program, a State or Indian Tribe must, in its application:


(A) Demonstrate that it has the legal authority and ability to immediately implement the elements in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.


(B) Submit a statement which identifies the resources the State or Indian Tribe intends to devote to the administration of its lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program.


(C) Agree to submit to EPA the Summary on Progress and Performance of lead-based paint compliance and enforcement activities as described at paragraph (d) of this section.


(D) To the extent not previously submitted through the application described at § 745.324(a), submit copies of all applicable State or Tribal statutes, regulations, standards, and other material that provide the State or Indian Tribe with authority to administer and enforce the lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program, and copies of the policies, certifications, plans, reports, and any other documents that demonstrate that the program meets the requirements established in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.


(b) Standards, regulations, and authority. The standards, regulations, and authority described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(4) of this section are part of the required elements for the compliance and enforcement portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program.


(1) Lead-based paint activities or renovation requirements. State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement programs will be considered adequate if the State or Indian Tribe demonstrates, in its application at § 745.324(b)(2), that it has established a lead-based paint program that contains all of the elements specified in § 745.325 or § 745.326, or both, as applicable.


(2) Authority to enter. State or Tribal officials must be able to enter, through consent, warrant, or other authority, premises or facilities where lead-based paint violations may occur for purposes of conducting inspections.


(i) State or Tribal officials must be able to enter premises or facilities where those engaged in training for lead-based paint activities or renovations conduct business.


(ii) For the purposes of enforcing a renovation program, State or Tribal officials must be able to enter a firm’s place of business or work site.


(iii) State or Tribal officials must have authority to take samples and review records as part of the lead-based paint inspection process.


(3) Flexible remedies. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must provide for a diverse and flexible array of enforcement statutory and regulatory authorities and remedies. At a minimum, these authorities and remedies, which must also be reflected in an enforcement response policy, must include the following:


(i) The authority to issue warning letters, Notices of Noncompliance, Notices of Violation, or the equivalent;


(ii) The authority to assess administrative or civil fines, including a maximum penalty authority for any violation in an amount no less than $5,000 per violation per day;


(iii) The authority to assess the maximum penalties or fines for each instance of violation and, if the violation is continuous, the authority to assess penalties or fines up to the maximum amount for each day of violation, with all penalties assessed or collected being appropriate for the violation after consideration of factors as the State or Tribe determine to be relevant, including the size or viability of the business, enforcement history, risks to human health or the environment posed by the violation, and other similar factors;


(iv) The authority to commence an administrative proceeding or to sue in courts of competent jurisdiction to recover penalties;


(v) The authority to suspend, revoke, or modify the accreditation of any training provider or the certification of any individual or firm;


(vi) The authority to commence an administrative proceeding or to sue in courts of competent jurisdiction to enjoin any threatened or continuing violation of any program requirement, without the necessity of a prior suspension or revocation of a trainer’s accreditation or a firm’s or individual’s certification;


(vii) The authority to apply criminal sanctions, including recovering fines; and


(viii) The authority to enforce its authorized program using a burden of proof standard, including the degree of knowledge or intent of the respondent that is no greater than it is for EPA under TSCA.


(4) Adequate resources. An application must include a statement that identifies the resources that will be devoted by the State or Indian Tribe to the administration of the State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program. This statement must address fiscal and personnel resources that will be devoted to the program.


(c) Performance elements. The performance elements described in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(7) of this section are part of the required elements for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program.


(1) Training. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must implement a process for training enforcement and inspection personnel and ensure that enforcement personnel and inspectors are well trained. Enforcement personnel must understand case development procedures and the maintenance of proper case files. Inspectors must successfully demonstrate knowledge of the requirements of the particular discipline (e.g., abatement supervisor, and/or abatement worker, and/or lead-based paint inspector, and/or risk assessor, and/or project designer) for which they have compliance monitoring and enforcement responsibilities. Inspectors must also be trained in violation discovery, methods of obtaining consent, evidence gathering, preservation of evidence and chain-of-custody, and sampling procedures. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must also implement a process for the continuing education of enforcement and inspection personnel.


(2) Compliance assistance. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must provide compliance assistance to the public and the regulated community to facilitate awareness and understanding of and compliance with State or Tribal requirements governing the conduct of lead-based paint activities or renovations. The type and nature of this assistance can be defined by the State or Indian Tribe to achieve this goal.


(3) Sampling techniques. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must have the technological capability to ensure compliance with the lead-based paint program requirements. A State or Tribal application for approval of a lead-based paint program must show that the State or Indian Tribe is technologically capable of conducting a lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program. The State or Tribal program must have access to the facilities and equipment necessary to perform sampling and laboratory analysis as needed. This laboratory facility must be a recognized laboratory as defined at § 745.223, or the State or Tribal program must implement a quality assurance program that ensures appropriate quality of laboratory personnel and protects the integrity of analytical data.


(4) Tracking tips and complaints. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate the ability to process and react to tips and complaints or other information indicating a violation.


(5) Targeting inspections. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate the ability to target inspections to ensure compliance with the lead-based paint program requirements. Such targeting must include a method for obtaining and using notifications of commencement of abatement activities.


(6) Follow up to inspection reports. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate the ability to reasonably, and in a timely manner, process and follow-up on inspection reports and other information generated through enforcement-related activities associated with a lead-based paint program. The State or Tribal program must be in a position to ensure correction of violations and, as appropriate, effectively develop and issue enforcement remedies/responses to follow up on the identification of violations.


(7) Compliance monitoring and enforcement. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must demonstrate, in its application for approval, that it is in a position to implement a compliance monitoring and enforcement program. Such a compliance monitoring and enforcement program must ensure correction of violations, and encompass either planned and/or responsive lead-based paint compliance inspections and development/issuance of State or Tribal enforcement responses which are appropriate to the violations.


(d) Summary on Progress and Performance. The Summary on Progress and Performance described below is part of the required elements for the compliance and enforcement program portion of a State or Tribal lead-based paint program. A State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program must submit to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator a report which summarizes the results of implementing the State or Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement program, including a summary of the scope of the regulated community within the State or Indian Tribe (which would include the number of individuals and firms certified in lead-based paint activities and the number of training programs accredited), the inspections conducted, enforcement actions taken, compliance assistance provided, and the level of resources committed by the State or Indian Tribe to these activities. The report shall be submitted according to the requirements at § 745.324(h).


(e) Memorandum of Agreement. An Indian Tribe that obtains program approval must establish a Memorandum of Agreement with the Regional Administrator. The Memorandum of Agreement shall be executed by the Indian Tribe’s counterpart to the State Director (e.g., the Director of Tribal Environmental Office, Program or Agency). The Memorandum of Agreement must include provisions for the timely and appropriate referral to the Regional Administrator for those criminal enforcement matters where that Indian Tribe does not have the authority (e.g., those addressing criminal violations by non-Indians or violations meriting penalties over $5,000). The Agreement must also identify any enforcement agreements that may exist between the Indian Tribe and any State.


(f) Electronic reporting under State or Indian Tribe programs. States and tribes that choose to receive electronic documents under the authorized state or Indian tribe lead-based paint program, must ensure that the requirements of 40 CFR part 3 – (Electronic reporting) are satisfied in their lead-based paint program.


[61 FR 45825, Aug. 29, 1996, as amended at 70 FR 59889, Oct. 13, 2005; 73 FR 21769, Apr. 22, 2008; 76 FR 47946, Aug. 5, 2011]


§ 745.339 Effective date.

States and Indian Tribes may seek authorization to administer and enforce subpart L of this part pursuant to this subpart at any time. States and Indian Tribes may seek authorization to administer and enforce the pre-renovation education provisions of subpart E of this part pursuant to this subpart at any time. States and Indian Tribes may seek authorization to administer and enforce all of subpart E of this part pursuant to this subpart effective June 23, 2008.


[73 FR 21769, Apr. 22, 2008]


PART 747 – METALWORKING FLUIDS


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2604 and 2605.

Subpart A [Reserved]

Subpart B – Specific Use Requirements for Certain Chemical Substances

§ 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

This section identifies activities with respect to a chemical substance which are prohibited and requires that warnings and instructions accompany the substance when distributed in commerce.


(a) Chemical substance subject to this section. The following chemical substance, referred to by its premanufacture notice number and generic chemical name, is subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.


(b) Definitions. Definitions in section 3 of the Act, 15 U.S.C. 2602, apply to this section unless otherwise specified in this paragraph. In addition, the following definitions apply:


(1) The terms Act, article, chemical substance, commerce, importer, impurity, Inventory, manufacturer, person, process, processor, and small quantities solely for research and development have the same meaning as in § 720.3 of this chapter.


(2) Metalworking fluid means a liquid of any viscosity or color containing intentionally added water used in metal machining operations for the purpose of cooling, lubricating, or rust inhibition.


(3) Nitrosating agent means any substance that has the potential to transfer a nitrosyl group (-NO) to a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine to form the corresponding nitrosamine.


(4) Process or distribute in commerce solely for export means to process or distribute in commerce solely for export from the United States under the following restrictions on domestic activity:


(i) Processing must be performed at sites under the control of the processor.


(ii) Distribution in commerce is limited to purposes of export.


(iii) The processor or distributor may not use the substance except in small quantities solely for research and development.


(c) Use limitations. (1) Any person producing a metalworking fluid, or a product which could be used in or as a metalworking fluid, which includes as one of its components P-84-529, is prohibited from adding any nitrosating agent to the metalworking fluid or product.


(2) Any person using as a metalworking fluid a product containing P-84-529 is prohibited from adding any nitrosating agent to the product.


(d) Warnings and instructions. (1) Any person who distributes in commerce P-84-529 in a metalworking fluid, or in any form in which it could be used as a component of a metalworking fluid, must send to each recipient of P-84-529 and confirm receipt in writing prior to the first shipment to that person:


(i) A letter that includes the following statements:



A substance, identified generically as mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid, contained in the product (insert distributor’s other identifier for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.115, as published in the Federal Register of September 20, 1984. A copy of the regulation is enclosed. The regulation prohibits the addition of any nitrosating agent, including nitrites, to the mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid, when the substance is or could be used in metalworking fluids. The addition of nitrites or other nitrosating agents to this substance leads to formation of a substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid has been specifically designed to be used without nitrites. Consult the enclosed regulation for further information.


(ii) A copy of this § 747.115.


(2)(i) Any person who distributes in commerce a metalworking fluid containing P-84-529 must affix a label to each container containing the fluid.


(ii) The label shall contain a warning statement which shall consist only of the following language:



WARNING! Do Not Add Nitrites to This Metalworking Fluid under Penalty of Federal Law. Addition of nitrites leads to formation of a substance known to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites.


(iii) The first work of the warning statement shall be capitalized, and the type size for the first word shall be no smaller than six point type for a label five square inches or less in area, ten point type for a label above five but below ten square inches in area, twelve point type for a label above ten but below fifteen square inches in area, fourteen point type for a label above fifteen but below thirty square inches in area, or eighteen point type for a label over thirty square inches in area. The type size of the remainder of the warning statement shall be no smaller than six point type. All required label text shall be of sufficient prominence, and shall be placed with such conspicuousness relative to other label text and graphic material, to insure that the warning statement is read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.


(e) Liability and determining whether a chemical substance is subject to this section. (1) If a manufacturer or importer of a chemical substance which is described by the generic chemical name in paragraph (a) of this section makes an inquiry under § 710.7(g) of this chapter or § 720.25(b) of this chapter as to whether the specific substance is on the Inventory and EPA informs the manufacturer or importer that the substance is on the Inventory, EPA will also inform the manufacturer or importer whether the substance is subject to this section.


(2) Except for manufacturers and importers of P-84-529, no processor, distributor, or user of P-84-529 will be in violation of this section unless that person has received a letter specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section or a container with the label specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.


(f) Exemptions. A person identified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section is not subject to the requirements of those paragraphs if:


(1) The person manufactures, imports, processes, distributes in commerce, or uses the substance only in small quantities solely for research and development and in accordance with section 5(h)(3) of the Act.


(2) The person manufactures, imports, processes, distributes in commerce, or uses the substance only as an impurity.


(3) The person imports, processes, distributes in commerce, or uses the substance only as part of an article.


(4) The person processes or distributes the substance in commerce solely for export and, when distributing in commerce, lables the substance in accordance with section 12(a)(1)(B) of the Act.


(g) Enforcement. (1) Failure to comply with any provision of this section is a violation of section 15 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 2614].


(2) Failure or refusal to permit access to or copying of records, as required under section 11 of the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 2614].


(3) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection, as required under section 11 of the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 2614].


(4) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 2615] for each violation.


(5) EPA may seek to enjoin the processing, distribution in commerce, or use of a chemical substance in violation of this section; act to seize any chemical substance processed, distributed in commerce, or used in violation of this section; or take other actions under the authority of sections 7 and 17 of the Act [15 U.S.C. 2605 and 2616].


[49 FR 36855, Sept. 20, 1984]


§ 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

This section identifies activities with respect to a chemical substance which are prohibited and requires that warnings and instructions accompany the substance when distributed in commerce.


(a) Chemical substance subject to this section. The following chemical substance, referred to by its premanufacture notice number and generic chemical name, is subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.


(b) Definitions. Definitions in section 3 of the Act, 15 U.S.C. 2602, apply to this section unless otherwise specified in this paragraph. In addition, the following definitions apply:


(1) The terms Act, article, chemical substance, commerce, importer, impurity, Inventory, manufacturer, person, process, processor, and small quantities solely for research and development, have the same meaning as in § 720.3 of this chapter.


(2) Metalworking fluid means a liquid of any viscosity or color containing intentionally added water used in metal machining operations for the purpose of cooling, lubricating, or rust inhibition.


(3) Nitrosating agent means any substance that has the potential to transfer a nitrosyl group ( – NO) to a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine to form the corresponding nitrosamine.


(4) Process or distribute in commerce solely for export means to process or distribute in commerce solely for export from the United States under the following restrictions on domestic activity:


(i) Processing must be performed at sites under the control of the processor.


(ii) Distribution in commerce is limited to purposes of export.


(iii) The processor or distributor may not use the substance except in small quantities solely for research and development.


(c) Use limitations. (1) Any person producing a metalworking fluid, or a product which could be used in or as a metalworking fluid, which includes as one of its components P-84-310, is prohibited from adding any nitrosating agent to the metalworking fluid or product.


(2) A person using as a metalworking fluid a product containing P-84-310 is prohibited from adding any nitrosating agent to the product.


(d) Warnings and instructions. (1) Any person who distributes in commerce P-84-310 in a metalworking fluid, or in any form in which it could be used as a component of a metalworking fluid, must send to each recipient of P-84-310 and confirm receipt in writing prior to the first shipment to that person:


(i) A letter that includes the following statements: A substance, identified generically as a triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid, contained in the product (insert distributor’s trade name or other identifier for product containing P-84-310) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the regulation is enclosed. The regulation prohibits the addition of any nitrosating agent, including nitrites, to the triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid, when the substance is or could be used in metalworking fluids. The addition of nitrites or other nitrosating agents to this substance leads to formation of a substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid has been specifically designed to be used without nitrites. Consult the enclosed regulation for further information.


(ii) A copy of this § 747.195.


(2)(i) Any person who distributes in commerce a metalworking fluid containing P-84-310 must affix a label to each container containing the fluid.


(ii) The label shall contain a warning statement which shall consist only of the following language:



WARNING! Do Not Add Nitrites to This Metalworking Fluid under Penalty of Federal Law. Addition of nitrites leads to formation of a substance known to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites.


(iii) The first word of the warning statement shall be capitalized, and the type size for the first word shall be no smaller than six point type for a label five square inches or less in area, ten point type for a label above five but below ten square inches in area, twelve point type for a label above ten but below fifteen square inches in area, fourteen point type for a label above fifteen but below thirty square inches in area, or eighteen point type for a label over thirty square inches in area. The type size of the remainder of the warning statement shall be no smaller than six point type. All required label text shall be of sufficient prominence, and shall be placed with such conspicuousness relative to other label text and graphic material, to insure that the warning statement is read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.


(e) Liability and determining whether a chemical substance is subject to this section. (1) If a manufacturer or importer of a chemical substance which is described by the generic chemical name in paragraph (a) of this section makes an inquiry under § 710.7(g) of this chapter or § 720.25(b) of this chapter as to whether the specific substance is on the Inventory and EPA informs the manufacturer or importer that the substance is on the Inventory, EPA will also inform the manufacturer or importer whether the substance is subject to this section.


(2) Except for manufacturers and importers of P-84-310, no processor, distributor, or user of P-84-310 will be in violation of this section unless that person has received a letter specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section or a container with the label specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.


(f) Exemptions. A person identified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section is not subject to the requirements of those paragraphs if:


(1) The person manufactures, imports, processes, distributes in commerce, or uses the substance only in small quantities solely for research and development and in accordance with section 5(h)(3) of the Act.


(2) The person manufactures, imports, processes, distributes in commerce, or uses the substance only as an impurity.


(3) The person imports, processes, distributes in commerce, or uses the substance only as part of an article.


(4) The person processes or distributes the substance in commerce solely for export, and when distributing in commerce, labels the substance in accordance with section 12(a)(1)(B) of the Act.


(g) Enforcement. (1) Failure to comply with any provision of this section is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(2) Failure or refusal to permit access to or copying of records, as required under section 11 of the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(3) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection, as required under section 11 of the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


[49 FR 24668, June 14, 1984]


§ 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

This section identifies activities with respect to two chemical substances which are prohibited and requires that warnings and instructions accompany the substances when distributed in commerce.


(a) Chemical substances subject to this section. The following chemical substances, referred to by their premanufacture notice numbers and generic chemical names, are subject to this section:



P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and


P-83-1062, tricarboxylic acid.


(b) Definitions. Definitions in section 3 of the Act, 15 U.S.C. 2602, apply to this section unless otherwise specified in this paragraph. In addition, the following definitions apply:


(1) The terms Act, article, byproducts, chemical substance, commerce, imported, impurity, Inventory, manufacture or import for commercial purposes, manufacture solely for export, manufacturer, new chemical substance, person, process, processor, and small quantities solely for research and development have the same meaning as in § 720.3 of this chapter.


(2) Metalworking fluid means a liquid of any viscosity or color containing intentionally added water used in metal machining operations for the purpose of cooling or lubricating.


(3) Nitrosating agent means any substance that has the potential to transfer a nitrosyl group ( – NO) to a secondary or tertiary amine to form the corresponding nitrosamine.


(c) Use limitations. (1) Any person producing a metalworking fluid, or a product which could be used in or as a metalworking fluid, which includes as one of its components P-83-1005 is prohibited from adding any nitrosating agent to the metalworking fluid or product.


(2) Any person using as metalworking fluid a product containing P-83-1005 is prohibited from adding any nitrosating agent to the product.


(d) Warnings and instructions. (1) Any person who distributes in commerce P-83-1005 in a metalworking fluid, or in any form in which it could be used as a component of a metalworking fluid, must sent to each recipient of P-83-1005 and confirm receipt prior to the first shipment to that person:


(i) A letter that includes the following statements:



A substance, identified generically as triethanolamine salt, of tricarboxylic acid, contained in the product (insert distributor’s trade name or other identifier for product containing P-83-1005) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR 747.200, as published in the Federal Register of January 23, 1984. A copy of the regulation is enclosed. The regulation prohibits the addition of any nitrosating agent, including nitrites, to the triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid, when the substance is or could be used in metalworking fluids. The addition of nitrites or other nitrosating agents to this substance leads to formation of a substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The triethanolamine salt of the tricarboxylic acid, has been specifically designed to be used without nitrites. Consult the enclosed regulation for further information.


(ii) A copy of this rule.


(2) Any person who distributes in commerce a metalworking fluid containing P-83-1005 must affix to each container containing the fluid a label that includes, in letters no smaller than ten point type, the following statement:



WARNING! Do Not Add Nitrites to This Metalworking Fluid under Penalty of Federal Law. Addition of nitrite leads to formation of a substance known to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites.


(3) Any person who distributes in commerce P-83-1062 in any form in which it could be combined with water and triethanolamine to produce P-83-1005 must send to each recipient of P-83-1062, and confirm receipt prior to the first shipment to that person:


(i) A letter that includes the following statements:



A substance, identified generically as tricarboxylic acid, contained in the product (insert distributor’s trade name or other identifier for product containing P-83-1062) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 747.200 published in the Federal Register of January 23, 1984. A copy of the regulation is enclosed. Combining tricarboxylic acid with water and the triethanolamine produces a substance, identified generically as the triethanolamine salt of the tricarboxylic acid. The regulation prohibits the addition of nitrosating agents, including nitrites, to the triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid, when that substance is or could be used in metalworking fluids. The addition of nitrites or other nitrosating agents to that substance leads to formation of a substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. Consult the enclosed regulation for further information.


(ii) A copy of this rule.


(e) Liability and determining whether a chemical substance is subject to this section. (1) If a manufacturer or importer of a chemical substance which is described by one of the generic names in paragraph (a) of this section makes an inquiry under § 710.7(g) of this chapter or § 720.25(b) of this chapter as to whether the specific substance is on the Inventory and EPA informs the manufacturer or importer that the substance is on the Inventory, EPA will also inform the manufacturer or importer whether the substance is subject to this section.


(2) Except for manufacturers and importers of P-83-1005 and P-83-1062, no processor, distributor, or user of P-83-1005 or P-83-1062 will be in violation of this section unless that person has received a letter specified in paragraph (d)(1) or (3) of this section or a container with the label specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.


(f) Exemptions and exclusions. The chemical substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section are not subject to the requirements of paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, if:


(1) The substance is manufactured, imported, processed, distributed in commerce, and used only in small quantities solely for research and development, and if the substance is manufactured, imported, processed, distributed in commerce, and used in accordance with section 5(h)(3) of the Act.


(2) The substance is manufactured, imported, processed, distributed in commerce, or used only as an impurity.


(3) The substance is imported, processed, distributed in commerce, or used only as part of an article.


(4) The substance is manufactured solely for export.


(g) Enforcement. (1) Failure to comply with any provision of this section is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(2) Failure or refusal to permit access to or copying of records, as required under section 11 of the Act, is a violation of a section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(3) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection, as required under section 11 of the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(4) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C 2615) for each violation.


(5) EPA may seek to enjoin the processing, distribution in commerce, or use of a chemical substance in violation of this section, act to seize any chemical substance, processed, distributed in commerce, or used in violation of this section or take other actions under the authority of section 7 or 17 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2605 or 2616).


[49 FR 2772, Jan. 23, 1984]


PART 749 – WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2605 and 2607.

Subparts A-C [Reserved]

Subpart D – Air Conditioning and Cooling Systems

§ 749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

(a) Chemicals subject to this section. Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals that contain hexavalent chromium, usually in the form of sodium dichromate (CAS No. 10588-01-9), are subject to this section. Other examples of hexavalent chromium compounds that can be used to treat water are: Chromic acid (CAS No. 7738-94-5), chromium trioxide (CAS No. 1333-83-0), dichromic acid (CAS No.13530-68-2), potassium chromate (CAS No. 7789-00-6), potassium dichromate (CAS No. 7778-50-9), sodium chromate (CAS No. 7775-11-3), zinc chromate (CAS No. 13530-65-9), zinc chromate hydroxide (CAS No. 153936-94-6), zinc dichromate (CAS No. 14018-95-2), and zinc potassium chromate (CAS No. 11103-86-9).


(b) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to impose certain requirements on activities involving hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals to prevent unreasonable risks associated with human exposure to air emissions of hexavalent chromium from comfort cooling towers.


(c) Applicability. This section is applicable to use of hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in comfort cooling towers and to distribution in commerce of hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in cooling systems.


(d) Definitions. Definitions in section 3 of the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2602, apply to this section unless otherwise specified in this paragraph. In addition, the following definitions apply:


(1) Act means the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.


(2) Chilled water loop means any closed cooling water system that transfers heat from air handling units or refrigeration equipment to a refrigeration machine, or chiller.


(3) Closed cooling water system means any configuration of equipment in which heat is transferred by circulating water that is contained within the equipment and not discharged to the air; chilled water loops are included.


(4) Comfort cooling towers means cooling towers that are dedicated exlusively to and are an integral part of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning or refrigeration systems.


(5) Container means any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, or the like that holds hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in cooling systems.


(6) Cooling tower means an open water recirculating device that uses fans or natural draft to draw or force ambient air through the device to cool warm water by direct contact.


(7) Cooling system means any cooling tower or closed cooling water system.


(8) Distributor means any person who distributes in commerce water treatment chemicals for use in cooling systems.


(9) EPA means the Environmental Protection Agency.


(10) Hexavalent chromium means the oxidation state of chromium with an oxidation number of + 6; a coordination number of 4 and tetrahedral geometry.


(11) Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals means any chemical containing hexavalent chromium which can be used to treat water, either alone or in combination with other chemicals, where the mixture can be used to treat water.


(12) Industrial cooling tower means any cooling tower used to remove heat from industrial processes, chemical reactions, or plants producing electrical power.


(13) Label means any written, printed, or graphic material displayed on or affixed to containers of hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals that are to be used in cooling systems.


(14) Person means any natural person, firm, company, corporation, joint venture, partnership, sole proprietorship, association, or any other business entity; any State or political subdivision thereof; any municipality; any interstate body; and any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal Government.


(15) Shipment means the act or process of shipping goods by any form of conveyance.


(16) Water treatment chemicals means any combination of chemical substances used to treat water in cooling systems and can include corrosion inhibitors, antiscalants, dispersants, and any other chemical substances except biocides.


(e) Prohibition of distribution in commerce and commercial use. (1) All persons are prohibited from distributing in commerce hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in comfort cooling towers.


(2) All persons are prohibited from commercial use of hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in comfort cooling towers.


(3) Distribution in commerce of hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in, and commercial use of hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in, industrial cooling towers and closed cooling water systems are not prohibited.


(f) Effective dates. (1) The prohibition described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section against distributing in commerce hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in comfort cooling towers is effective February 20, 1990.


(2) The prohibition described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section against using hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in comfort cooling towers is effective May 18, 1990.


(g) Labeling. (1) Each person who distributes in commerce hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in cooling systems after February 20, 1990, shall affix a label or keep affixed an existing label in accordance with this paragraph, to each container of the chemicals. The label shall consist of the following language:



WARNING: This product contains hexavalent chromium. Inhalation of hexavalent chromium air emissions increases the risk of lung cancer. Federal Law prohibits use of this substance in comfort cooling towers, which are towers that are open water recirculation devices and that are dedicated exclusively to, and are an integral part of, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning or refrigeration systems.


(2) The first word of the warning statement shall be capitalized, and the type size for the first word shall be no smaller than 10-point type for a label less than or equal to 10 square inches in area, 12-point type for a label above 10 but less than or equal to 15 square inches in area, 14-point type for a label above 15 but less than or equal to 30 square inches in area, or 18-point type for a label above 30 square inches in area. The type size of the remainder of the warning statement shall be no smaller than 6-point type. All required label text shall be in English and of sufficient prominence and shall be placed with such conspicuousness, relative to other label text and graphic material, to ensure that the warning statement is read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.


(h) Recordkeeping. (1) Each person who distributes in commerce any hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in cooling systems after February 20, 1990, shall retain in one location at the headquarters of the distributor documentation showing:


(i) The name, address, contact, and telephone number of the cooling system owners/operators to whom the chemicals were shipped.


(ii) The chemicals included in the shipment, the amount of each chemical shipped, and the location(s) at which the chemicals will be used.


(2) The information described in paragraph (h)(1) of this section shall be retained for 2 years from the date of shipment.


(i) Reporting. (1) Each person who distributes in commerce any hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals for use in cooling systems shall report to the Regional Administrator of the EPA Region in which the distibutor headquarters is located. The report shall be postmarked not later than February 20, 1990, or 30 days after the person first begins the distribution in commerce of hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals, whichever is later, and shall include:


(i) For the headquarters, the distributor name, address, telephone number, and the name of a contact.


(ii) For the shipment offices through which hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals are sold for use in cooling systems, the distributor name, address, telephone number, and the name of a contact.


(2) The report identified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section shall be updated as changes occur in the distributor headquarters or shipment office information. The updated report shall be submitted to the Regional Administrator and postmarked no later than 10 calendar days after the change occurs.


(3) A person may assert a claim of confidentiality for any information submitted to EPA in connection with this rule. Any claim of confidentiality must accompany the information when submitted to EPA. Persons claiming information as confidential should do so by circling, bracketing, or underlining it and marking it with “CONFIDENTIAL.” EPA will disclose information subject to a claim of confidentiality only to the extent permitted by section 14 of TSCA and 40 CFR part 2, subpart B. If a person does not assert a claim of confidentiality for information at the time it is submitted to EPA, EPA may make the information public without further notice to that person.


(j) Enforcement. (1) Failure to comply with any provision of this section is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(2) Failure or refusal to establish and maintain records or to permit access to or copying of records, as required by the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(3) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection as required by section 11 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2610) is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(4) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation.


(k) Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2610) to ensure compliance with this section.


[55 FR 240, Jan. 3, 1990, as amended at 59 FR 42773, Aug. 19, 1994]


PART 750 – PROCEDURES FOR RULEMAKING UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2605.

Subpart A [Reserved]

Subpart B – Interim Procedural Rules for Manufacturing Exemptions


Source:43 FR 50905, Nov. 1, 1978, unless otherwise noted.

§ 750.10 Applicability.

Sections 750.10-750.15 apply to all rulemakings under authority of section 6(e)(3)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. 2605(e)(3)(B) with respect to petitions filed pursuant to § 750.11(a).


[81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


§ 750.11 Filing of petitions for exemption.

(a) Who may file. Any person seeking an exemption from the PCB manufacturing ban imposed by section 6(e)(3)(A) of TSCA may file a petition for exemption. Petitions must be submitted on an individual basis for each manufacturer or individual affected by the 1979 manufacturing ban.


(b) Where to file. All petitions pertaining to:


(1) PCB use, which includes storage for use or reuse, manufacture, processing related to manufacture and use, and distribution in commerce related to use or processing for use, must be submitted to: OPPT Document Control Officer (7407T), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001.


(2) PCB disposal, which includes cleanup, storage for disposal, processing related to disposal, distribution in commerce related to disposal or processing for disposal, and decontamination, must be submitted to: Document Control Officer, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery (5305P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania, NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001.


(c) Content of petition. Each petition shall contain the following:


(1) Name, address and telephone number of petitioner.


(2) Description of PCB ban exemption requested, including items to be manufactured and nature of manufacturing process – such as smelting.


(3) Location(s) of manufacturing sites requiring exemption.


(4) Length of time requested for exemption (maximum length of exemption is 1 year).


(5) Amount of PCB chemical substance or PCB mixture (by pounds and/or volume) to be manufactured or used during requested exemption period and the manner of release of PCB’s into the environment associated with such manufacture or use.


(6) The basis for the petitioner’s contention that under section 6(e)(3)(B)(i) of TSCA “an unreasonable risk of injury to health or environment would not result” from the granting of his petition for exemption.


(7) The basis for the petitioner’s contention that he meets the criterion of section 6(e)(3)(B)(ii) of TSCA concerning substitutes for PCB’s.


(8) Quantification of the reasonably ascertainable economic consequences of denial of the petition for exemption from the 1979 manufacturing ban and an explanation of the manner of computation.


(d) Request for further information. The Agency reserves the right to request further information as to each petition prior to or after publication of the notice of proposed rulemaking required by § 750.13.


(e) Renewal requests. (1) Any petitioner who has been granted an exemption under section 6(e)(3)(B) of TSCA, on or after May 25, 1994, and who seeks to renew that exemption without changing its terms, must submit a letter by certified mail to EPA requesting that the exemption be granted for the following year.


(i) This letter must contain a certification by the petitioner that the type of activities, the procedures for handling the PCBs, the amount of PCBs handled, and any other aspect of the exemption have not changed from the original exemption petition request.


(ii) This letter must be received by EPA at least 6 months prior to the expiration of the existing exemption.


(iii) If a petitioner fails to make a submission or the submission is not timely under this section, the exemption will expire 1 year from the effective date of granting that exemption.


(iv) EPA will address a timely submission of a renewal request by rulemaking and either grant or deny the request.


(2) Any petitioner who has been granted an exemption on or after May 25, 1994, and who seeks to increase the amount of PCBs handled or to change the type of activities, the procedures for handling the PCBs, and any other aspect of their existing exemption must submit a new exemption petition to EPA. The existing exemption activity may continue until the new submission is addressed by rulemaking, provided the activity conforms to the terms of the current exemption approved by EPA, and the petitioner complies with the conditions of paragraph (e)(1) of this section.


(3) Any petitioner who has been granted a TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B) exemption in a rule prior to May 25, 1994, and who seeks to increase the amount of PCBs handled or to change the type of activities, the procedures for handling the PCBs, and any other aspect of their existing exemption must submit a new exemption petition to EPA. The existing exemption activity may continue until the new submission is addressed by rulemaking, provided the activity conforms to the terms of the original exemption approved by EPA.


[43 FR 50905, Nov. 1, 1978, as amended at 53 FR 12524, Apr. 15, 1988; 59 FR 16998, Apr. 11, 1994; 72 FR 57238, Oct. 9, 2007; 74 FR 30232, June 25, 2009]


§ 750.12 Consolidation of rulemakings.

All petitions received pursuant to § 750.11(a) will be consolidated into one rulemaking with one informal hearing held on all petitions.


§ 750.13 Notice of proposed rulemaking.

Rulemaking for PCB exemptions filed pursuant to § 750.11(a) shall begin with the publication of a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register. The notice shall state in summary form the required information described in § 750.11(c). Due to time constraints, the notice need not indicate what action EPA proposes to take on the exemption petitions.


[81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


§ 750.14 Confidentiality.

The Agency encourages the submission of nonconfidential information by petitioners and commenters. The Agency does not wish to have unnecessary restrictions on access to the rulemaking record. However, if a petitioner or commenter believes that he can only state his position through the use of information claimed to be confidential, he may submit it. Such information must be separately submitted for the rulemaking record and marked “confidential” by the submitter. For the information claimed to be confidential, the Agency will list only the date and the name and address of the petitioner or commenter in the public file, noting that the petitioner or commenter has requested confidential treatment. The information claimed to be confidential will be placed in a confidential file. A petitioner must also file a nonconfidential petition with a nonconfidential summary of the confidential information to be placed in the public file. Similarly, a commenter must supply a nonconfidential summary of the information claimed to be confidential to be placed in the public file. Any information not marked as confidential will be placed in the public file. Information marked confidential will be treated in accordance with the procedures in part 2, subpart B of this title.


[43 FR 50905, Nov. 1, 1978. Redesignated at 81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


§ 750.15 Final rule.

(a) [Reserved]


(b) EPA will grant or deny petitions under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B) submitted pursuant to § 750.11.


(c) In determining whether to grant an exemption to the PCB ban, the Agency shall apply the two standards enunciated in TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).


[81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


Subpart C – Interim Procedural Rules for Processing and Distribution in Commerce Exemptions


Source:44 FR 31560, Mar. 31, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

§ 750.30 Applicability.

Sections 750.30 through 750.35 apply to all rulemakings under authority of section 6(e)(3)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. 2605(e)(3)(B) with respect to petitions for PCB processing and distribution in commerce exemptions filed pursuant to § 750.31(a).


[81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


§ 750.31 Filing of petitions for exemption.

(a) Who may file. Any person seeking an exemption from the PCB processing and distribution in commerce prohibitions imposed by section 6(e)(3)(A)(ii) of TSCA may file a petition for exemption. Petitions must be submitted on an individual basis for each processor, distributor, seller or individual affected by the 1979 processing and distribution in commerce prohibitions, except as described in paragraphs (a) (1) through (9) of this section.


(1) Processing and distribution in commerce of PCB-contaminated transformer dielectric fluid. Persons who process or distribute in commerce dielectric fluid containing 50 ppm or greater PCB (but less than 500 ppm PCB) for use in PCB-Contaminated Transformers may submit a single consolidated petition on behalf of any number of petitioners. The name and address of each petitioner must be stated in the petition.


(2) Contaminated substances and mixtures – processing. Persons who process the same chemical substance or the same mixture containing 50 ppm or greater PCB as an impurity or contaminant may submit a consolidated petition if the chemical substance or mixture is processed for the same use by each person represented by the petition. For example, persons who process a PCB-contaminated pigment into printing inks may combine their petitions into one petition. The name and address of each petitioner must be stated in the petition.


(3) Contaminated substances and mixtures – distribution in commerce. Persons who distribute in commerce the same chemical substance or the same mixture containing 50 ppm or greater PCB as an impurity or contaminant may submit a consolidated petition if the chemical substance or mixture is distributed in commerce for a common use. Such a petition is not required to name each person who distributes in commerce the chemical substance or mixture.


(4) PCB capacitor distribution for purposes of repair. Persons who distribute in commerce PCB capacitors for servicing (repair) of PCB Equipment may submit a single consolidated petition on behalf of any number of petitioners engaged in such distribution in commerce for purposes of repair. The name of each petitioner need not be stated in the petition.


(5) Small quantities for research and development. Persons who process or distribute in commerce small quantities of PCBs for research and development may submit a single consolidated petition. The name and address of each petitioner must be stated in the petition.


(6) Microscopy. Persons who process or distribute in commerce PCBs for use as a mounting medium in microscopy may submit a single consolidated petition on behalf of any number of petitioners. The name and address of each petitioner must be stated in the petition.


(7) Processing of PCB Articles into PCB Equipment. A person who processes (incorporates) PCB Articles (such as small PCB Capacitors) into PCB Equipment may submit a petition on behalf of himself and all persons who further process or distribute in commerce PCB Equipment built by the petitioner. For example, a builder of motors who places small PCB Capacitors in the motors may submit a petition on behalf of all persons who process or incorporate motors built by the petitioner into other pieces of PCB Equipment and all those who sell the equipment. Such a petition is not required to identify the persons who distribute in commerce or further process the PCB Equipment. A separate petition must be filed, however, by each processor of PCB Articles into PCB Equipment.


(8) Processing of PCB Equipment into other PCB Equipment. A person who processes (incorporates) PCB Equipment into other PCB Equipment may submit a petition on behalf of himself and all persons who further process or distribute in commerce PCB Equipment built by the petitioner. Such a petition is not required to identify the persons who distribute in commerce or further process the PCB Equipment. If a petition has been filed under paragraph (a)(7) of this section by the builder of the original PCB Equipment, no other petition is required.


(9) Distribution of PCB Equipment. Distributors in commerce of PCB Equipment may submit a consolidated petition on behalf of persons who distribute in commerce PCB Equipment of one type (such as air conditioners). The petition is not required to name the persons who distribute in commerce the affected PCB Equipment.


(b) Where to file. All petitions pertaining to:


(1) PCB use, which includes storage for use or reuse, manufacture, processing related to manufacture and use, and distribution in commerce related to use or processing for use, must be submitted to: OPPT Document Control Officer (7407T), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001.


(2) PCB disposal, which includes cleanup, storage for disposal, processing related to disposal, distribution in commerce related to disposal or processing for disposal, and decontamination, must be submitted to: Document Control Officer, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery (5305P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001.


(c) Content of petition. Each petition must contain the following:


(1) Name, address and telephone number of petitioner. See also paragraphs (a) (1) through (9) of this section for additional identification requirements applicable to certain consolidated petitions.


(2) Description of PCB processing or distribution in commerce exemption requested, including a description of the chemical substances, mixtures or items to be processed or distributed in commerce and, if processing is involved, the nature of the processing.


(3) For processing petitions, location(s) of sites requiring exemption.


(4) Length of time requested for exemption (maximum length of exemption is one year).


(5) Estimated amount of PCBs (by pound and/or volume) to be processed, distributed in commerce, or used during requested exemption period and the manner of release of PCBs into the environment associated with such processing, distribution in commerce, or use. Where the PCB concentration is less than 500 ppm, both the total liquid volume and the total PCB volume must be provided.


(6) The basis for the petitioner’s contention that under section 6(e)(3)(B)(i) of TSCA “an unreasonable risk of injury to health or environment would not result” from the granting of the petition for exemption.


(7) The basis for the petitioner’s contention that under section 6(e)(3)(B)(ii) “good faith efforts have been made to develop a chemical substance which does not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment and which may be substituted for” the PCB.


(8) Quantification of the reasonably ascertainable economic consequences of denying the petition for exemption and an explanation of the manner of computation.


(9) In addition to the information in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(8) of this section, certain petitions must contain additional information as follows:


(i) Persons who process or distribute in commerce dielectric fluids containing 50 ppm or greater PCB for use in PCB Transformers, railroad transformers, or PCB electromagnets must also state the expected number of PCB Transformers, railroad transformers, or PCB electromagnets to be serviced under the exemption. In addition, a person must identify all the facilities which he owns or operates where he services PCB transformers, railroad transformers, or PCB electromagnets.


(ii) Persons filing petitions under paragraph (a)(1) of this section (Processing and Distribution in Commerce of PCB-Contaminated Transformer Dielectric Fluid) must also provide the expected number of PCB-Contaminated Transformers to be serviced under the requested exemption and the expected method of disposal of waste dielectric fluid. In addition, a person must identify all the facilities which he owns or operates where he services PCB-Contaminated Transformers. This information, as well as the information required by paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(3), and (c)(5) of this section, must be provided for each person represented by the petition. All other information may be provided on a group basis.


(iii) Persons filing petitions under paragraphs (a)(2) (Contaminated Substances and Mixtures-Processing) and (a)(3) (Contaminated Substances and Mixtures-Distribution in Commerce) must also provide a justification for the class grouping selected and a description of the uses and the human and environmental exposure associated with each use of the PCB-contaminated chemical substance or mixture for which an exemption is sought. Information may be provided on a group basis, except that the information required by paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(3) and (c)(5) of this section, must be provided for each person represented by a petition under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.


(iv) Persons filing petitions under paragraph (a)(4) of this section (PCB Capacitor Distribution for Purposes of Repair) must also provide an estimate of the expected total number of PCB Capacitors to be distributed in commerce under the requested exemption. All information may be provided on a group basis.


(v) Persons filing petitions under paragraphs (a) (7) and (8) of this section (Processing of PCB Articles into PCB Equipment and Processing of PCB Equipment into Other PCB Equipment) must provide a description of each type of PCB Equipment (including the amount of PCBs by poundage and/or volume in the PCB Equipment) to be processed and/or distributed in commerce under the exemption, the number of each type of equipment expected to be processed and/or distributed in commerce, and the approximate number of distributors or further processors covered by the petition. All information may be provided on a group basis. However, in the case of a petition under paragraph (a)(7) of this section, the processor of PCB Articles into PCB Equipment must be identified in the petition. In the case of a petition under paragraph (a)(8) of this section, the processor of PCB Equipment who files the petition must be identified.


(vi) Persons filing petitions under paragraph (a)(9) of this section (Distribution of PCB Equipment) must provide a description of each type of PCB Equipment (including the amount of PCBs by poundage and/or volume in the PCB Equipment) to be distributed in commerce under the exemption, the number of each type of equipment to be distributed in commerce, and the approximate number of distributors covered by the petition. All information may be provided on a group basis.


(vii) Persons filing petitions under paragraphs (a) (5) and (6) of this section must provide the information required by paragraphs (c) (1) through (8) of this section for each petitioner named in the petition.


(d) EPA reserves the right to request further information as to each petition where necessary to determine whether the petition meets the statutory tests of section 6(e)(3)(B) of TSCA prior to or after publication of the notice of proposed rulemaking required by § 750.33 of these rules.


(e) Renewal requests. (1) Any petitioner who has been granted an exemption under 40 CFR 761.80, except paragraph (g) of 40 CFR 761.80, on or after May 25, 1994, and who seeks to renew that exemption without changing its terms, must submit a letter by certified mail to EPA requesting that the exemption be granted for the following year.


(i) This letter must contain a certification by the petitioner that the type of activities, the procedures for handling the PCBs, the amount of PCBs handled, and any other aspect of the exemption have not changed from the original exemption petition request.


(ii) This letter must be received by EPA at least 6 months prior to the expiration of the existing exemption.


(iii) If a petitioner fails to make a submission or the submission is not timely under this section, the exemption will expire 1 year from the effective date of granting that exemption.


(iv) EPA will address a timely submission of a renewal request by rulemaking and either grant or deny the request.


(2) Any petitioner who has been granted an exemption on or after May 25, 1994, and who seeks to increase the amount of PCBs handled or to change the type of activities, the procedures for handling the PCBs, and any other aspect of their existing exemption must submit a new exemption petition to EPA. The existing exemption activity may continue until the new submission is addressed by rulemaking, provided the activity conforms to the terms of the current exemption approved by EPA, and the petitioner complies with the conditions of paragraph (e)(1) of this section.


(3) Any petitioner who has been granted a TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B) exemption in a rule prior to May 25, 1994, and who seeks to increase the amount of PCBs handled or to change the type of activities, the procedures for handling the PCBs, and any other aspect of their existing exemption must submit a new exemption petition to EPA. The existing exemption activity may continue until the new submission is addressed by rulemaking, provided the activity conforms to the terms of the original exemption approved by EPA.


[44 FR 31560, Mar. 31, 1979, as amended at 53 FR 12524, Apr. 15, 1988; 59 FR 16998, Apr. 11, 1994; 63 FR 35436, June 29, 1998; 72 FR 57238, Oct. 9, 2007; 74 FR 30232, June 25, 2009]


§ 750.32 Consolidation of rulemaking.

All petitions received pursuant to § 750.31(a) will be consolidated into one rulemaking with one informal hearing held on all petitions.


§ 750.33 Notice of proposed rulemaking.

Rulemaking for PCB exemptions filed pursuant to § 750.31(a) shall begin with the publication of a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register. The notice shall state in summary form the required information described in § 750.31(c).


[81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


§ 750.34 Confidentiality.

EPA encourages the submission of non-confidential information by petitioners and commentors. EPA does not wish to have unnecessary restrictions on access to the rulemaking record. However, if a petitioner or commentor believes that he can only state his position through the use of information claimed to be confidential, he may submit it. Such information must be separately submitted for the rulemaking record and marked “confidential” by the submitter. For the information claimed to be confidential, EPA will list only the date and the name and address of the petitioner or commentor in the public file, noting that the petitioner or commentor has requested confidential treatment. The information claimed to be confidential will be placed in a confidential file. A petitioner must also file a non-confidential petition with a non-confidential summary of the confidential information to be placed in the public file. Similarly, a commentor must supply a non-confidential summary of the information claimed to be confidential to be placed in the public file. Any information not marked as confidential will be placed in the public file. Information marked confidential will be treated in accordance with the procedures in part 2, subpart B of this title.


[44 FR 31560, Mar. 31, 1979. Redesignated at 81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


§ 750.35 Final rule.

(a) [Reserved]


(b) EPA will grant or deny petitions under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B) submitted pursuant to § 750.31.


(c) In determining whether to grant an exemption to the PCB ban, EPA will apply the two standards enunciated in TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).


[81 FR 93636, Dec. 21, 2016]


PART 751 – REGULATION OF CERTAIN CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES UNDER SECTION 6 OF THE TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2605, 15 U.S.C. 2625(l)(4).



Source:84 FR 11435, Mar. 27, 2019, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General Provisions

§ 751.1 Purpose.

This part sets forth requirements under section 6(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2605(a), regulating the manufacture (including import), processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of certain chemical substances and mixtures in order to address unreasonable risks to the extent necessary so that the chemical substance or mixture no longer presents such risk.


§ 751.5 Definitions.

The definitions in section 3 of the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2602, apply to this part except as otherwise established in any subpart under this part.


Act or TSCA means the Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.


CASRN means Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number.


EPA means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Person means any natural person, firm, company, corporation, joint venture, partnership, sole proprietorship, association, or any other business entity; any State or political subdivision thereof; any municipality; any interstate body; and any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government.


§ 751.7 Exports and imports.

(a) Exports. Persons who intend to export a chemical substance identified in any subpart under this part are subject to the export notification provisions of section 12(b) of the Act. The regulations that interpret section 12(b) appear at 40 CFR part 707, subpart D.


(b) Imports. Persons who import a substance identified in any subpart under this part are subject to the import certification requirements under section 13 of the Act, which are codified at 19 CFR 12.118 through 12.127. See also 19 CFR 127.28.


§ 751.9 Enforcement and inspections.

(a) Enforcement. (1) Failure to comply with any provision of this part is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(2) Failure or refusal to establish and maintain records or to permit access to or copying of records, as required by the Act, is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(3) Failure or refusal to permit entry or inspection as required by section 11 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2610) is a violation of section 15 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2614).


(4) Violators may be subject to the civil and criminal penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation.


(b) Inspections. EPA may conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2610) to ensure compliance with this part.


Subpart B – Methylene Chloride

§ 751.101 General.

This subpart sets certain restrictions on the manufacture (including import), processing, and distribution in commerce of methylene chloride (CASRN 75-09-2) for consumer paint and coating removal to prevent unreasonable risks of injury to health due to acute human lethality.


§ 751.103 Definitions.

The definitions in subpart A of this part apply to this subpart unless otherwise specified in this section. In addition, the following definitions apply:


Consumer paint and coating removal means paint and coating removal performed by any natural person who uses a paint and coating removal product for any personal use without receiving remuneration or other form of payment.


Distribute in commerce has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Act, except that the term does not include retailers for purposes of §§ 751.107 and 751.109.


Paint and coating removal means application of a chemical or use of another method to remove, loosen, or deteriorate any paint, varnish, lacquer, graffiti, surface protectants, or other coating from a substrate, including objects, vehicles, architectural features, or structures.


Retailer means a person who distributes in commerce or makes available a chemical substance or mixture to consumer end users, including e-commerce internet sales or distribution. Any distributor with at least one consumer end user customer is considered a retailer. A person who distributes in commerce or makes available a chemical substance or mixture solely to commercial or industrial end users or solely to commercial or industrial businesses is not considered a retailer.


§ 751.105 Consumer paint and coating removal.

(a) After November 22, 2019, all persons are prohibited from manufacturing, processing and distributing in commerce methylene chloride for consumer paint and coating removal.


(b) After November 22, 2019, all persons are prohibited from distributing in commerce methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride containing products, for paint and coating removal to retailers.


(c) After November 22, 2019, all retailers are prohibited from distributing in commerce methylene chloride, including any methylene chloride containing products, for paint and coating removal.


§ 751.107 Downstream notification.

Each person who manufactures, processes, or distributes in commerce methylene chloride for any use after August 26, 2019 must, prior to or concurrent with the shipment, notify companies to whom methylene chloride is shipped, in writing, of the restrictions described in this subpart. Notification must occur by inserting the following text in the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) provided with the methylene chloride or with any methylene chloride containing product:


(a) SDS Section 1.(c): “This chemical/product is not and cannot be distributed in commerce (as defined in TSCA section 3(5)) or processed (as defined in TSCA section 3(13)) for consumer paint or coating removal.”


(b) SDS Section 15: “This chemical/product is not and cannot be distributed in commerce (as defined in TSCA section 3(5)) or processed (as defined in TSCA section 3(13)) for consumer paint or coating removal.”


§ 751.109 Recordkeeping.

(a) Each person who manufactures, processes, or distributes in commerce any methylene chloride after August 26, 2019 must retain in one location at the headquarters of the company, or at the facility for which the records were generated, documentation showing:


(1) The name, address, contact, and telephone number of companies to whom methylene chloride was shipped;


(2) A copy of the notification provided under § 751.107; and


(3) The amount of methylene chloride shipped.


(b) The documentation in paragraph (a) of this section must be retained for 3 years from the date of shipment.


Subparts C-D [Reserved]

Subpart E – Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Chemicals


Source:86 FR 879, Jan. 6, 2021, unless otherwise noted.

§ 751.401 General.

(a) This subpart establishes prohibitions and restrictions on the manufacturing, processing, and distribution in commerce of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals in accordance with TSCA section 6(h), 15 U.S.C 2605(h).


(b) Unless otherwise specified in this subpart, prohibitions and restrictions of this subpart do not apply to the following activities:


(1) Distribution in commerce of any chemical substance, or any product or article that contains the chemical substance, that has previously been sold or supplied to an end user, i.e., any person that purchased or acquired the finished good for purposes other than resale. An example of an end user is a consumer who resells a product they no longer intend to use or who donates an article to charity.


(2) Disposal of any chemical substance, or any product or article that contains the chemical substance, as well as importation, processing and distribution in commerce of any chemical substance or any product or article that contains the chemical substance for purposes of disposal.


(3) Manufacturing, processing, distribution in commerce, and use of any chemical substance, or any product or article that contains the chemical substance, for research and development, as defined in § 751.403.


§ 751.403 Definitions.

The definitions in subpart A of this part apply to this subpart unless otherwise specified in this section.


2,4,6-TTBP means the chemical substance 2,4,6-tris(tert-butyl)phenol (CASRN 732-26-3).


2,4,6-TTBP oil and lubricant additives means any 2,4,6-TTBP-containing additive to a product of any viscosity intended to reduce friction between moving parts, whether mineral oil or synthetic base, including engine crankcase and gear oils and bearing greases. 2,4,6-TTBP oil and lubricant additive does not include hydraulic fluid and other oils whose primary purpose is not friction reduction.


Article means a manufactured item:


(1) Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture,


(2) Which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during end use, and


(3) Which has either no change of chemical composition during its end use or only those changes of composition which have no commercial purpose separate from that of the article, and that result from a chemical reaction that occurs upon end use of other chemical substances, mixtures, or articles; except that fluids and particles are not considered articles regardless of shape or design.


DecaBDE means the chemical substance decabromodiphenyl ether (CASRN 1163-19-5).


HCBD means the chemical substance hexachlorobutadiene (CASRN 87-68-3).


Lubricants and grease mean any product used to reduce friction, heat, or wear between moving or adjacent solid surfaces, or that enhance the lubricity of other substances.


PCTP means the chemical substance pentachlorothiophenol (CASRN 133-49-3).


PIP (3:1) means the chemical substance phenol, isopropylated phosphate (3:1) (CASRN 68937-41-7).


Product means the chemical substance, a mixture containing the chemical substance, or any object that contains the chemical substance or mixture containing the chemical substance that is not an article.


Research and Development means laboratory and research use only for purposes of scientific experimentation or analysis, or chemical research on, or analysis of, the chemical substance, including methods for disposal, but not for research or analysis for the development of a new product, or refinement of an existing product that contains the chemical substance.


[86 FR 879, Jan. 6, 2021, as amended at 86 FR 894, 909, 922, 932, Jan. 6, 2021]


§ 751.405 DecaBDE.

(a) Prohibition – (1) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (b) of this section, all persons are prohibited from all manufacturing and processing of decaBDE or decaBDE-containing products or articles after March 8, 2021, and all persons are prohibited from all distribution in commerce of decaBDE or decaBDE-containing products or articles after January 6, 2022.


(2) Phase-in of Prohibitions for Specific Uses of decaBDE and decaBDE-containing Products or Articles. (i) After July 6, 2022, all persons are prohibited from all manufacturing, processing, and distribution in commerce decaBDE for use in curtains in the hospitality industry, and the curtains to which decaBDE has been added.


(ii) After January 6, 2023, all persons are prohibited from all processing and distribution in commerce of decaBDE for use in wire and cable insulation in nuclear power generation facilities, and decaBDE-containing wire and cable insulation.


(iii) After January 8, 2024, all persons are prohibited from all manufacturing, processing, and distribution in commerce of decaBDE for use in parts installed in and distributed as part of new aerospace vehicles, and the parts to which decaBDE has been added for such vehicles. After the end of the aerospace vehicles service lives, all persons are prohibited from all importing, processing, and distribution in commerce of aerospace vehicles manufactured before January 8, 2024 that contain decaBDE in any part. After the end of the aerospace vehicles service lives, all persons are prohibited from all manufacture, processing and distribution in commerce of decaBDE for use in replacement parts for aerospace vehicles, and the replacement parts to which decaBDE has been added for such vehicles.


(iv) After the end of the vehicles service lives or 2036, whichever is earlier, all persons are prohibited from all manufacture, processing and distribution in commerce of decaBDE for use in replacement parts for motor vehicles, and the replacement parts to which decaBDE has been added for such vehicles.


(v) After the end of the pallets’ service life, all persons are prohibited from all distribution in commerce of plastic shipping pallets that contain decaBDE and were manufactured prior March 8, 2021.


(b) Exclusions to the Prohibition. Processing and distribution in commerce for recycling of decaBDE-containing plastic from products or articles and decaBDE-containing products or articles made from such recycled plastic, where no new decaBDE is added during the recycling or production processes is not subject to the prohibition in paragraph (a) of this section.


(c) Recordkeeping. (1) After March 8, 2021, all persons who manufacture, process, or distribute in commerce decaBDE or decaBDE-containing products or articles must maintain ordinary business records, such as invoices and bills-of-lading related to compliance with the prohibitions, restrictions, and other provisions of this section.


(i) These records must be maintained for a period of three years from the date the record is generated.


(ii) These records must include a statement that the decaBDE or the decaBDE-containing products or articles are in compliance with 40 CFR 751.405(a).


(iii) These records must be made available to EPA within 30 calendar days upon request.


(2) The recordkeeping requirements in paragraph (c)(1) do not apply to the activities described in paragraphs (a)(2)(v) and (b) of this section.


[86 FR 894, Jan. 6, 2021]


§ 751.407 PIP (3:1).

(a) Prohibitions – (1) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (b) of this section, all persons are prohibited from all processing and distributing in commerce of PIP (3:1), including in PIP (3:1)-containing products or articles after March 8, 2021.


(2) Phase-in Prohibitions for Specific uses of PIP (3:1) and PIP (3:1)-containing products and articles. (i) After January 6, 2025, all persons are prohibited from all processing and distributing in commerce of PIP (3:1) for use in adhesives and sealants, PIP (3:1)-containing products for use in adhesives and sealants, and PIP (3:1)-containing adhesives and sealants.


(ii) After January 1, 2022, all persons are prohibited from all processing and distributing in commerce of PIP (3:1) for use in photographic printing articles and PIP (3:1)-containing photographic printing articles.


(iii) After October 31, 2024, except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) and (b) of this section, all persons are prohibited from all processing and distribution in commerce of PIP (3:1) for use in articles and PIP (3:1)-containing articles.


(b) Exclusions. The following activities are not subject to the prohibitions in paragraph (a) of this section.


(1) Processing and distribution in commerce of:


(i) PIP (3:1) for use in hydraulic fluids either for the aviation industry or to meet military specifications for safety and performance where no alternative chemical is available that meets U.S. Department of Defense specification requirements, PIP (3:1)-containing products for use in such hydraulic fluids, and PIP (3:1)-containing hydraulic fluids either for the aviation industry or to meet military specifications for safety and performance where no alternative chemical is available that meets U.S. Department of Defense specification requirements.


(ii) PIP (3:1) for use in lubricants and greases, PIP (3:1) containing products for use in lubricants and greases, and PIP (3:1)-containing lubricants and greases.


(iii) PIP (3:1) and PIP (3:1)-containing products for use in new and replacement parts for motor and aerospace vehicles, the new and replacement parts to which PIP (3:1) has been added for such vehicles, and the motor and aerospace vehicles that contain new and replacement parts to which PIP (3:1) has been added;


(iv) PIP (3:1) and PIP (3:1)-containing products for use as an intermediate in a closed system to produce cyanoacrylate adhesives;


(v) PIP (3:1) for use in specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications, PIP (3:1) containing products for use in specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications, and PIP (3:1)-containing specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications;


(vi) Plastic for recycling from products or articles containing PIP (3:1), where no new PIP (3:1) is added during the recycling process; and


(vii) Finished products or articles made of plastic recycled from products or articles containing PIP (3:1), where no new PIP (3:1) was added during the production of the products or articles made of recycled plastic.


(2) [Reserved]


(c) Prohibition on releases to water. After March 8, 2021, all persons are prohibited from releasing PIP (3:1) to water during manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce of PIP (3:1) and PIP (3:1) containing products, and all persons are required to follow all applicable regulations and best management practices for preventing the release of PIP (3:1) and PIP (3:1)-containing products to water during commercial use.


(d) Recordkeeping. (1) After March 8, 2021, persons who manufacture, process, or distribute in commerce PIP (3:1) or PIP (3:1)-containing products or articles must maintain ordinary business records, such as invoices and bills-of-lading, related to compliance with the prohibitions, restrictions, and other provisions of this section. These records must be maintained for a period of three years from the date the record is generated.


(2) These records must include a statement that the PIP (3:1), or the PIP (3:1)-containing products or articles, are in compliance with 40 CFR 751.407(a).


(3) These records must be made available to EPA within 30 calendar days upon request.


(4) The recordkeeping requirements in paragraph (d) of this section do not apply to the activities described in paragraphs (b)(1)(vi) and (vii) of this section. The recordkeeping requirements in paragraph (d) of this section also do not apply to PIP (3:1)-containing articles until October 31, 2024.


(e) Downstream notification. (1) Each person who manufactures PIP (3:1) for any use after March 8, 2021 must, prior to or concurrent with the shipment, notify persons to whom PIP (3:1) is shipped, in writing, of the restrictions described in this subpart.


(2) Each person who processes or distributes in commerce PIP (3:1) or PIP (3:1)-containing products for any use after July 6, 2021 must, prior to or concurrent with the shipment, notify persons to whom PIP (3:1) is shipped, in writing, of the restrictions described in this subpart.


(3) Notification must occur by inserting the text in paragraphs (e)(3)(i) and (e)(3)(ii) in the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or by including on the label of any PIP (3:1) or PIP (3:1)-containing product the label language in paragraph (e)(3)(iii):


(i) SDS Section 1(c). “The Environmental Protection Agency prohibits processing and distribution of this chemical/product for any use other than: (1) In hydraulic fluids either for the aviation industry or to meet military specifications for safety and performance where no alternative chemical is available that meets U.S. Department of Defense specification requirements, (2) lubricants and greases, (3) New or replacement parts for motor and aerospace vehicles, (4) as an intermediate in the manufacture of cyanoacrylate glue, (5) In specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications, (6) In adhesives and sealants before January 6, 2025, after which use in adhesives and sealants is prohibited, and (7) in other articles before October 31, 2024, after which use in articles other than new or replacement parts for motor and aerospace vehicles or specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications is prohibited. In addition, all persons are prohibited from releasing PIP (3:1) to water during manufacturing, processing, and distribution in commerce, and must follow all existing regulations and best practices to prevent the release of PIP (3:1) to water during the commercial use of PIP (3:1).”; and


(ii) SDS Section 15. “The Environmental Protection Agency prohibits processing and distribution of this chemical/product for any use other than: (1) In hydraulic fluids either for the aviation industry or to meet military specifications for safety and performance where no alternative chemical is available that meets U.S. Department of Defense specification requirements, (2) lubricants and greases, (3) new or replacement parts for motor and aerospace vehicles, (4) as an intermediate in the manufacture of cyanoacrylate glue, (5) In specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications, (6) in adhesives and sealants before January 6, 2025, after which use in adhesives and sealants is prohibited, and (7) in other articles before October 31, 2024, after which use in articles other than new or replacement parts for motor and aerospace vehicles or specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications is prohibited. In addition, all persons are prohibited from releasing PIP (3:1) to water during manufacturing, processing, and distribution in commerce, and must follow all existing regulations and best practices to prevent the release of PIP (3:1) to water during the commercial use of PIP (3:1).”; or


(iii) Labeling. “The Environmental Protection Agency prohibits processing and distribution of this chemical/product for any use other than: (1) In hydraulic fluids either for the aviation industry or to meet military specifications for safety and performance where no alternative chemical is available that meets U.S. Department of Defense specification requirements, (2) lubricants and greases, (3) new or replacement parts for motor and aerospace vehicles, (4) as an intermediate in the manufacture of cyanoacrylate glue, (5) In specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications, (6) In adhesives and sealants before January 6, 2025, after which use in adhesives and sealants is prohibited, and (7) in other articles before October 31, 2024, after which use in articles other than new or replacement parts for motor and aerospace vehicles or specialized engine air filters for locomotive and marine applications is prohibited. In addition, all persons are prohibited from releasing PIP (3:1) to water during manufacturing, processing, and distribution in commerce, and must follow all existing regulations and best practices to prevent the release of PIP (3:1) to water during the commercial use of PIP (3:1).”


(4) The downstream notification requirements in this paragraph (e) do not apply to the activities described in paragraphs (b)(1)(vi) and (vii) of this section.


[86 FR 909, Jan. 6, 2021, as amended at 86 FR 51832, Sept. 17, 2021; 87 FR 12886, Mar. 8, 2022]


§ 751.409 2,4,6-TTBP.

(a) Prohibitions. (1) After January 6, 2026, all persons are prohibited from all distribution in commerce of 2,4,6-TTBP, at any concentration above 0.3 percent by weight, in containers with a volume less than 35 gallons.


(2) After January 6, 2026, all persons are prohibited from all processing and distribution in commerce of 2,4,6-TTBP oil and lubricant additives at any concentration above 0.3 percent by weight.


(b) Recordkeeping. After January 6, 2026, distributors of 2,4,6-TTBP must maintain ordinary business records, such as invoices and bills-of-lading, related to compliance with the prohibitions, restrictions, and other provisions of this section. These records must be maintained for a period of three years from the date the record is generated.


§ 751.411 PCTP.

(a) Prohibition. After March 8, 2021, all persons are prohibited from all manufacturing and processing of PCTP or PCTP-containing products or articles, unless PCTP concentrations are at or below 1% by weight. After January 6, 2022, all persons are prohibited from all distribution in commerce of PCTP or PCTP-containing products or articles, unless PCTP concentrations are at or below 1% by weight.


(b) Recordkeeping. After March 8, 2021, manufacturers, processors and distributors of PCTP or PCTP-containing products or articles must maintain ordinary business records related to compliance with the prohibitions, restrictions and other provisions of this section, such as invoices and bills-of-lading. These records must be maintained for a period of three years from the date the record is generated.


[86 FR 922, Jan. 6, 2021]


§ 751.413 HCBD.

(a) Prohibition. After March 8, 2021, all persons are prohibited from all manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce of HCBD and HCBD-containing products or articles, except for the following:


(1) Unintentional production of HCBD as a byproduct in the production of chlorinated solvents; and


(2) Processing and distribution in commerce of HCBD for burning as a waste fuel.


(b) Recordkeeping. After March 8, 2021, manufacturers, processors and distributors of HCBD or HCBD-containing products or articles must maintain ordinary business records related to compliance with the prohibitions, restrictions and other provisions of this section, such as invoices and bills-of-lading. These records must be maintained for a period of three years from the date the record is generated.


[86 FR 932, Jan. 6, 2021]


PART 761 – POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS


Authority:15 U.S.C. 2605, 2607, 2611, 2614, and 2616.



Source:43 FR 7156, Feb. 17, 1978, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General

§ 761.1 Applicability.

(a) This part establishes prohibitions of, and requirements for, the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, disposal, storage, and marking of PCBs and PCB Items.


(b)(1) This part applies to all persons who manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, use, or dispose of PCBs or PCB Items. Substances that are regulated by this part include, but are not limited to: dielectric fluids; solvents; oils; waste oils; heat transfer fluids; hydraulic fluids; paints or coatings; sludges; slurries; sediments; dredge spoils; soils; materials containing PCBs as a result of spills; and other chemical substances or combinations of substances, including impurities and byproducts and any byproduct, intermediate, or impurity manufactured at any point in a process.


(2) Unless otherwise noted, PCB concentrations shall be determined on a weight-per-weight basis (e.g., milligrams per kilogram), or for liquids, on a weight-per-volume basis (e.g., milligrams per liter) if the density of the liquid is also reported. Unless otherwise provided, PCBs are quantified based on the formulation of PCBs present in the material analyzed. For example, measure Aroclor
TM 1242 PCBs based on a comparison with Aroclor
TM 1242 standards. Measure individual congener PCBs based on a comparison with individual PCB congener standards.


(3) Most provisions in this part apply only if PCBs are present in concentrations above a specified level. Provisions that apply to PCBs at concentrations of 2. Provisions that apply to PCBs at concentrations of ≥50 to 10/100 cm
2 to 2. Provisions that apply to PCBs at concentrations of ≥500 ppm apply also to contaminated surfaces at PCB concentrations of ≥100 µg/100 cm
2.


(4) PCBs can be found in liquid, non-liquid and multi-phasic (combinations of liquid and non-liquid) forms. A person should use the following criteria to determine PCB concentrations to determine which provisions of this part apply to such PCBs.


(i) Any person determining PCB concentrations for non-liquid PCBs must do so on a dry weight basis.


(ii) Any person determining PCB concentrations for liquid PCBs must do so on a wet weight basis. Liquid PCBs containing more than 0.5 percent by weight non-dissolved material shall be analyzed as multi-phasic non-liquid/liquid mixtures.


(iii) Any person determining the PCB concentration of samples containing PCBs and non-dissolved non-liquid materials ≥0.5 percent, must separate the non-dissolved materials into non-liquid PCBs and liquid PCBs. For multi-phasic non-liquid/liquid or liquid/liquid mixtures, the phases shall be separated before chemical analysis. Following phase separation, the PCB concentration in each non-liquid phase shall be determined on a dry weight basis and the PCB concentration in each liquid phase shall be determined separately on a wet weight basis.


(iv) Any person disposing of multi-phasic non-liquid/liquid or liquid/liquid mixtures must use the PCB disposal requirements that apply to the individual phase with the highest PCB concentration except where otherwise noted. Alternatively, phases may be separated and disposed of using the PCB disposal requirements that apply to each separated, single-phase material.


(5) No person may avoid any provision specifying a PCB concentration by diluting the PCBs, unless otherwise specifically provided.


(6) Unless otherwise specified, references to weights or volumes of PCBs in this part apply to the total weight or total volume of the material (oil, soil, debris, etc.) that contains regulated concentrations of PCBs, not the calculated weight or volume of only the PCB molecules contained in the material.


(c) Definitions of the terms used in these regulations are in subpart A. The basic requirements applicable to disposal and marking of PCBs and PCB Items are set forth in subpart D – Disposal of PCBs and PCB Items and in subpart C – Marking of PCBs and PCB Items. Prohibitions applicable to PCB activities are set forth in subpart B – Manufacture, Processing, Distribution in Commerce, and Use of PCBs and PCB Items. Subpart B also includes authorizations from the prohibitions. Subparts C and D set forth the specific requirements for disposal and marking of PCBs and PCB Items.


(d) Section 15 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) states that failure to comply with these regulations is unlawful. Section 16 imposes liability for civil penalties upon any person who violates these regulations, and the Administrator can establish appropriate remedies for any violations subject to any limitations included in section 16 of TSCA. Section 16 also subjects a person to criminal prosecution for a violation which is knowing or willful. In addition, section 17 authorizes Federal district courts to enjoin activities prohibited by these regulations, compel the taking of actions required by these regulations, and issue orders to seize PCBs and PCB Items manufactured, processed or distributed in violation of these regulations.


(e) These regulations do not preempt other more stringent Federal statutes and regulations.


(f) Unless and until superseded by any new more stringent regulations issued under EPA authorities, or any permits or any pretreatment requirements issued by EPA, a state or local government that affect release of PCBs to any particular medium:


(1) Persons who inadvertently manufacture or import PCBs generated as unintentional impurities in excluded manufacturing processes, as defined in § 761.3, are exempt from the requirements of subpart B of this part, provided that such persons comply with subpart J of this part, as applicable.


(2) Persons who process, distribute in commerce, or use products containing PCBs generated in excluded manufacturing processes defined in § 761.3 are exempt from the requirements of subpart B provided that such persons comply with subpart J of this part, as applicable.


(3) Persons who process, distribute in commerce, or use products containing recycled PCBs defined in § 761.3, are exempt from the requirements of subpart B of this part, provided that such persons comply with subpart J of this part, as applicable.


(4) Except as provided in § 761.20 (d) and (e), persons who process, distribute in commerce, or use products containing excluded PCB products as defined in § 761.3, are exempt from the requirements of subpart B of this part.


(Sec. 6, Pub. L. 94-469, 90 Stat. 2020 (15 U.S.C. 2605)

[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 28189, July 10, 1984; 53 FR 24220, June 27, 1988; 63 FR 35436, June 29, 1998; 64 FR 33759, June 24, 1999]


§ 761.2 PCB concentration assumptions for use.

(a)(1) Any person may assume that transformers with

(2) Any person must assume that mineral oil-filled electrical equipment that was manufactured before July 2, 1979, and whose PCB concentration is not established is PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment (i.e., contains ≥50 ppm PCB, but

(3) Any person must assume that a transformer manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, that contains 1.36 kg (3 pounds) or more of fluid other than mineral oil and whose PCB concentration is not established, is a PCB Transformer (i.e., ≥500 ppm). If the date of manufacture and the type of dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer to be a PCB Transformer.


(4) Any person must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e.,

(b) PCB concentration may be established by:


(1) Testing the equipment; or


(2)(i) A permanent label, mark, or other documentation from the manufacturer of the equipment indicating its PCB concentration at the time of manufacture; and


(ii) Service records or other documentation indicating the PCB concentration of all fluids used in servicing the equipment since it was first manufactured.


[63 FR 35436, June 29, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 33759, June 24, 1999]


§ 761.3 Definitions.

For the purpose of this part:


Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, or any employee of the Agency to whom the Administrator may either herein or by order delegate his authority to carry out his functions, or any person who shall by operation of law be authorized to carry out such functions.


Agency means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.


Air compressor system means air compressors, piping, receiver tanks, volume tanks and bottles, dryers, airlines, and related appurtenances.


Annual document log means the detailed information maintained at the facility on the PCB waste handling at the facility.


Annual report means the written document submitted each year by each disposer and commercial storer of PCB waste to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator. The annual report is a brief summary of the information included in the annual document log.


ASTM means American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.


Byproduct means a chemical substance produced without separate commercial intent during the manufacturing or processing of another chemical substance(s) or mixture(s).


Capacitor means a device for accumulating and holding a charge of electricity and consisting of conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric. Types of capacitors are as follows:


(1) Small capacitor means a capacitor which contains less than 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid. The following assumptions may be used if the actual weight of the dielectric fluid is unknown. A capacitor whose total volume is less than 1,639 cubic centimeters (100 cubic inches) may be considered to contain less than 1.36 kgs (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid and a capacitor whose total volume is more than 3,278 cubic centimeters (200 cubic inches) must be considered to contain more than 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid. A capacitor whose volume is between 1,639 and 3,278 cubic centimeters may be considered to contain less then 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) of dielectric fluid if the total weight of the capacitor is less than 4.08 kg (9 lbs.).


(2) Large high voltage capacitor means a capacitor which contains 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) or more of dielectric fluid and which operates at 2,000 volts (a.c. or d.c.) or above.


(3) Large low voltage capacitor means a capacitor which contains 1.36 kg (3 lbs.) or more of dielectric fluid and which operates below 2,000 volts (a.c. or d.c.).


CERCLA means the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 U.S.C. 9601-9657).


Certification means a written statement regarding a specific fact or representation that contains the following language:



Under civil and criminal penalties of law for the making or submission of false or fraudulent statements or representations (18 U.S.C. 1001 and 15 U.S.C. 2615), I certify that the information contained in or accompanying this document is true, accurate, and complete. As to the identified section(s) of this document for which I cannot personally verify truth and accuracy, I certify as the company official having supervisory responsibility for the persons who, acting under my direct instructions, made the verification that this information is true, accurate, and complete.


Chemical substance, (1) except as provided in paragraph (2) of this definition, means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including: Any combination of such substances occurring in whole or part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature, and any element or uncombined radical.


(2) Such term does not include: Any mixture; any pesticide (as defined in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act) when manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce for use as a pesticide; tobacco or any tobacco product; any source material, special nuclear material, or byproduct material (as such terms are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and regulations issued under such Act); any article the sale of which is subject to the tax imposed by section 4181 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (determined without regard to any exemptions from such tax provided by section 4182 or section 4221 or any provisions of such Code); and any food, food additive, drug, cosmetic, or device (as such terms are defined in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) when manufactured, processed, or distributed in commerce for use as a food, food additive, drug, cosmetic, or device.


Chemical waste landfill means a landfill at which protection against risk of injury to health or the environment from migration of PCBs to land, water, or the atmosphere is provided from PCBs and PCB Items deposited therein by locating, engineering, and operating the landfill as specified in § 761.75.


Cleanup site means the areal extent of contamination and all suitable areas in very close proximity to the contamination necessary for implementation of a cleanup of PCB remediation waste, regardless of whether the site was intended for management of waste.


Commerce means trade, traffic, transportation, or other commerce:


(1) Between a place in a State and any place outside of such State, or


(2) Which affects trade, traffic, transportation, or commerce described in paragraph (1) of this definition.


Commercial storer of PCB waste means the owner or operator of each facility that is subject to the PCB storage unit standards of § 761.65(b)(1) or (c)(7) or meets the alternate storage criteria of § 761.65(b)(2), and who engages in storage activities involving either PCB waste generated by others or that was removed while servicing the equipment owned by others and brokered for disposal. The receipt of a fee or any other form of compensation for storage services is not necessary to qualify as a commercial storer of PCB waste. A generator who only stores its own waste is subject to the storage requirements of § 761.65, but is not required to obtain approval as a commercial storer. If a facility’s storage of PCB waste generated by others at no time exceeds a total of 500 gallons of liquid and/or non-liquid material containing PCBs at regulated levels, the owner or operator is a commercial storer but is not required to seek EPA approval as a commercial storer of PCB waste. Storage of one company’s PCB waste by a related company is not considered commercial storage. A “related company” includes, but is not limited to: a parent company and its subsidiaries; sibling companies owned by the same parent company; companies owned by a common holding company; members of electric cooperatives; entities within the same Executive agency as defined at 5 U.S.C. 105; and a company having a joint ownership interest in a facility from which PCB waste is generated (such as a jointly owned electric power generating station) where the PCB waste is stored by one of the co-owners of the facility. A “related company” does not include another voluntary member of the same trade association. Change in ownership or title of a generator’s facility, where the generator is storing PCB waste, does not make the new owner of the facility a commercial storer of PCB waste.


Designated facility means the off-site disposer or commercial storer of PCB waste designated on the manifest as the facility that will receive a manifested shipment of PCB waste.


Disposal means intentionally or accidentally to discard, throw away, or otherwise complete or terminate the useful life of PCBs and PCB Items. Disposal includes spills, leaks, and other uncontrolled discharges of PCBs as well as actions related to containing, transporting, destroying, degrading, decontaminating, or confining PCBs and PCB Items.


Disposer of PCB waste, as the term is used in subparts J and K of this part, means any person who owns or operates a facility approved by EPA for the disposal of PCB waste which is regulated for disposal under the requirements of subpart D of this part.


Distribute in commerce and Distribution in Commerce when used to describe an action taken with respect to a chemical substance, mixture, or article containing a substance or mixture means to sell, or the sale of, the substance, mixture, or article in commerce; to introduce or deliver for introduction into commerce, or the introduction or delivery for introduction into commerce of the substance, mixture, or article; or to hold or the holding of, the substance, mixture, or article after its introduction into commerce.


DOT means the United States Department of Transportation.


Dry weight means the weight of the sample, excluding the weight of the water in the sample. Prior to chemical analysis the water may be removed by any reproducible method that is applicable to measuring PCBs in the sample matrix at the concentration of concern, such as air drying at ambient temperature, filtration, decantation, heating at low temperature followed by cooling in the presence of a desiccant, or other processes or combinations of processes which would remove water but not remove PCBs from the sample. Analytical procedures which calculate the dry weight concentration by adjusting for moisture content may also be used.


EPA identification number means the 12-digit number assigned to a facility by EPA upon notification of PCB waste activity under § 761.205.


Excluded manufacturing process means a manufacturing process in which quantities of PCBs, as determined in accordance with the definition of inadvertently generated PCBs, calculated as defined, and from which releases to products, air, and water meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) through (5) of this definition, or the importation of products containing PCBs as unintentional impurities, which products meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition.


(1) The concentration of inadvertently generated PCBs in products leaving any manufacturing site or imported into the United States must have an annual average of less than 25 ppm, with a 50 ppm maximum.


(2) The concentration of inadvertently generated PCBs in the components of detergent bars leaving the manufacturing site or imported into the United States must be less than 5 ppm.


(3) The release of inadvertently generated PCBs at the point at which emissions are vented to ambient air must be less than 10 ppm.


(4) The amount of inadvertently generated PCBs added to water discharged from a manufacturing site must be less than 100 micrograms per resolvable gas chromatographic peak per liter of water discharged.


(5) Disposal of any other process wastes above concentrations of 50 ppm PCB must be in accordance with subpart D of this part.


Excluded PCB products means PCB materials which appear at concentrations less than 50 ppm, including but not limited to:


(1) Non-Aroclor inadvertently generated PCBs as a byproduct or impurity resulting from a chemical manufacturing process.


(2) Products contaminated with Aroclor or other PCB materials from historic PCB uses (investment casting waxes are one example).


(3) Recycled fluids and/or equipment contaminated during use involving the products described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition (heat transfer and hydraulic fluids and equipment and other electrical equipment components and fluids are examples).


(4) Used oils, provided that in the cases of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition:


(i) The products or source of the products containing

(ii) The products or source of the products containing

(iii) The resulting PCB concentration (i.e. below 50 ppm) is not a result of dilution, or leaks and spills of PCBs in concentrations over 50 ppm.


Facility means all contiguous land, and structures, other appurtenances, and improvements on the land, used for the treatment, storage, or disposal of PCB waste. A facility may consist of one or more treatment, storage, or disposal units.


Fluorescent light ballast means a device that electrically controls fluorescent light fixtures and that includes a capacitor containing 0.1 kg or less of dielectric.


Generator of PCB waste means any person whose act or process produces PCBs that are regulated for disposal under subpart D of this part, or whose act first causes PCBs or PCB Items to become subject to the disposal requirements of subpart D of this part, or who has physical control over the PCBs when a decision is made that the use of the PCBs has been terminated and therefore is subject to the disposal requirements of subpart D of this part. Unless another provision of this part specifically requires a site-specific meaning, “generator of PCB waste” includes all of the sites of PCB waste generation owned or operated by the person who generates PCB waste.


High occupancy area means any area where PCB remediation waste has been disposed of on-site and where occupancy for any individual not wearing dermal and respiratory protection for a calendar year is: 840 hours or more (an average of 16.8 hours or more per week) for non-porous surfaces and 335 hours or more (an average of 6.7 hours or more per week) for bulk PCB remediation waste. Examples could include a residence, school, day care center, sleeping quarters, a single or multiple occupancy 40 hours per week work station, a school class room, a cafeteria in an industrial facility, a control room, and a work station at an assembly line.


Importer means any person defined as an “importer” at § 720.3(l) of this chapter who imports PCBs or PCB Items and is under the jurisdiction of the United States.


Impurity means a chemical substance which is unintentionally present with another chemical substance.


In or Near Commercial Buildings means within the interior of, on the roof of, attached to the exterior wall of, in the parking area serving, or within 30 meters of a non-industrial non-substation building. Commercial buildings are typically accessible to both members of the general public and employees, and include: (1) Public assembly properties, (2) educational properties, (3) institutional properties, (4) residential properties, (5) stores, (6) office buildings, and (7) transportation centers (e.g., airport terminal buildings, subway stations, bus stations, or train stations).


Incinerator means an engineered device using controlled flame combustion to thermally degrade PCBs and PCB Items. Examples of devices used for incineration include rotary kilns, liquid injection incinerators, cement kilns, and high temperature boilers.


Industrial building means a building directly used in manufacturing or technically productive enterprises. Industrial buildings are not generally or typically accessible to other than workers. Industrial buildings include buildings used directly in the production of power, the manufacture of products, the mining of raw materials, and the storage of textiles, petroleum products, wood and paper products, chemicals, plastics, and metals.


Laboratory means a facility that analyzes samples for PCBs and is unaffiliated with any entity whose activities involve PCBs.


Leak or leaking means any instance in which a PCB Article, PCB Container, or PCB Equipment has any PCBs on any portion of its external surface.


Liquid PCBs means a homogenous flowable material containing PCBs and no more than 0.5 percent by weight non-dissolved material.


Low occupancy area means any area where PCB remediation waste has been disposed of on-site and where occupancy for any individual not wearing dermal and respiratory protection for a calendar year is: less than 840 hours (an average of 16.8 hours per week) for non-porous surfaces and less than 335 hours (an average of 6.7 hours per week) for bulk PCB remediation waste. Examples could include an electrical substation or a location in an industrial facility where a worker spends small amounts of time per week (such as an unoccupied area outside a building, an electrical equipment vault, or in the non-office space in a warehouse where occupancy is transitory).


Manifest means the shipping document EPA form 8700-22 and any continuation sheet attached to EPA form 8700-22, originated and signed by the generator of PCB waste in accordance with the instructions included with the form and subpart K of this part.


Manned Control Center means an electrical power distribution control room where the operating conditions of a PCB Transformer are continuously monitored during the normal hours of operation (of the facility), and, where the duty engineers, electricians, or other trained personnel have the capability to deenergize a PCB Transformer completely within 1 minute of the receipt of a signal indicating abnormal operating conditions such as an overtemperature condition or overpressure condition in a PCB Transformer.


Manufacture means to produce, manufacture, or import into the customs territory of the United States.


Manufacturing process means all of a series of unit operations operating at a site, resulting in the production of a product.


Mark means the descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCBs and PCB Items, or other objects subject to these regulations.


Marked means the marking of PCB Items and PCB storage areas and transport vehicles by means of applying a legible mark by painting, fixation of an adhesive label, or by any other method that meets the requirements of these regulations.


Market/Marketers means the processing or distributing in commerce, or the person who processes or distributes in commerce, used oil fuels to burners or other marketers, and may include the generator of the fuel if it markets the fuel directly to the burner.


Mineral Oil PCB Transformer means any transformer originally designed to contain mineral oil as the dielectric fluid and which has been tested and found to contain 500 ppm or greater PCBs.


Mixture means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction; except that such term does include any combination which occurs, in whole or in part, as a result of a chemical reaction if none of the chemical substances comprising the combination is a new chemical substance and if the combination could have been manufactured for commercial purposes without a chemical reaction at the time the chemical substances comprising the combination were combined.


Municipal solid wastes means garbage, refuse, sludges, wastes, and other discarded materials resulting from residential and non-industrial operations and activities, such as household activities, office functions, and commercial housekeeping wastes.


Natural gas pipeline system means natural gas gathering facilities, natural gas pipe, natural gas compressors, natural gas storage facilities, and natural gas pipeline appurtenances (including instrumentation and vessels directly in contact with transported natural gas such as valves, regulators, drips, filter separators, etc., but not including air compressors).


Non-liquid PCBs means materials containing PCBs that by visual inspection do not flow at room temperature (25 °C or 77 °F) or from which no liquid passes when a 100 g or 100 ml representative sample is placed in a mesh number 60 ±5 percent paint filter and allowed to drain at room temperature for 5 minutes.


Non-PCB Transformer means any transformer that contains less than 50 ppm PCB; except that any transformer that has been converted from a PCB Transformer or a PCB-Contaminated Transformer cannot be classified as a non-PCB Transformer until reclassification has occurred, in accordance with the requirements of § 761.30(a)(2)(v).


Non-porous surface means a smooth, unpainted solid surface that limits penetration of liquid containing PCBs beyond the immediate surface. Examples are: smooth uncorroded metal; natural gas pipe with a thin porous coating originally applied to inhibit corrosion; smooth glass; smooth glazed ceramics; impermeable polished building stone such as marble or granite; and high density plastics, such as polycarbonates and melamines, that do not absorb organic solvents.


NTIS means the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.


On site means within the boundaries of a contiguous property unit.


Open burning means the combustion of any PCB regulated for disposal, in a manner not approved or otherwise allowed under subpart D of this part, and without any of the following:


(1) Control of combustion air to maintain adequate temperature for efficient combustion.


(2) Containment of the combustion reaction in an enclosed device to provide sufficient residence time and mixing for complete combustion.


(3) Control of emission of the gaseous combustion products.


PCB and PCBs means any chemical substance that is limited to the biphenyl molecule that has been chlorinated to varying degrees or any combination of substances which contains such substance. Refer to § 761.1(b) for applicable concentrations of PCBs. PCB and PCBs as contained in PCB items are defined in § 761.3. For any purposes under this part, inadvertently generated non-Aroclor PCBs are defined as the total PCBs calculated following division of the quantity of monochlorinated biphenyls by 50 and dichlorinated biphenyls by 5.


PCB Article means any manufactured article, other than a PCB Container, that contains PCBs and whose surface(s) has been in direct contact with PCBs. “PCB Article” includes capacitors, transformers, electric motors, pumps, pipes and any other manufactured item (1) which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture, (2) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during end use, and (3) which has either no change of chemical composition during its end use or only those changes of composition which have no commercial purpose separate from that of the PCB Article.


PCB Article Container means any package, can, bottle, bag, barrel, drum, tank, or other device used to contain PCB Articles or PCB Equipment, and whose surface(s) has not been in direct contact with PCBs.


PCB bulk product waste means waste derived from manufactured products containing PCBs in a non-liquid state, at any concentration where the concentration at the time of designation for disposal was ≥50 ppm PCBs. PCB bulk product waste does not include PCBs or PCB Items regulated for disposal under § 761.60(a) through (c), § 761.61, § 761.63, or § 761.64. PCB bulk product waste includes, but is not limited to:


(1) Non-liquid bulk wastes or debris from the demolition of buildings and other man-made structures manufactured, coated, or serviced with PCBs. PCB bulk product waste does not include debris from the demolition of buildings or other man-made structures that is contaminated by spills from regulated PCBs which have not been disposed of, decontaminated, or otherwise cleaned up in accordance with subpart D of this part.


(2) PCB-containing wastes from the shredding of automobiles, household appliances, or industrial appliances.


(3) Plastics (such as plastic insulation from wire or cable; radio, television and computer casings; vehicle parts; or furniture laminates); preformed or molded rubber parts and components; applied dried paints, varnishes, waxes or other similar coatings or sealants; caulking; adhesives; paper; Galbestos; sound deadening or other types of insulation; and felt or fabric products such as gaskets.


(4) Fluorescent light ballasts containing PCBs in the potting material.


PCB Capacitor means any capacitor that contains ≥500 ppm PCB. Concentration assumptions applicable to capacitors appear under § 761.2.


PCB Container means any package, can, bottle, bag, barrel, drum, tank, or other device that contains PCBs or PCB Articles and whose surface(s) has been in direct contact with PCBs.


PCB-Contaminated means a non-liquid material containing PCBs at concentrations ≥50 ppm but 10 µg/100 cm
2 but 2, measured by a standard wipe test as defined in § 761.123.


PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment means any electrical equipment including, but not limited to, transformers (including those used in railway locomotives and self-propelled cars), capacitors, circuit breakers, reclosers, voltage regulators, switches (including sectionalizers and motor starters), electromagnets, and cable, that contains PCBs at concentrations of ≥50 ppm and 10 µg/100 cm
2 and 2 as measured by a standard wipe test (as defined in § 761.123) of a non-porous surface.


PCB Equipment means any manufactured item, other than a PCB Container or a PCB Article Container, which contains a PCB Article or other PCB Equipment, and includes microwave ovens, electronic equipment, and fluorescent light ballasts and fixtures.


PCB field screening test means a portable analytical device or kit which measures PCBs. PCB field screening tests usually report less than or greater than a specific numerical PCB concentration. These tests normally build in a safety factor which increases the probability of a false positive report and decreases the probability of a false negative report. PCB field screening tests do not usually provide: an identity record generated by an instrument; a quantitative comparison record from calibration standards; any identification of PCBs; and/or any indication or identification of interferences with the measurement of the PCBs. PCB field screening test technologies include, but are not limited to, total chlorine colorimetric tests, total chlorine x-ray fluorescence tests, total chlorine microcoulometric tests, and rapid immunoassay tests.


PCB household waste means PCB waste that is generated by residents on the premises of a temporary or permanent residence for individuals (including individually owned or rented units of a multi-unit construction), and that is composed primarily of materials found in wastes generated by consumers in their homes. PCB household waste includes unwanted or discarded non-commercial vehicles (prior to shredding), household items, and appliances or appliance parts and wastes generated on the premises of a residence for individuals as a result of routine household maintenance by or on behalf of the resident. Bulk or commingled liquid PCB wastes at concentrations of ≥50 ppm, demolition and renovation wastes, and industrial or heavy duty equipment with PCBs are not household wastes.


PCB Item means any PCB Article, PCB Article Container, PCB Container, PCB Equipment, or anything that deliberately or unintentionally contains or has as a part of it any PCB or PCBs.


PCB/radioactive waste means PCBs regulated for disposal under subpart D of this part that also contain source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, or naturally-occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material.


PCB remediation waste means waste containing PCBs as a result of a spill, release, or other unauthorized disposal, at the following concentrations: Materials disposed of prior to April 18, 1978, that are currently at concentrations ≥50 ppm PCBs, regardless of the concentration of the original spill; materials which are currently at any volume or concentration where the original source was ≥500 ppm PCBs beginning on April 18, 1978, or ≥50 ppm PCBs beginning on July 2, 1979; and materials which are currently at any concentration if the PCBs are spilled or released from a source not authorized for use under this part. PCB remediation waste means soil, rags, and other debris generated as a result of any PCB spill cleanup, including, but not limited to:


(1) Environmental media containing PCBs, such as soil and gravel; dredged materials, such as sediments, settled sediment fines, and aqueous decantate from sediment.


(2) Sewage sludge containing

(3) Buildings and other man-made structures (such as concrete floors, wood floors, or walls contaminated from a leaking PCB or PCB-Contaminated Transformer), porous surfaces, and non-porous surfaces.


PCB sewage sludge means sewage sludge as defined in 40 CFR 503.9(w) which contains ≥50 ppm PCBs, as measured on a dry weight basis.


PCB Transformer means any transformer that contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. For PCB concentration assumptions applicable to transformers containing 1.36 kilograms (3 lbs.) or more of fluid other than mineral oil, see § 761.2. For provisions permitting reclassification of electrical equipment, including PCB Transformers, containing ≥500 ppm PCBs to PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment, see § 761.30(a) and (h).


PCB waste(s) means those PCBs and PCB Items that are subject to the disposal requirements of subpart D of this part.


Performance-based organic decontamination fluid (PODF) means kerosene, diesel fuel, terpene hydrocarbons, and terpene hydrocarbon/alcohol mixtures.


Person means any natural or judicial person including any individual, corporation, partnership, or association; any State or political subdivision thereof; any interstate body; and any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal Government.


Porous surface means any surface that allows PCBs to penetrate or pass into itself including, but not limited to, paint or coating on metal; corroded metal; fibrous glass or glass wool; unglazed ceramics; ceramics with a porous glaze; porous building stone such as sandstone, travertine, limestone, or coral rock; low-density plastics such as styrofoam and low-density polyethylene; coated (varnished or painted) or uncoated wood; concrete or cement; plaster; plasterboard; wallboard; rubber; fiberboard; chipboard; asphalt; or tar paper. For purposes of cleaning and disposing of PCB remediation waste, porous surfaces have different requirements than non-porous surfaces.


Posing an exposure risk to food or feed means being in any location where human food or animal feed products could be exposed to PCBs released from a PCB Item. A PCB Item poses an exposure risk to food or feed if PCBs released in any way from the PCB Item have a potential pathway to human food or animal feed. EPA considers human food or animal feed to include items regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the Food and Drug Administration as human food or animal feed; this includes direct additives. Food or feed is excluded from this definition if it is used or stored in private homes.


Process means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce:


(1) In the same form or physical state as, or in a different form or physical state from, that in which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture, or


(2) As part of an article containing the chemical substance or mixture.


Qualified incinerator means one of the following:


(1) An incinerator approved under the provisions of § 761.70. Any level of PCB concentration can be destroyed in an incinerator approved under § 761.70.


(2) A high efficiency boiler which complies with the criteria of § 761.71(a)(1), and for which the operator has given written notice to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator in accordance with the notification requirements for the burning of mineral oil dielectric fluid under § 761.71(a)(2).


(3) An incinerator approved under section 3005(c) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(c)) (RCRA).


(4) Industrial furnaces and boilers which are identified in 40 CFR 260.10 and 40 CFR 279.61 (a)(1) and (2) when operating at their normal operating temperatures (this prohibits feeding fluids, above the level of detection, during either startup or shutdown operations).


Quantifiable Level/Level of Detection means 2 micrograms per gram from any resolvable gas chromatographic peak, i.e. 2 ppm.


RCRA means the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (40 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.).


Recycled PCBs means those PCBs which appear in the processing of paper products or asphalt roofing materials from PCB-contaminated raw materials. Processes which recycle PCBs must meet the following requirements:


(1) There are no detectable concentrations of PCBs in asphalt roofing material products leaving the processing site.


(2) The concentration of PCBs in paper products leaving any manufacturing site processing paper products, or in paper products imported into the United States, must have an annual average of less than 25 ppm with a 50 ppm maximum.


(3) The release of PCBs at the point at which emissions are vented to ambient air must be less than 10 ppm.


(4) The amount of Aroclor PCBs added to water discharged from an asphalt roofing processing site must at all times be less than 3 micrograms per liter (µg/L) for total Aroclors (roughly 3 parts per billion (3 ppb)). Water discharges from the processing of paper products must at all times be less than 3 micrograms per liter (µg/L) for total Aroclors (roughly 3 ppb), or comply with the equivalent mass-based limitation.


(5) Disposal of any other process wastes at concentrations of 50 ppm or greater must be in accordance with subpart D of this part.


Research and development (R&D) for PCB disposal means demonstrations for commercial PCB disposal approvals, pre-demonstration tests, tests of major modifications to previously approved PCB disposal technologies, treatability studies for PCB disposal technologies which have not been approved, development of new disposal technologies, and research on chemical transformation processes including, but not limited to, biodegradation.


Retrofill means to remove PCB or PCB-contaminated dielectric fluid and to replace it with either PCB, PCB-contaminated, or non-PCB dielectric fluid.


Rupture of a PCB Transformer means a violent or non-violent break in the integrity of a PCB Transformer caused by an overtemperature and/or overpressure condition that results in the release of PCBs.


Sale for purposes other than resale means sale of PCBs for purposes of disposal and for purposes of use, except where use involves sale for distribution in commerce. PCB Equipment which is first leased for purposes of use any time before July 1, 1979, will be considered sold for purposes other than resale.


Sewage sludge means sewage sludge as defined in § 503.9(w) of this chapter that contains

Small quantities for research and development means any quantity of PCBs (1) that is originally packaged in one or more hermetically sealed containers of a volume of no more than five (5.0) milliliters, and (2) that is used only for purposes of scientific experimentation or analysis, or chemical research on, or analysis of, PCBs, but not for research or analysis for the development of a PCB product.


Soil washing means the extraction of PCBs from soil using a solvent, recovering the solvent from the soil, separating the PCBs from the recovered solvent for disposal, and then disposal or reuse of the solvent.


Standard wipe sample means a sample collected for chemical extraction and analysis using the standard wipe test as defined in § 761.123. Except as designated elsewhere in part 761, the minimum surface area to be sampled shall be 100 cm
2.


Storage for disposal means temporary storage of PCBs that have been designated for disposal.


SW-846 means the document having the title “SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” which is available from either the National Technical Information Service (NTIS, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161, telephone: (703) 487-4650 or the U.S. Government Printing Office (U.S. GPO, 710 North Capitol St., NW., Washington, DC 20401, telephone: (202) 783-3238.


Totally enclosed manner means any manner that will ensure no exposure of human beings or the environment to any concentration of PCBs.


Transfer facility means any transportation-related facility including loading docks, parking areas, and other similar areas where shipments of PCB waste are held during the normal course of transportation. Transport vehicles are not transfer facilities under this definition, unless they are used for the storage of PCB waste, rather than for actual transport activities. Storage areas for PCB waste at transfer facilities are subject to the storage facility standards of § 761.65, but such storage areas are exempt from the approval requirements of § 761.65(d) and the recordkeeping requirements of § 761.180, unless the same PCB waste is stored there for a period of more than 10 consecutive days between destinations.


Transporter of PCB waste means, for the purposes of subpart K of this part, any person engaged in the transportation of regulated PCB waste by air, rail, highway, or water for purposes other than consolidation by a generator.


Transport vehicle means a motor vehicle or rail car used for the transportation of cargo by any mode. Each cargo-carrying body (e.g., trailer, railroad freight car) is a separate transport vehicle.


Treatability Study means a study in which PCB waste is subjected to a treatment process to determine:


(1) Whether the waste is amenable to the treatment process;


(2) What pretreatment (if any) is required;


(3) The optimal process conditions needed to achieve the desired treatment;


(4) The efficiency of a treatment process for the specific type of waste (i.e., soil, sludge, liquid, etc.); or,


(5) The characteristics and volumes of residuals from a particular treatment process. A “treatability study” is not a mechanism to commercially treat or dispose of PCB waste. Treatment is a form of disposal under this part.


TSCA means the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.).


TSCA PCB Coordinated Approval means the process used to recognize other Federal or State waste management documents governing the storage, cleanup, treatment, and disposal of PCB wastes. It is the mechanism under TSCA for accomplishing review, coordination, and approval of PCB waste management activities which are conducted outside of the TSCA PCB approval process, but require approval under the TSCA PCB regulations at 40 CFR part 761.


Unit means a particular building, structure, or cell used to manage PCB waste (including, but not limited to, a building used for PCB waste storage, a landfill, an industrial boiler, or an incinerator).


U.S. GPO means the U.S. Government Printing Office, 710 North Capitol St., NW., Washington, DC 20401.


Waste Oil means used products primarily derived from petroleum, which include, but are not limited to, fuel oils, motor oils, gear oils, cutting oils, transmission fluids, hydraulic fluids, and dielectric fluids.


Wet weight means reporting chemical analysis results by including either the weight, or the volume and density, of all liquids.


(Sec. 6, Pub. L. 94-469, 90 Stat. 2020 (15 U.S.C. 2605)

[49 FR 25239, June 20, 1984, as amended at 49 FR 28189, July 10, 1984; 49 FR 29066, July 18, 1984; 49 FR 44638, Nov. 8, 1984; 50 FR 29199, July 17, 1985; 50 FR 32176, Aug. 9, 1985; 53 FR 24220, June 27, 1988; 53 FR 27327, July 19, 1988; 54 FR 52745, Dec. 21, 1989; 55 FR 26205, June 27, 1990; 58 FR 32061, June 8, 1993; 61 FR 11106, Mar. 18, 1996; 63 FR 35437, June 29, 1998; 64 FR 33759, June 24, 1999]


§ 761.19 References.

The materials listed in this section are incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a document must be published in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. All approved materials are available for inspection at the OPPT Docket in the EPA Docket Center (EPA/DC) at Rm. 3334, EPA West Bldg., 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. The EPA/DC Public Reading Room hours of operation are 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number of the EPA/DC Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the OPPT Docket is (202) 566-0280. These approved materials are also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. In addition, these materials are available from the sources listed below.


(a) ASTM materials. Copies of these materials may be obtained from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, or by calling (877) 909-ASTM, or at http://www.astm.org.


(1) ASTM D93-09 (Approved December 15, 2009), Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, IBR approved for §§ 761.71, 761.75.


(2) ASTM D129-64 (Reapproved 1978), Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General Bomb Method), IBR approved for § 761.71.


(3) ASTM D240-87, Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel by Bomb Calorimeter, IBR approved for § 761.71.


(4) ASTM D482-87, Standard Test Method for Ash from Petroleum Products, IBR approved for § 761.71.


(5) ASTM D524-88, Standard Test Method for Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products, IBR approved for § 761.71.


(6) ASTM D808-87, Standard Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petroleum Products (Bomb Method), IBR approved for § 761.71.


(7) ASTM D923-86, Standard Test Method for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids, IBR approved for § 761.60.


(8) ASTM D923-89, Standard Methods of Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids, IBR approved for § 761.60.


(9) ASTM D1266-87, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method), IBR approved for § 761.71.


(10) ASTM D1796-83 (Reapproved 1990), Standard Test Method for Water and Sediment in Fuel Oils by the Centrifuge Method (Laboratory Procedure), IBR approved for § 761.71.


(11) ASTM D2158-89, Standard Test Method for Residues in Liquified Petroleum (LP) Gases, IBR approved for § 761.71.


(12) ASTM D2709-88, Standard Test Method for Water and Sediment in Distillate Fuels by Centrifuge, IBR approved for § 761.71.


(13) ASTM D2784-89, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Liquified Petroleum Gases (Oxy-hydrogen Burner or Lamp), IBR approved for § 761.71.


(14) ASTM D3178-84, Standard Test Methods for Carbon and Hydrogen in the Analysis Sample of Coke and Coal, IBR approved for § 761.71.


(15) ASTM D3278-89, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point of Liquids by Setaflash Closed-Cup Apparatus, IBR approved for § 761.75.


(16) ASTM E258-67 (Reapproved 1987), Standard Test Method for Total Nitrogen Inorganic Material by Modified KJELDAHL Method, IBR approved for § 761.71.


(b) [Reserved]


[77 FR 2463, Jan. 18, 2012]


Subpart B – Manufacturing, Processing, Distribution in Commerce, and Use of PCBs and PCB Items

§ 761.20 Prohibitions and exceptions.

Except as authorized in § 761.30, the activities listed in paragraphs (a) and (d) of this section are prohibited pursuant to section 6(e)(2) of TSCA. The requirements set forth in paragraph (c) of this section and subpart F of this part concerning export and import of PCBs and PCB Items for disposal are established pursuant to section 6(e)(1) of TSCA. Subject to any exemptions granted pursuant to section 6(e)(3)(B) of TSCA, the activities listed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section are prohibited pursuant to section (6)(e)(3)(A) of TSCA. In addition, the Administrator hereby finds, under the authority of section 12(a)(2) of TSCA, that the manufacture, processing, and distribution in commerce of PCBs at concentrations of 50 ppm or greater and PCB Items with PCB concentrations of 50 ppm or greater present an unreasonable risk of injury to health within the United States. This finding is based upon the well-documented human health and environmental hazard of PCB exposure, the high probability of human and environmental exposure to PCBs and PCB Items from manufacturing, processing, or distribution activities; the potential hazard of PCB exposure posed by the transportation of PCBs or PCB Items within the United States; and the evidence that contamination of the environment by PCBs is spread far beyond the areas where they are used. In addition, the Administrator hereby finds, for purposes of section 6(e)(2)(C) of TSCA, that any exposure of human beings or the environment to PCBs, as measured or detected by any scientifically acceptable analytical method, may be significant, depending on such factors as the quantity of PCBs involved in the exposure, the likelihood of exposure to humans and the environment, and the effect of exposure. For purposes of determining which PCB Items are totally enclosed, pursuant to section 6(e)(2)(C) of TSCA, since exposure to such Items may be significant, the Administrator further finds that a totally enclosed manner is a manner which results in no exposure to humans or the environment to PCBs. The following activities are considered totally enclosed: distribution in commerce of intact, nonleaking electrical equipment such as transformers (including transformers used in railway locomotives and self-propelled cars), capacitors, electromagnets, voltage regulators, switches (including sectionalizers and motor starters), circuit breakers, reclosers, and cable that contain PCBs at any concentration and processing and distribution in commerce of PCB Equipment containing an intact, nonleaking PCB Capacitor. See paragraph (c)(1) of this section for provisions allowing the distribution in commerce of PCBs and PCB Items.


(a) No persons may use any PCB, or any PCB Item regardless of concentration, in any manner other than in a totally enclosed manner within the United States unless authorized under § 761.30, except that:


(1) An authorization is not required to use those PCBs or PCB Items which consist of excluded PCB products as defined in § 761.3.


(2) An authorization is not required to use those PCBs or PCB Items resulting from an excluded manufacturing process or recycled PCBs as defined in § 761.3, provided all applicable conditions of § 761.1(f) are met.


(3) An authorization is not required to use those PCB Items which contain or whose surfaces have been in contact with excluded PCB products as defined in § 761.3.


(4) An authorization is not required to use sewage sludge where the uses are regulated at parts 257, 258, and 503 of this chapter. No person may blend or otherwise dilute PCBs regulated for disposal, including PCB sewage sludge and sewage sludge not used pursuant to parts 257, 258, and 503 of this chapter, for purposes of use or to avoid disposal requirements under this part. Except as explicitly provided in subpart D of this part, no person may dispose of regulated PCB wastes including, but not limited to, PCB remediation waste, PCB bulk product waste, PCBs, and PCB industrial sludges, into treatment works, as defined in § 503.9(aa) of this chapter.


(b) No person may manufacture PCBs for use within the United States or manufacture PCBs for export from the United States without an exemption, except that: an exemption is not required for PCBs manufactured in an excluded manufacturing process as defined in § 761.3, provided all applicable conditions of § 761.1(f) are met.


(c) No persons may process or distribute in commerce any PCB, or any PCB Item regardless of concentration, for use within the United States or for export from the United States without an exemption, except that an exemption is not required to process or distribute in commerce PCBs or PCB Items resulting from an excluded manufacturing process as defined in § 761.3, or to process or distribute in commerce recycled PCBs as defined in § 761.3, or to process or distribute in commerce excluded PCB products as defined in § 761.3, provided that all applicable conditions of § 761.1(f) are met. In addition, the activities described in paragraphs (c) (1) through (5) of this section may also be conducted without an exemption, under the conditions specified therein.


(1) PCBs at concentrations of 50 ppm or greater, or PCB Items with PCB concentrations of 50 ppm or greater, sold before July 1, 1979 for purposes other than resale may be distributed in commerce only in a totally enclosed manner after that date.


(2) Any person may process and distribute in commerce for disposal PCBs at concentrations of ≥50 ppm, or PCB Items with PCB concentrations of ≥50 ppm, if they comply with the applicable provisions of this part.


(i) Processing activities which are primarily associated with and facilitate storage or transportation for disposal do not require a TSCA PCB storage or disposal approval.


(ii) Processing activities which are primarily associated with and facilitate treatment, as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter, or disposal require a TSCA PCB disposal approval unless they are part of an existing approval, are part of a self-implementing activity under § 761.61(a) or § 761.79 (b) or (c), or are otherwise specifically allowed under subpart D of this part.


(iii) With the exception of provisions in § 761.60 (a)(2) and (a)(3), in order to meet the intent of § 761.1(b), processing, diluting, or otherwise blending of waste prior to being introduced into a disposal unit for purposes of meeting a PCB concentration limit shall be done in accordance with a TSCA PCB disposal approval or comply with the requirements of § 761.79.


(iv) Where the rate of delivering liquids or non-liquids into a PCB disposal unit is an operating parameter, this rate shall be a condition of the TSCA PCB disposal approval for the unit when an approval is required.


(3) PCBs and PCB Items may be exported for disposal in accordance with the requirements of subpart F of this part.


(4) PCBs, at concentrations of less than 50 ppm, or PCB Items, with concentrations of less than 50 ppm, may be processed and distributed in commerce for purposes of disposal.


(5) Decontaminated materials. Any person may distribute in commerce equipment, structures, or other liquid or non-liquid materials that were contaminated with PCBs ≥50 ppm, including those not otherwise authorized for distribution in commerce under this part, provided that one of the following applies:


(i) The materials were decontaminated in accordance with a TSCA PCB disposal approval issued under subpart D of this part, with § 761.79, or with applicable EPA PCB spill cleanup policies in effect at the time of the decontamination.


(ii) If not previously decontaminated, the materials now meet an applicable decontamination standard in § 761.79(b).


(d) The use of waste oil that contains any detectable concentration of PCB as a sealant, coating, or dust control agent is prohibited. Prohibited uses include, but are not limited to, road oiling, general dust control, use as a pesticide or herbicide carrier, and use as a rust preventative on pipes.


(e) In addition to any applicable requirements under 40 CFR part 279, subparts G and H, marketers and burners of used oil who market (process or distribute in commerce) for energy recovery, used oil containing any quantifiable level of PCBs are subject to the following requirements:


(1) Restrictions on marketing. Used oil containing any quantifiable level of PCBs (2 ppm) may be marketed only to:


(i) Qualified incinerators as defined in 40 CFR 761.3.


(ii) Marketers who market off-specification used oil for energy recovery only to other marketers who have notified EPA of their used oil management activities, and who have an EPA identification number where an identification number is required by 40 CFR 279.73. This would include persons who market off-specification used oil who are subject to the requirements at 40 CFR part 279 and the notification requirements of 40 CFR 279.73.


(iii) Burners identified in 40 CFR 279.61(a)(1) and (2). Only burners in the automotive industry may burn used oil generated from automotive sources in used oil-fired space heaters provided the provisions of 40 CFR 279.23 are met. The Regional Administrator may grant a variance for a boiler that does not meet the 40 CFR 279.61(a)(1) and (2) criteria after considering the criteria listed in 40 CFR 260.32 (a) through (f). The applicant must address the relevant criteria contained in 40 CFR 260.32 (a) through (f) in an application to the Regional Administrator.


(2) Testing of used oil fuel. Used oil to be burned for energy recovery is presumed to contain quantifiable levels (2 ppm) of PCB unless the marketer obtains analyses (testing) or other information that the used oil fuel does not contain quantifiable levels of PCBs.


(i) The person who first claims that a used oil fuel does not contain quantifiable level (2 ppm) PCB must obtain analyses or other information to support that claim.


(ii) Testing to determine the PCB concentration in used oil may be conducted on individual samples, or in accordance with the testing procedures described in § 761.60(g)(2). However, for purposes of this part, if any PCBs at a concentration of 50 ppm or greater have been added to the container or equipment, then the total container contents must be considered as having a PCB concentration of 50 ppm or greater for purposes of complying with the disposal requirements of this part.


(iii) Other information documenting that the used oil fuel does not contain quantifiable levels (2 ppm) of PCBs may consist of either personal, special knowledge of the source and composition of the used oil, or a certification from the person generating the used oil claiming that the oil contains no detectable PCBs.


(3) Restrictions on burning. (i) Used oil containing any quantifiable levels of PCB may be burned for energy recovery only in the combustion facilities identified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section when such facilities are operating at normal operating temperatures (this prohibits feeding these fuels during either startup or shutdown operations). Owners and operators of such facilities are “burners” of used oil fuels.


(ii) Before a burner accepts from a marketer the first shipment of used oil fuel containing detectable PCBs (2 ppm), the burner must provide the marketer a one-time written and signed notice certifying that:


(A) The burner has complied with any notification requirements applicable to “qualified incinerators” (§ 761.3) or to “burners” regulated under 40 CFR part 279, subpart G.


(B) The burner will burn the used oil only in a combustion facility identified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section and identify the class of burner he qualifies.


(4) Recordkeeping requirements. The following recordkeeping requirements are in addition to the recordkeeping requirements for marketers found in 40 CFR 279.72(b), 279.74(a), (b) and (c), and 279.75, and for burners found in 40 CFR 279.65 and 279.66.


(i) Marketers. Marketers who first claim that the used oil fuel contains no detectable PCBs must include among the records required by 40 CFR 279.72(b) and 279.74(b) and (c), copies of the analysis or other information documenting his claim, and he must include among the records required by 40 CFR 279.74(a) and (c) and 279.75, a copy of each certification notice received or prepared relating to transactions involving PCB-containing used oil.


(ii) Burners. Burners must include among the records required by 40 CFR 279.65 and 279.66, a copy of each certification notice required by paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section that he sends to a marketer.


(Sec. 6, Pub. L. 94-469, 90 Stat. 2020, (15 U.S.C. 2605)

[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979. Redesignated at 47 FR 19527, May 6, 1982, and amended at 49 FR 25241, June 20, 1984; 49 FR 28190, July 10, 1984; 49 FR 44638, Nov. 8, 1984; 53 FR 12524, Apr. 15, 1988; 53 FR 24220, June 27, 1988; 58 FR 15435, Mar. 23, 1993; 58 FR 34205, June 23, 1993; 60 FR 34465, July 3, 1995; 61 FR 11106, Mar. 18, 1996; 63 FR 35439, June 29, 1998; 64 FR 33760, June 24, 1999]


§ 761.30 Authorizations.

The following non-totally enclosed PCB activities are authorized pursuant to section 6(e)(2)(B) of TSCA:


(a) Use in and servicing of transformers (other than railroad transformers). PCBs at any concentration may be used in transformers (other than in railroad locomotives and self-propelled railroad cars) and may be used for purposes of servicing including rebuilding these transformers for the remainder of their useful lives, subject to the following conditions:


(1) Use conditions. (i) As of October 1, 1985, the use and storage for reuse of PCB Transformers that pose an exposure risk to food or feed is prohibited.


(ii) As of October 1, 1990, the use of network PCB Transformers with higher secondary voltages (secondary voltages equal to or greater than 480 volts, including 480/277 volt systems) in or near commercial buildings is prohibited. Network PCB Transformers with higher secondary voltages which are removed from service in accordance with this requirement must either be reclassified to PCB Contaminated or non PCB status, placed into storage for disposal, or disposed.


(iii) Except as otherwise provided, as of October 1, 1985, the installation of PCB Transformers, which have been placed into storage for reuse or which have been removed from another location, in or near commercial buildings is prohibited.


(A) Retrofilled mineral oil PCB Transformers may be installed for reclassification purposes indefinitely after October 1, 1990.


(B) Once a retrofilled transformer has been installed for reclassification purposes, it must be tested 3 months after installation to ascertain the concentration of PCBs. If the PCB concentration is below 50 ppm, the transformer can be reclassified as a non-PCB Transformer. If the PCB concentration is between 50 and 500 ppm, the transformer can be reclassified as a PCB-Contaminated transformer. If the PCB concentration remains at 500 ppm or greater, the entire process must either be repeated until the transformer has been reclassified to a non-PCB or PCB-Contaminated transformer in accordance with paragraph (a)(2)(v) of this section or the transformer must be removed from service.


(iv) As of October 1, 1990, all higher secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers, in use in or near commercial buildings, and lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers not located in sidewalk vaults in or near commercial buildings (network transformers with secondary voltages below 480 volts) that have not been removed from service as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(B) of this section, must be equipped with electrical protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by high current faults. As of February 25, 1991, all lower secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers, in use in or near commercial buildings, must be equipped with electrical protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by high current faults.


(A) Current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology must be used to detect sustained high current faults and provide for the complete deenergization of the transformer (within several hundredths of a second in the case of higher secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers and within tenths of a second in the case of lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers), before transformer rupture occurs. Lower secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers must be equipped with electrical protection as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(E) of this section. The installation, setting, and maintenance of current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology to avoid PCB Transformer ruptures from sustained high current faults must be completed in accordance with good engineering practices.


(B) All lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers not located in sidewalk vaults (network transformers with secondary voltages below 480 volts), in use in or near commercial buildings, which have not been protected as specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) of this section by October 1, 1990, must be removed from service by October 1, 1993.


(C) As of October 1, 1990, owners of lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers, in use in or near commercial buildings which have not been protected as specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) of this section and which are not located in sidewalk vaults, must register in writing those transformers with the EPA Regional Administrator in the appropriate region. The information required to be provided in writing to the Regional Administrator includes:


(1) The specific location of the PCB Transformer(s).


(2) The address(es) of the building(s) and the physical location of the PCB Transformer(s) on the building site(s).


(3) The identification number(s) of the PCB Transformer(s).


(D) As of October 1, 1993, all lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformers located in sidewalk vaults (network transformers with secondary voltages below 480 volts) in use near commercial buildings must be removed from service.


(E) As of February 25, 1991, all lower secondary voltage radial PCB Transformers must be equipped with electrical protection, such as current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology, to detect sustained high current faults and provide for the complete deenergization of the transformer or complete deenergization of the faulted phase of the transformer within several hundredths of a second. The installation, setting, and maintenance of current-limiting fuses or other equivalent technology to avoid PCB Transformer ruptures from sustained high current faults must be completed in accordance with good engineering practices.


(v) As of October 1, 1990, all radial PCB Transformers with higher secondary voltages (480 volts and above, including 480/277 volt systems) in use in or near commercial buildings must, in addition to the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) of this section, be equipped with protection to avoid transformer ruptures caused by sustained low current faults.


(A) Pressure and temperature sensors (or other equivalent technology which has been demonstrated to be effective in early detection of sustained low current faults) must be used in these transformers to detect sustained low current faults.


(B) Disconnect equipment must be provided to insure complete deenergization of the transformer in the event of a sensed abnormal condition (e.g., an overpressure or overtemperature condition in the transformer), caused by a sustained low current fault. The disconnect equipment must be configured to operate automatically within 30 seconds to 1 minute of the receipt of a signal indicating an abnormal condition from a sustained low current fault, or can be configured to allow for manual deenergization from a manned on-site control center upon the receipt of an audio or visual signal indicating an abnormal condition caused by a sustained low current fault. Manual deenergization from a manned on-site control center must occur within 1 minute of the receipt of the audio or visual signal indicating an abnormal condition caused by a sustained low current fault. If automatic operation is selected and a circuit breaker is utilized for disconnection, it must also have the capability to be manually opened if necessary.


(C) The enhanced electrical protective system required for the detection of sustained low current faults and the complete and rapid deenergization of transformers must be properly installed, maintained, and set sensitive enough (in accordance with good engineering practices) to detect sustained low current faults and allow for rapid and total deenergization prior to PCB Transformer rupture (either violent or non violent rupture) and release of PCBs.


(vi)(A) No later than December 28, 1998 all owners of PCB Transformers, including those in storage for reuse, must register their transformers with the Environmental Protection Agency, National Program Chemicals Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (7404), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. This registration requirement is subject to the limitations in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.


(1) A transformer owner who assumes a transformer is a PCB-Contaminated transformer, and discovers after December 28, 1998 that it is a PCB-Transformer, must register the newly-identified PCB Transformer, in writing, with the Environmental Protection Agency no later than 30 days after it is identified as such. This requirement does not apply to transformer owners who have previously registered with the EPA PCB Transformers located at the same address as the transformer that they assumed to be PCB-Contaminated and later determined to be a PCB Transformer.


(2) A person who takes possession of a PCB Transformer after December 28, 1998 is not required to register or re-register the transformer with the EPA.


(B) Any person submitting a registration under this section must include:


(1) Company name and address.


(2) Contact name and telephone number.


(3) Address where these transformers are located. For mobile sources such as ships, provide the name of the ship.


(4) Number of PCB Transformers and the total weight in kilograms of PCBs contained in the transformers.


(5) Whether any transformers at this location contain flammable dielectric fluid (optional).


(6) Signature of the owner, operator, or other authorized representative certifying the accuracy of the information submitted.


(C) A transformer owner must retain a record of each PCB Transformer’s registration (e.g., a copy of the registration and the return receipt signed by EPA) with the inspection and maintenance records required for each PCB Transformer under paragraph (a)(1)(xii)(I) of this section.


(D) A transformer owner must comply with all requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section to continue the PCB-Transformer’s authorization for use, or storage for reuse, pursuant to this section and TSCA section 6(e)(2)(B).


(vii) As of December 1, 1985, PCB Transformers in use in or near commercial buildings must be registered with building owners. For PCB Transformers located in commercial buildings, PCB Transformer owners must register the transformers with the building owner of record. For PCB Transformers located near commercial buildings, PCB Transformer owners must register the transformers with all owners of buildings located within 30 meters of the PCB Transformer(s). Information required to be provided to building owners by PCB Transformer owners includes but is not limited to:


(A) The specific location of the PCB Transformer(s).


(B) The principal constituent of the dielectric fluid in the transformer(s) (e.g., PCBs, mineral oil, or silicone oil).


(C) The type of transformer installation (e.g., 208/120 volt network, 208/120 volt radial, 208 volt radial, 480 volt network, 480/277 volt network, 480 volt radial, 480/277 volt radial).


(viii) As of December 1, 1985, combustible materials, including, but not limited to paints, solvents, plastics, paper, and sawn wood must not be stored within a PCB Transformer enclosure (i.e., in a transformer vault or in a partitioned area housing a transformer); within 5 meters of a transformer enclosure, or, if unenclosed (unpartitioned), within 5 meters of a PCB Transformer.


(ix) A visual inspection of each PCB Transformer (as defined in the definition of “PCB Transformer” under § 761.3) in use or stored for reuse shall be performed at least once every 3 months. These inspections may take place any time during the 3-month periods: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December as long as there is a minimum of 30 days between inspections. The visual inspection must include investigation for any leak of dielectric fluid on or around the transformer. The extent of the visual inspections will depend on the physical constraints of each transformer installation and should not require an electrical shutdown of the transformer being inspected.


(x) If a PCB Transformer is found to have a leak which results in any quantity of PCBs running off or about to run off the external surface of the transformer, then the transformer must be repaired or replaced to eliminate the source of the leak. In all cases any leaking material must be cleaned up and properly disposed of according to disposal requirements of subpart D of this part. Cleanup of the released PCBs must be initiated as soon as possible, but in no case later than 48 hours of its discovery. Until appropriate action is completed, any active leak of PCBs must be contained to prevent exposure of humans or the environment and inspected daily to verify containment of the leak. Trenches, dikes, buckets, and pans are examples of proper containment measures.


(xi) If a PCB Transformer is involved in a fire-related incident, the owner of the transformer must immediately report the incident to the National Response Center (toll-free 1-800-424-8802; in Washington, DC 202-426-2675). A fire-related incident is defined as any incident involving a PCB Transformer which involves the generation of sufficient heat and/or pressure (by any source) to result in the violent or non-violent rupture of a PCB Transformer and the release of PCBs. Information must be provided regarding the type of PCB Transformer installation involved in the fire-related incident (e.g., high or low secondary voltage network transformer, high or low secondary voltage simple radial system, expanded radial system, primary selective system, primary loop system, or secondary selective system or other systems) and the readily ascertainable cause of the fire-related incident (e.g., high current fault in the primary or secondary or low current fault in secondary). The owner of the PCB Transformer must also take measures as soon as practically and safely possible to contain and control any potential releases of PCBs and incomplete combustion products into water. These measures include, but are not limited to:


(A) The blocking of all floor drains in the vicinity of the transformer.


(B) The containment of water runoff.


(C) The control and treatment (prior to release) of any water used in subsequent cleanup operations.


(xii) Records of inspection and maintenance history shall be maintained at least 3 years after disposing of the transformer and shall be made available for inspection, upon request by EPA. Such records shall contain the following information for each PCB Transformer:


(A) Its location.


(B) The date of each visual inspection and the date that leak was discovered, if different from the inspection date.


(C) The person performing the inspection.


(D) The location of any leak(s).


(E) An estimate of the amount of dielectric fluid released from any leak.


(F) The date of any cleanup, containment, repair, or replacement.


(G) A description of any cleanup, containment, or repair performed.


(H) The results of any containment and daily inspection required for uncorrected active leaks.


(I) Record of the registration of PCB Transformer(s).


(J) Records of transfer of ownership in compliance with § 761.180(a)(2)(ix).


(xiii) A reduced visual inspection frequency of at least once every 12 months applies to PCB Transformers that utilize either of the following risk reduction measures. These inspections may take place any time during the calendar year as long as there is a minimum of 180 days between inspections.


(A) A PCB Transformer which has impervious, undrained, secondary containment capacity of at least 100 percent of the total dielectric fluid volume of all transformers so contained or


(B) A PCB Transformer which has been tested and found to contain less than 60,000 ppm PCBs (after 3 months of in service use if the transformer has been serviced for purposes of reducing the PCB concentration).


(xiv) An increased visual inspection frequency of at least once every week applies to any PCB Transformer in use or stored for reuse which poses an exposure risk to food or feed. The user of a PCB Transformer posing an exposure risk to food is responsible for the inspection, recordkeeping, and maintenance requirements under this section until the user notifies the owner that the transformer may pose an exposure risk to food or feed. Following such notification, it is the owner’s ultimate responsibility to determine whether the PCB Transformer poses an exposure risk to food or feed.


(xv) In the event a mineral oil transformer, assumed to contain less than 500 ppm of PCBs as provided in § 761.2, is tested and found to be contaminated at 500 ppm or greater PCBs, it will be subject to all the requirements of this part 761. In addition, efforts must be initiated immediately to bring the transformer into compliance in accordance with the following schedule:


(A) Report fire-related incidents, effective immediately after discovery.


(B) Mark the PCB transformer within 7 days after discovery.


(C) Mark the vault door, machinery room door, fence, hallway or other means of access to the PCB Transformer within 7 days after discovery.


(D) Register the PCB Transformer in writing with the building owner within 30 days of discovery.


(E) Install electrical protective equipment on a radial PCB Transformer and a non-sidewalk vault, lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer in or near a commercial building within 18 months of discovery or by October 1, 1990, whichever is later.


(F) Remove a non-sidewalk vault, lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer in or near a commercial building, if electrical protective equipment is not installed, within 18 months of discovery or by October 1, 1993, whichever is later.


(G) Remove a lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer located in a sidewalk vault in or near a commercial building, within 18 months of discovery or by October 1, 1993, whichever is later.


(H) Retrofill and reclassify a radial PCB Transformer or a lower or higher secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in other than a sidewalk vault in or near a commercial building, within 18 months or by October 1, 1990, whichever is later. This is an option in lieu of installing electrical protective equipment on a radial or lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer located in other than a sidewalk vault or of removing a higher secondary voltage network PCB Transformer or a lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in a sidewalk vault, from service.


(I) Retrofill and reclassify a lower secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in a sidewalk vault, in or near a commercial building within 18 months or by October 1, 1993, whichever is later. This is an option in lieu of installing electrical protective equipment or removing the transformer from service.


(J) Retrofill and reclassify a higher secondary voltage network PCB Transformer, located in a sidewalk vault, in or near a commercial building within 18 months or by October 1, 1990, whichever is later. This is an option in lieu of other requirements.


(2) Servicing conditions. (i) Transformers classified as PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment (as defined in the definition of “PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment” under § 761.3) may be serviced (including rebuilding) only with dielectric fluid containing less than 500 ppm PCB.


(ii) Any servicing (including rebuilding) of PCB Transformers (as defined in the definition of “PCB Transformer” under § 761.3) that requires the removal of the transformer coil from the transformer casing is prohibited. PCB Transformers may be serviced (including topping off) with dielectric fluid at any PCB concentration.


(iii) PCBs removed during any servicing activity must be captured and either reused as dielectric fluid or disposed of in accordance with the requirements of § 761.60. PCBs from PCB Transformers must not be mixed with or added to dielectric fluid from PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment.


(iv) Regardless of its PCB concentration, dielectric fluids containing less than 500 ppm PCB that are mixed with fluids that contain 500 ppm or greater PCB must not be used as dielectric fluid in any electrical equipment. The entire mixture of dielectric fluid must be considered to be greater than 500 ppm PCB and must be disposed of in an incinerator that meets the requirements in § 761.70.


(v) You may reclassify a PCB Transformer that has been tested and determined to have a concentration of ≥500 ppm PCBs to a PCB-Contaminated transformer (≥50 but

(A) Remove the free-flowing PCB dielectric fluid from the transformer. Flushing is not required. Either test the fluid or assume it contains ≥1,000 ppm PCBs. Retrofill the transformer with fluid containing known PCB levels according to the following table. Determine the transformer’s reclassified status according to the following table (if following this process does not result in the reclassified status you desire, you may repeat the process):


If test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) in the transformer prior to retrofill is . . .
and you retrofill the transformer with dielectric fluid containing . . .
and you . . .
and test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) after retrofill is . . .
then the transformer’s reclassified status is. . .
≥1,000 (or untested)operate the transformer electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBs≥50 but PCB-contaminated
operate the transformer electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBsnon-PCB
≥500 but test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill≥50 but PCB-contaminated
test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofillnon-PCB
≥50 but ≥2 but test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofillnon-PCB
(no need to test)(not applicable)non-PCB

(B) If you discover that the PCB concentration of the fluid in a reclassified transformer has changed, causing the reclassified status to change, the transformer is regulated based on the actual concentration of the fluid. For example, a transformer that was reclassified to non-PCB status is regulated as a PCB-Contaminated transformer if you discover that the concentration of the fluid has increased to ≥50 but

(C) The Director, National Program Chemicals Division, may, without further rulemaking, grant approval on a case-by-case basis for the use of alternative methods to reclassify transformers. You may request an approval by writing to the Director, National Program Chemicals Division (7404), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Describe the equipment you plan to reclassify, the alternative reclassification method you plan to use, and test data or other evidence on the effectiveness of the method.


(D) You must keep records of the reclassification required by § 761.180(g).


(vi) Any dielectric fluid containing 50 ppm or greater PCB used for servicing transformers must be stored in accordance with the storage for disposal requirements of § 761.65.


(vii) Processing and distribution in commerce of PCBs for purposes of servicing transformers is permitted only for persons who are granted an exemption under TSCA 6(e)(3)(B).


(b) Use in and servicing of railroad transformers. PCBs may be used in transformers in railroad locomotives or railroad self-propelled cars (“railroad transformers”) and may be processed and distributed in commerce for purposes of servicing these transformers in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner subject to the following conditions:


(1) Use restrictions. After July 1, 1986, use of railroad transformers that contain dielectric fluids with a PCB concentration >1,000 ppm is prohibited.


(2) Servicing restrictions. (i) If the coil is removed from the casing of a railroad transformer (e.g., the transformer is rebuilt), after January 1, 1982, the railroad transformer may not be refilled with dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration greater than 50 ppm;


(ii) After January 1, 1984, railroad transformers may only be serviced with dielectric fluid containing less than 1000 ppm PCB, except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section;


(iii) Dielectric fluid may be filtered through activated carbon or otherwise industrially processed for the purpose of reducing the PCB concentration in the fluid;


(iv) Any PCB dielectric fluid that is used to service PCB railroad transformers must be stored in accordance with the storage for disposal requirements of § 761.65;


(v) After July 1, 1979, processing and distribution in commerce of PCBs for purposes of servicing railroad transformers is permitted only for persons who are granted an exemption under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).


(vi) A PCB Transformer may be converted to a PCB-Contaminated Transformer or to a non-PCB Transformer by draining, refilling, and/or otherwise servicing the railroad transformer. In order to reclassify, the railroad transformer’s dielectric fluid must contain less than 500 ppm (for conversion to PCB-Contaminated Transformer) or less than 50 ppm PCB (for conversion to a non-PCB Transformer) after a minimum of three months of inservice use subsequent to the last servicing conducted for the purpose of reducing the PCB concentration in the transformer.


(c) Use in mining equipment. After January 1, 1982, PCBs may be used in mining equipment only at a concentration level of

(d) Use in heat transfer systems. After July 1, 1984, PCBs may be used in heat transfer systems only at a concentration level of

(e) Use in hydraulic systems. After July 1, 1984, PCBs may be used in hydraulic systems only at a concentration level of

(f) Use in carbonless copy paper. Carbonless copy paper containing PCBs may be used in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner indefinitely.


(g) [Reserved]


(h) Use in and servicing of electromagnets, switches and voltage regulators. PCBs at any concentration may be used in electromagnets, switches (including sectionalizers and motor starters), and voltage regulators and may be used for purposes of servicing this equipment (including rebuilding) for the remainder of their useful lives, subject to the following conditions:


(1) Use conditions. (i) After October 1, 1985, the use and storage for reuse of any electromagnet which poses an exposure risk to food or feed is prohibited if the electromagnet contains greater than 500 ppm PCBs.


(ii) Use and storage for reuse of voltage regulators which contain 1.36 kilograms (3 lbs) or more of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm are subject to the following provisions:


(A) The owner of the voltage regulator must mark its location in accordance with § 761.40.


(B) If a voltage regulator is involved in a fire-related incident, the owner must immediately report the incident to the National Response Center (Toll-free: 1-800-424-8802; in Washington, DC: 202-426-2675). A fire-related incident is defined as any incident that involves the generation of sufficient heat and/or pressure, by any source, to result in the violent or non-violent rupture of the voltage regulator and the release of PCBs.


(C) The owner of the voltage regulator must inspect it in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1)(ix), (a)(1)(xiii), and (a)(1)(xiv) of this section that apply to PCB Transformers.


(D) The owner of the voltage regulator must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements at § 761.180.


(iii) The owner of a voltage regulator that assumes it contains

(2) Servicing conditions. (i) Servicing (including rebuilding) any electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator with a PCB concentration of 500 ppm or greater which requires the removal and rework of the internal components is prohibited.


(ii) Electromagnets, switches, and voltage regulators classified as PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment (as defined in the definition of “PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment” under § 761.3) may be serviced (including rebuilding) only with dielectric fluid containing less than 500 ppm PCB.


(iii) PCBs removed during any servicing activity must be captured and either reused as dielectric fluid or disposed of in accordance with the requirements of § 761.60. PCBs from electromagnets switches, and voltage regulators with a PCB concentration of at least 500 ppm must not be mixed with or added to dielectric fluid from PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment.


(iv) Regardless of its PCB concentration, dielectric fluids containing less than 500 ppm PCB that are mixed with fluids that contain 500 ppm or greater PCB must not be used as dielectric fluid in any electrical equipment. The entire mixture of dielectric fluid must be considered to be greater than 500 ppm PCB and must be disposed of in an incinerator that meets the requirements of § 761.70.


(v) You may reclassify an electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator that has been tested and determined to have a concentration of ≥500 ppm PCBs to PCB-Contaminated status (≥50 but

(A) Remove the free-flowing PCB dielectric fluid from the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator. Flushing is not required. Either test the fluid or assume it contains ≥1,000 ppm PCBs. Retrofill the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator with fluid containing known PCB levels according to the following table. Determine the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator’s reclassified status according to the following table (if following this process does not result in the reclassified status you desire, you may repeat the process):


If test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) in the equipment prior to retrofill is . . .
and you retrofill the equipment with dielectric fluid containing . . .
and you . . .
and test results show the PCB concentration (ppm) after retrofill is . . .
then the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator’s reclassified status is . . .
≥1,000 (or untested)operate the equipment electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBs≥50 but PCB-contaminated
operate the equipment electrically under loaded conditions for at least 90-continuous days after retrofill, then test the fluid for PCBsnon-PCB
≥500 but test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofill≥50 but PCB-contaminated
test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofillnon-PCB
≥50 but ≥2 but test the fluid for PCBs at least 90 days after retrofillnon-PCB
(no need to test)(not applicable)non-PCB

(B) If you discover that the PCB concentration of the fluid in a reclassified electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator has changed, causing the reclassified status to change, the electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator is regulated based on the actual concentration of the fluid. For example, an electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator that was reclassified to non-PCB status is regulated as a PCB-Contaminated electromagnet, switch, or voltage regulator if you discover that the concentration of the fluid has increased to ≥50 but

(C) The Director, National Program Chemicals Division may, without further rulemaking, grant approval on a case-by-case basis for the use of alternative methods to reclassify electromagnets, switches or voltage regulators. You may request an approval by writing to the Director, National Program Chemicals Division (7404), Environmental Protection Agency,1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Describe the equipment you plan to reclassify, the alternative reclassification method you plan to use, and test data or other evidence on the effectiveness of the method.


(D) You must keep records of the reclassification required by § 761.180(g).


(vi) Any dielectric fluid containing 50 ppm or greater PCB used for servicing electromagnets, switches, or voltage regulators must be stored in accordance with the storage for disposal requirements of § 761.65.


(vii) Processing and distribution in commerce of PCBs for purposes of servicing electromagnets, switches or voltage regulators is permitted only for persons who are granted an exemption under TSCA 6(e)(3)(B).


(i) Use and reuse of PCBs in natural gas pipeline systems; use and reuse of PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe and appurtenances. (1)(i) PCBs are authorized for use in natural gas pipeline systems at concentrations

(ii) PCBs are authorized for use, at concentrations ≥50 ppm, in natural gas pipeline systems not owned or operated by a seller or distributor of natural gas.


(iii)(A) PCBs are authorized for use, at concentrations ≥50 ppm, in natural gas pipeline systems owned or operated by a seller or distributor of natural gas, if the owner or operator:


(1) Submits to EPA, upon request, a written description of the general nature and location of PCBs ≥50 ppm in their natural gas pipeline system. Each written description shall be submitted to the EPA Regional Administrator having jurisdiction over the segment or component of the system (or the Director, National Program Chemicals Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, if the system is contaminated in more than one region).


(2) Within 120 days after discovery of PCBs ≥50 ppm in natural gas pipeline systems, or by December 28, 1998, whichever is later, characterizes the extent of PCB contamination by collecting and analyzing samples to identify the upstream and downstream end points of the segment or component where PCBs ≥50 ppm were discovered.


(3) Within 120 days of characterization of the extent of PCB contamination, or by December 28, 1998, whichever is later, samples and analyzes all potential sources of introduction of PCBs into the natural gas pipeline system for PCBs ≥50 ppm. Potential sources include natural gas compressors, natural gas scrubbers, natural gas filters, and interconnects where natural gas is received upstream from the most downstream sampling point where PCBs ≥50 ppm were detected; potential sources exclude valves, drips, or other small liquid condensate collection points.


(4) Within 1 year of characterization of the extent of PCB contamination, reduces all demonstrated sources of PCBs ≥50 ppm to

(5) Repeats sampling and analysis at least annually where PCBs are ≥50 ppm, until sampling results indicate the natural gas pipeline segment or component is

(6) Marks aboveground sources of PCB liquids in natural gas pipeline systems with the ML Mark in accordance with § 761.45(a), where such sources have been demonstrated through historical data or recent sampling to contain PCBs ≥50 ppm.


(B) Owners or operators of natural gas pipeline systems which do not include potential sources of PCB contamination as described in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A)(3) of this section containing ≥50 ppm PCB are not subject to paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A)(2), (i)(1)(iii)(A)(3), (i)(1)(iii)(A)(4), or (i)(1)(iii)(A)(6) of this section. Owners or operators of these systems, however, must comply with the other provisions of this section (e.g., sampling of any collected PCB liquids and recordkeeping).


(C) The owner or operator of a natural gas pipeline system must document in writing all data collected and actions taken, or not taken, pursuant to the authorization in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section. They must maintain the information for 3 years after the PCB concentration in the component or segment is reduced to

(D) The Director, National Program Chemicals Division, after consulting with the appropriate EPA Region(s) may, based on a finding of no unreasonable risk, modify in writing the requirements of paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section, including extending any compliance date, approving alternative formats for documentation, waiving one or more requirements for a segment or component, requiring sampling and analysis, and requiring implementation of engineering measures to reduce PCB concentrations. EPA will make such modifications based on the natural gas pipeline system size, configuration, and current operating conditions; nature, extent or source of contamination; proximity of contamination to end-users; or previous sampling, monitoring, remedial actions or documentation of activities taken regarding compliance with this authorization or other applicable Federal, State, or local laws and regulations. The Director, National Program Chemicals Division, may defer the authority described in this paragraph, upon request, to the appropriate EPA Region.


(E) The owner or operator of a natural gas pipeline system may use historical data to fulfill the requirements of paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A)(1), (i)(1)(iii)(A)(2) and (i)(1)(iii)(A)(3) of this section. They may use documented historical actions taken to reduce PCB concentrations in known sources; decontaminate components or segments of natural gas pipeline systems; or otherwise to reduce PCB levels to fulfill the requirements of paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A)(4) of this section.


(2) Any person may reuse PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe and appurtenances in a natural gas pipeline system, provided all free-flowing liquids have been removed.


(3) Any person may use PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe, drained of all free-flowing liquids, in the transport of liquids (e.g., bulk hydrocarbons, chemicals, petroleum products, or coal slurry), as casing to provide secondary containment or protection (e.g., protection for electrical cable), as industrial structural material (e.g., fence posts, sign posts, or bridge supports), as temporary flume at construction sites, as equipment skids, as culverts under transportation systems in intermittent flow situations, for sewage service with written consent of the Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), for steam service, as irrigation systems (

(4) Any person characterizing PCB contamination in natural gas pipe or natural gas pipeline systems must do so by analyzing organic liquids collected at existing condensate collection points in the pipe or pipeline system. The level of PCB contamination found at a collection point is assumed to extend to the next collection point downstream. Any person characterizing multi-phasic liquids must do so in accordance with § 761.1(b)(4); if no liquids are present, they must use standard wipe samples in accordance with subpart M of this part.


(5)(i) Any person disposing of liquids containing PCBs ≥50 ppm removed, spilled, or otherwise released from a natural gas pipeline system must do so in accordance with § 761.61(a)(5)(iv) based on the PCB concentration at the time of removal from the system. Any person disposing of materials contaminated by spills or other releases of PCBs ≥50 ppm from a natural gas pipeline systems, must do so in accordance with §§ 761.61 or 761.79, as applicable.


(ii) Any person who markets or burns for energy recovery liquids containing PCBs at concentrations

(j) Research and development. For purposes of this section, authorized research and development (R&D) activities include, but are not limited to: the chemical analysis of PCBs, including analyses to determine PCB concentration; determinations of the physical properties of PCBs; studies of environmental transport processes; studies of biochemical transport processes; studies of effects of PCBs on the environment; and studies of the health effects of PCBs, including direct toxicity and toxicity of metabolic products of PCBs. Authorized R&D activities do not include research, development, or analysis for the development of any PCB product. Any person conducting R&D activities under this section is also responsible for determining and complying with all other applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. Although the use of PCBs and PCBs in analytical reference samples derived from waste material is authorized in conjunction with PCB-disposal related activities, R&D for PCB disposal (as defined under § 761.3) is addressed in § 761.60(j). PCBs and PCBs in analytical reference samples derived from waste materials are authorized for use, in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner, provided that:


(1) They obtain the PCBs and PCBs in analytical reference samples derived from waste materials from sources authorized under § 761.80 to manufacture, process, and distribute PCBs in commerce and the PCBs are packaged in compliance with the Hazardous Materials Regulations at 49 CFR parts 171 through 180.


(2) They store all PCB wastes resulting from R&D activities (e.g., spent laboratory samples, residuals, contaminated media such as clothing, etc.) in compliance with § 761.65(b) and dispose of all PCB wastes in compliance with § 761.64.


(3) [Reserved]


(4) No person may manufacture, process, or distribute in commerce PCBs for research and development unless they have been granted an exemption to do so under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).


(k) Use in scientific instruments. PCBs may be used indefinitely in scientific instruments, for example, in oscillatory flow birefringence and viscoelasticity instruments for the study of the physical properties of polymers, as microscopy mounting fluids, as microscopy immersion oil, and as optical liquids in a manner other than a totally enclosed manner. No person may manufacture, process, or distribute in commerce PCBs for use in scientific instruments unless they have been granted an exemption to do so under TSCA section 6(e)(3)(B).


(l) Use in capacitors. PCBs at any concentration may be used in capacitors, subject to the following conditions:


(1) Use conditions. (i) After October 1, 1988, the use and storage for reuse of PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors and PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors which pose an exposure risk to food or feed is prohibited.


(ii) After October 1, 1988, the use of PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors and PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors is prohibited unless the capacitor is used within a restricted-access electrical substation or in a contained and restricted-access indoor installation. A restricted-access electrical substation is an outdoor, fenced or walled-in facility that restricts public access and is used in the transmission or distribution of electric power. A contained and restricted-access indoor installation does not have public access and has an adequate roof, walls, and floor to contain any release of PCBs within the indoor location.


(2) [Reserved]


(m) Use in and servicing of circuit breakers, reclosers and cable. PCBs at any concentration may be used in circuit breakers, reclosers, and cable and may be used for purposes of servicing this electrical equipment (including rebuilding) for the remainder of their useful lives, subject to the following conditions:


(1) Servicing conditions. (i) Circuit breakers, reclosers, and cable may be serviced (including rebuilding) only with dielectric fluid containing less than 50 ppm PCB.


(ii) Any circuit breaker, recloser or cable found to contain at least 50 ppm PCBs may be serviced only in accordance with the conditions contained in 40 CFR 761.30(h)(2).


(2) [Reserved]


(n)-(o) [Reserved]


(p) Continued use of porous surfaces contaminated with PCBs regulated for disposal by spills of liquid PCBs. (1) Any person may use porous surfaces contaminated by spills of liquid PCBs at concentrations >10 µg/100 cm
2 for the remainder of the useful life of the surfaces and subsurface material if the following conditions are met:


(i) The source of PCB contamination is removed or contained to prevent further release to porous surfaces.


(ii) If the porous surface is accessible to superficial surface cleaning:


(A) The double wash rinse procedure in subpart S of this part is conducted on the surface to remove surface PCBs.


(B) The treated surface is allowed to dry for 24 hours.


(iii) After accessible surfaces have been cleaned according to paragraph (p)(1)(ii) of this section and for all surfaces inaccessible to cleanup:


(A) The surface is completely covered to prevent release of PCBs with:


(1) Two solvent resistant and water repellent coatings of contrasting colors to allow for a visual indication of wear through or loss of outer coating integrity; or


(2) A solid barrier fastened to the surface and covering the contaminated area or all accessible parts of the contaminated area. Examples of inaccessible areas are underneath a floor-mounted electrical transformer and in an impassible space between an electrical transformer and a vault wall.


(B) The surface is marked with the ML Mark in a location easily visible to individuals present in the area; the ML Mark shall be placed over the encapsulated area or the barrier to the encapsulated area.


(C) ML Marks shall be replaced when worn or illegible.


(2) Removal of a porous surface contaminated with PCBs from its location or current use is prohibited except for removal for disposal in accordance with §§ 761.61 or 761.79 for surfaces contaminated by spills, or § 761.62 for manufactured porous surfaces.


(q) [Reserved]


(r) Use in and servicing of rectifiers. Any person may use PCBs at any concentration in rectifiers for the remainder of the PCBs’ useful life, and may use PCBs

(s) Use of PCBs in air compressor systems. (1) Any person may use PCBs in air compressor systems at concentrations

(2) Any person may use PCBs in air compressor systems (or components thereof) at concentrations ≥50 ppm provided that:


(i) All free-flowing liquids containing PCBs ≥50 ppm are removed from the air compressor crankcase and the crankcase is refilled with non-PCB liquid.


(ii) Other air compressor system components contaminated with PCBs ≥50 ppm, are decontaminated in accordance with § 761.79 or disposed of in accordance with subpart D of this part.


(iii) Air compressor piping with a nominal inside diameter of

(3) The requirements in paragraph (s)(2) of this section must be completed by August 30, 1999 or within 1 year of the date of discovery of PCBs at ≥50 ppm in the air compressor system, whichever is later. The EPA Regional Administrator for the EPA Region in which an air compressor system is located may, at his/her discretion and in writing, extend this timeframe.


(t) Use of PCBs in other gas or liquid transmission systems. (1) PCBs are authorized for use in intact and non-leaking gas or liquid transmission systems at concentrations

(2) PCBs are authorized for use at concentrations ≥50 ppm in intact and non-leaking gas or liquid transmission systems not owned or operated by a seller or distributor of the gas or liquid transmitted in the system.


(3) Any person may use PCBs at concentrations ≥50 ppm in intact and non-leaking gas or liquid transmission systems, with the written approval of the Director, National Program Chemicals Division, subject to the requirements applicable to natural gas pipeline systems at paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A), (i)(1)(iii)(C) through (i)(1)(iii)(E), and (i)(2) through (i)(5) of this section.


(u) Use of decontaminated materials. (1) Any person may use equipment, structures, other non-liquid or liquid materials that were contaminated with PCBs during manufacture, use, servicing, or because of spills from, or proximity to, PCBs ≥50 ppm, including those not otherwise authorized for use under this part, provided:


(i) The materials were decontaminated in accordance with:


(A) A TSCA PCB disposal approval issued under subpart D of this part;


(B) Section 761.79; or


(C) Applicable EPA PCB spill cleanup policies (e.g., TSCA, RCRA, CERCLA, EPA regional) in effect at the time of the decontamination; or


(ii) If not previously decontaminated, the materials now meet an applicable decontamination standard in § 761.79(b).


(2) No person shall use or reuse materials decontaminated in accordance with paragraph (u)(1)(i) of this section or meeting an applicable decontamination standard in paragraph (u)(1)(ii) of this section, in direct contact with food, feed, or drinking water unless otherwise allowed under this section or this part.


(3) Any person may use water containing PCBs at concentrations ≤0.5µg/L PCBs without restriction.


(4) Any person may use water containing PCBs at concentrations
(Sec. 6, Pub. L. 94-469, 90 Stat. 2020, 2025 (15 U.S.C. 2605)

[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979. Redesignated at 47 FR 19527, May 6, 1982]


Editorial Note:For Federal Register citations affecting § 761.30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§ 761.35 Storage for reuse.

(a) The owner or operator of a PCB Article may store it for reuse in an area which is not designed, constructed, and operated in compliance with § 761.65(b), for no more than 5 years after the date the Article was originally removed from use (e.g., disconnected electrical equipment) or 5 years after August 28, 1998, whichever is later, if the owner or operator complies with the following conditions:


(1) Follows all use requirements at § 761.30 and marking requirements at subpart C of this part that are applicable to the PCB Article.


(2) Maintains records starting at the time the PCB Article is removed from use or August 28, 1998. The records must indicate:


(i) The date the PCB Article was removed from use or August 28, 1998, if the removal date is not known.


(ii) The projected location and the future use of the PCB Article.


(iii) If applicable, the date the PCB Article is scheduled for repair or servicing.


(b) The owner or operator of a PCB Article may store it for reuse in an area that does not comply with § 761.65(b) for a period longer than 5 years, provided that the owner or operator has received written approval from the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in which the PCB Article is stored. An owner or operator of a PCB Article seeking approval to extend the 5-year period must submit a request for extension to the EPA Regional Administrator at least 6 months before the 5-year storage for reuse period expires and must include an item-by-item justification for the desired extension. The EPA Regional Administrator may include any conditions to such approval deemed necessary to protect health or the environment. The owner or operator of the PCB Article being stored for reuse must comply with the other applicable provisions of this part, including the record retention requirements at § 761.180(a).


(c) Any person may store a PCB Article for reuse indefinitely in:


(1) A unit in compliance with § 761.65(b).


(2) A unit permitted under section 3004 of RCRA to manage hazardous wastes in containers.


(3) A unit permitted by a State authorized under section 3006 of RCRA to manage hazardous waste.


[63 FR 35443, June 29, 1998]


Subpart C – Marking of PCBs and PCB Items

§ 761.40 Marking requirements.

(a) Each of the following items in existence on or after July 1, 1978 shall be marked as illustrated in Figure 1 in § 761.45(a): The mark illustrated in Figure 1 is referred to as ML throughout this subpart.


(1) PCB Containers;


(2) PCB Transformers at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at the time of removal from use if not already marked. [Marking of PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment is not required];


(3) PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at the time of removal from use if not already marked;


(4) Equipment containing a PCB Transformer or a PCB Large High Voltage Capacitor at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at the time of removal of the equipment from use if not already marked;


(5) PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors at the time of removal from use (see also paragraph (k) of this section).


(6) Electric motors using PCB coolants (See also paragraph (e) of this section).


(7) Hydraulic systems using PCB hydraulic fluid (See also paragraph (e) of this section);


(8) Heat transfer systems (other than PCB Transformers) using PCBs (See also paragraph (e) of this section);


(9) PCB Article Containers containing articles or equipment that must be marked under paragraphs (a) (1) through (8) of this section;


(10) Each storage area used to store PCBs and PCB Items for disposal.


(b) As of October 1, 1978, each transport vehicle loaded with PCB Containers that contain more than 45 kg (99.4 lbs.) of liquid PCBs at concentrations of ≥50 ppm or with one or more PCB Transformers shall be marked on each end and each side with the ML mark as described in § 761.45(a).


(c) As of January 1, 1979, the following PCB Articles shall be marked with mark ML as described in § 761.45(a):


(1) All PCB Transformers not marked under paragraph (a) of this section [marking of PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment is not required];


(2) All PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors not marked under paragraph (a) of this section


(i) Will be marked individually with mark ML, or


(ii) If one or more PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors are installed in a protected location such as on a power pole, or structure, or behind a fence; the pole, structure, or fence shall be marked with mark ML, and a record or procedure identifying the PCB Capacitors shall be maintained by the owner or operator at the protected location.


(d) As of January 1, 1979, all PCB Equipment containing a PCB Small Capacitor shall be marked at the time of manufacture with the statement, “This equipment contains PCB Capacitor(s)”. The mark shall be of the same size as the mark ML.


(e) As of October 1, 1979, applicable PCB Items in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(6), (a)(7), and (a)(8) of this section containing PCBs in concentrations of 50 to 500 ppm shall be marked with the ML mark as described in § 761.45(a).


(f) Where mark ML is specified but the PCB Article or PCB Equipment is too small to accomodate the smallest permissible size of mark ML, mark MS as described in § 761.45(b), may be used instead of mark ML.


(g) Each large low voltage capacitor, each small capacitor normally used in alternating current circuits, and each fluorescent light ballast manufactured (“manufactured”, for purposes of this sentence, means built) between July 1, 1978 and July 1, 1998 that do not contain PCBs shall be marked by the manufacturer at the time of manufacture with the statement, “No PCBs”. The mark shall be of similar durability and readability as other marking that indicate electrical information, part numbers, or the manufacturer’s name. For purposes of this paragraph marking requirement only is applicable to items built domestically or abroad after June 30, 1978.


(h) All marks required by this subpart must be placed in a position on the exterior of the PCB Items, storage units, or transport vehicles so that the marks can be easily read by any persons inspecting or servicing the marked PCB Items, storage units, or transport vehicles.


(i) Any chemical substance or mixture that is manufactured after the effective date of this rule and that contains less than 500 ppm PCB (0.05% on a dry weight basis), including PCB that is a byproduct or impurity, must be marked in accordance with any requirements contained in the exemption granted by EPA to permit such manufacture and is not subject to any other requirement in this subpart unless so specified in the exemption. This paragraph applies only to containers of chemical substances or mixtures. PCB articles and equipment into which the chemical substances or mixtures are processed, are subject to the marking requirements contained elsewhere in this subpart.


(j) PCB Transformer locations shall be marked as follows:


(1) Except as provided in paragraph (j)(2) of this section, as of December 1, 1985, the vault door, machinery room door, fence, hallway, or means of access, other than grates and manhole covers, to a PCB Transformer must be marked with the mark ML as required by paragraph (a) of this section.


(2) A mark other than the ML mark may be used provided all of the following conditions are met:


(i) The program using such an alternative mark was initiated prior to August 15, 1985, and can be substantiated with documentation.


(ii) Prior to August 15, 1985, coordination between the transformer owner and the primary fire department occurred, and the primary fire department knows, accepts, and recognizes what the alternative mark means, and that this can be substantiated with documentation.


(iii) The EPA Regional Administrator in the appropriate region is informed in writing of the use of the alternative mark by October 3, 1988 and is provided with documentation that the program began before August 15, 1985, and documentation that demonstrates that prior to that date the primary fire department knew, accepted and recognized the meaning of the mark, and included this information in firefighting training.


(iv) The Regional Administrator will either approve or disapprove in writing the use of an alternative mark within 30 days of receipt of the documentation of a program.


(3) Any mark placed in accordance with the requirements of this section must be placed in the locations described in paragraph (j)(1) of this section and in a manner that can be easily read by emergency response personnel fighting a fire involving this equipment.


(k) As of April 26, 1999 the following PCB Items shall be marked with the ML mark as described in § 761.45(a):


(1) All PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors not marked under paragraph (a) of this section shall be marked individually, or if one or more PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors are installed in a protected location such as on a power pole, or structure, or behind a fence, then the owner or operator shall mark the pole, structure, or fence with the ML mark, and maintain a record or procedure identifying the PCB Capacitors at the protected location. PCB Large Low Voltage Capacitors in inaccessible locations inside equipment need not be marked individually, provided the owner or operator marks the equipment in accordance with paragraph (k)(2) of this section, and marks the individual capacitors at the time of removal from use in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section.


(2) All equipment not marked under paragraph (a) of this section containing a PCB Transformer or a PCB Large High or Low Voltage Capacitor.


(l)(1) All voltage regulators which contain 1.36 kilograms (3 lbs.) or more of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm must be marked individually with the ML mark as described in § 761.45(a).


(2) Locations of voltage regulators which contain 1.36 kilograms (3 lbs.) or more of dielectric fluid with a PCB concentration of ≥500 ppm shall be marked as follows: The vault door, machinery room door, fence, hallway, or means of access, other than grates or manhole covers, must be marked with the ML mark as described in § 761.45(a).


[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979. Redesignated at 47 FR 19527, May 6, 1982, and amended at 47 FR 37359, Aug. 25, 1982; 50 FR 29201, July 17, 1985; 50 FR 32176, Aug. 9, 1985; 53 FR 12524, Apr. 15, 1988; 53 FR 27329, July 19, 1988; 63 FR 35443, June 29, 1998; 64 FR 33760, June 24, 1999]


§ 761.45 Marking formats.

The following formats shall be used for marking:


(a) Large PCB Mark – ML. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow background and shall be sufficiently durable to equal or exceed the life (including storage for disposal) of the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm (6 inches) on each side. If the PCB Article or PCB Equipment is too small to accommodate this size, the mark may be reduced in size proportionately down to a minimum of 5 cm (2 inches) on each side.


(b) Small PCB Mark – Ms. Mark Ms shall be as shown in Figure 2, letters and striping on a white or yellow background, and shall be sufficiently durable to equal or exceed the life (including storage for disposal) of the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The mark shall be a rectangle 2.5 by 5 cm (1 inch by 2 inches). If the PCB Article or PCB Equipment is too small to accommodate this size, the mark may be reduced in size proportionately down to a minimum of 1 by 2 cm (.4 by .8 inches).



[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979. Redesignated at 47 FR 19527, May 6, 1982]


Subpart D – Storage and Disposal

§ 761.50 Applicability.

(a) General PCB disposal requirements. Any person storing or disposing of PCB waste must do so in accordance with subpart D of this part. The following prohibitions and conditions apply to all PCB waste storage and disposal:


(1) No person may open burn PCBs. Combustion of PCBs approved under § 761.60 (a) or (e), or otherwise allowed under part 761, is not open burning.


(2) No person may process liquid PCBs into non-liquid forms to circumvent the high temperature incineration requirements of § 761.60(a).


(3) No person may discharge water containing PCBs to a treatment works (as defined § 503.9(aa) of this chapter) or to navigable waters unless the PCB concentration is

(4) Spills and other uncontrolled discharges of PCBs at concentrations of ≥50 ppm constitute the disposal of PCBs.


(5) Any person land disposing of non-liquid PCBs may avoid otherwise-applicable sampling requirements by presuming that the PCBs disposed of are ≥500 ppm (or ≥100 µg/100 cm
2 if no free-flowing liquids are present).


(6) Any person storing or disposing of PCBs is also responsible for determining and complying with all other applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.


(b) PCB waste – (1) PCB liquids. Any person removing PCB liquids from use (i.e., not PCB remediation waste) must dispose of them in accordance with § 761.60(a), or decontaminate them in accordance with § 761.79.


(2) PCB Items. Any person removing from use a PCB Item containing an intact and non-leaking PCB Article must dispose of it in accordance with § 761.60(b), or decontaminate it in accordance with § 761.79. PCB Items where the PCB Articles are no longer intact and non-leaking are regulated for disposal as PCB bulk product waste under § 761.62(a) or (c).


(i) Fluorescent light ballasts containing PCBs only in an intact and non-leaking PCB Small Capacitor are regulated for disposal under § 761.60(b)(2)(ii).


(ii) Fluorescent light ballasts containing PCBs in the potting material are regulated for disposal as PCB bulk product waste under § 761.62.


(3) PCB remediation waste. PCB remediation waste, including PCB sewage sludge, is regulated for cleanup and disposal in accordance with § 761.61.


(i) Any person responsible for PCB waste at as-found concentrations ≥50 ppm that was either placed in a land disposal facility, spilled, or otherwise released into the environment prior to April 18, 1978, regardless of the concentration of the spill or release; or placed in a land disposal facility, spilled, or otherwise released into the environment on or after April 18, 1978, but prior to July 2, 1979, where the concentration of the spill or release was ≥50 ppm but

(A) Sites containing these wastes are presumed not to present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment from exposure to PCBs at the site. However, the EPA Regional Administrator may inform the owner or operator of the site that there is reason to believe that spills, leaks, or other uncontrolled releases or discharges, such as leaching, from the site constitute ongoing disposal that may present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment from exposure to PCBs at the site, and may require the owner or operator to generate data necessary to characterize the risk. If after reviewing any such data, the EPA Regional Administrator makes a finding, that an unreasonable risk exists, then he or she may direct the owner or operator of the site to dispose of the PCB remediation waste in accordance with § 761.61 such that an unreasonable risk of injury no longer exists.


(B) Unless directed by the EPA Regional Administrator to dispose of PCB waste in accordance with paragraph (b)(3)(i)(A) of this section, any person responsible for PCB waste at as-found concentrations ≥50 ppm that was either placed in a land disposal facility, spilled, or otherwise released into the environment prior to April 18, 1978, regardless of the concentration of the spill or release; or placed in a land disposal facility, spilled, or otherwise released into the environment on or after April 18, 1978, but prior to July 2, 1979, where the concentration of the spill or release was ≥50 ppm but

(ii) Any person responsible for PCB waste at as-found concentrations ≥50 ppm that was either placed in a land disposal facility, spilled, or otherwise released into the environment on or after April 18, 1978, but prior to July 2, 1979, where the concentration of the spill or release was ≥500 ppm; or placed in a land disposal facility, spilled, or otherwise released into the environment on or after July 2, 1979, where the concentration of the spill or release was ≥50 ppm, must dispose of it in accordance with either of the following:


(A) In accordance with the PCB Spill Cleanup Policy (Policy) at subpart G of this part, for those PCB remediation wastes that meet the criteria of the Policy. Consult the Policy for a description of the spills it covers and its notification and timing requirements.


(B) In accordance with § 761.61. Complete compliance with § 761.61 does not create a presumption against enforcement action for penalties for any unauthorized PCB disposal.


(iii) The owner or operator of a site containing PCB remediation waste has the burden of proving the date that the waste was placed in a land disposal facility, spilled, or otherwise released into the environment, and the concentration of the original spill.


(4) PCB bulk product waste – (i) General. Any person disposing of PCB bulk product waste must do so in accordance with § 761.62. PCB bulk product waste, as that term is defined in § 761.3, is waste that was ≥50 ppm when originally removed from service, even if its current PCB concentration is

(ii) Metal surfaces in contact with PCBs. Any person disposing of metal surfaces in contact with PCBs (e.g., painted metal) may use thermal decontamination procedures in accordance with § 761.79(c)(6) (see § 761.62(a)(6)).


(5) PCB household waste. Any person storing or disposing of PCB household waste, as that term is defined in § 761.3, must do so in accordance with § 761.63.


(6) PCB research and development waste. Any person disposing of PCB wastes generated during and as a result of research and development for use under § 761.30(j), or for disposal under § 761.60(j), must do so in accordance with § 761.64.


(7) PCB/Radioactive waste. (i) Any person storing PCB/radioactive waste ≥50 ppm PCBs must do so taking into account both its PCB concentration and its radioactive properties, except as provided in § 761.65(a)(1), (b)(1)(ii), and (c)(6)(i).


(ii) Any person disposing of PCB/radioactive waste must do so taking into account both its PCB concentration and its radioactive properties. If, taking into account only the properties of the PCBs in the waste (and not the radioactive properties of the waste), the waste meets the requirements for disposal in a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State as a municipal or non-municipal non-hazardous waste landfill (e.g., PCB bulk product waste under § 761.62(b)(1)), then the person may dispose of the PCB/radioactive waste, without regard to the PCB component of the waste, on the basis of its radioactive properties in accordance with all applicable requirements for the radioactive component of the waste.


(8) Porous surfaces. In most cases a person must dispose of porous surfaces as materials where PCBs have penetrated far beneath the surface, rather than a simple surface contamination. Any person disposing of porous surfaces on which PCBs have been spilled and meeting the definition of PCB remediation waste at § 761.3 must do so in accordance with § 761.61. Any person disposing of porous surfaces which are part of manufactured non-liquid products containing PCBs and meeting the definition of PCB bulk product waste at § 761.3 must do so in accordance with § 761.62. Any person may decontaminate concrete surfaces upon which PCBs have been spilled in accordance with § 761.79(b)(4), if the decontamination procedure is commenced within 72 hours of the initial spill of PCBs to the concrete or portion thereof being decontaminated. Any person may decontaminate porous non-liquid PCBs in contact with non-porous surfaces, such as underground metal fuel tanks coated with fire retardant resin or pitch, for purposes of unrestricted use or disposal in a smelter in accordance with § 761.79(b)(3).


(c) Storage for disposal. Any person who holds PCB waste must store it in accordance with § 761.65.


(d) Performance specifications for disposal technologies – (1) Incinerators. Any person using an incinerator to dispose of PCBs must use an incinerator that meets the criteria set forth in § 761.70.


(2) High efficiency boilers. Any person using a high efficiency boiler to dispose of PCBs must use a boiler that meets the criteria set forth in § 761.71.


(3) Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person using scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters to dispose of PCBs must use a device that meets the criteria set forth in § 761.72.


(4) Chemical waste landfills. Any person using a chemical waste landfill to dispose of PCBs must use a chemical waste landfill that meets the criteria set forth in § 761.75.


(e) TSCA PCB Coordinated Approval. Any person seeking a TSCA PCB Coordinated Approval must follow the procedures set forth in § 761.77.


[63 FR 35444, June 29, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 33760, June 24, 1999]


§ 761.60 Disposal requirements.

(a) PCB liquids. PCB liquids at concentrations ≥50 ppm must be disposed of in an incinerator which complies with § 761.70, except that PCB liquids at concentrations ≥50 ppm and

(1) For mineral oil dielectric fluid, in a high efficiency boiler according to § 761.71(a).


(2) For liquids other than mineral oil dielectric fluid, in a high efficiency boiler according to § 761.71(b).


(3) For liquids from incidental sources, such as precipitation, condensation, leachate or load separation and are associated with PCB Articles or non-liquid PCB wastes, in a chemical waste landfill which complies with § 761.75 if:


(i) [Reserved]


(ii) Information is provided to or obtained by the owner or operator of the chemical waste landfill that shows that the liquids do not exceed 500 ppm PCB and are not an ignitable waste as described in § 761.75(b)(8)(iii).


(b) PCB Articles. This paragraph does not authorize disposal that is otherwise prohibited in § 761.20 or elsewhere in this part.


(1) Transformers. (i) PCB Transformers shall be disposed of in accordance with either of the following:


(A) In an incinerator that complies with § 761.70; or


(B) In a chemical waste landfill approved under § 761.75; provided that all free-flowing liquid is removed from the transformer, the transformer is filled with a solvent, the transformer is allowed to stand for at least 18 continuous hours, and then the solvent is thoroughly removed. Any person disposing of PCB liquids that are removed from the transformer (including the dielectric fluid and all solvents used as a flush), shall do so in an incinerator that complies with § 761.70 of this part, or shall decontaminate them in accordance with § 761.79. Solvents may include kerosene, xylene, toluene, and other solvents in which PCBs are readily soluble. Any person disposing of these PCB liquids must ensure that the solvent flushing procedure is conducted in accordance with applicable safety and health standards as required by Federal or State regulations.


(ii) [Reserved]


(2) PCB Capacitors. (i) The disposal of any capacitor shall comply with all requirements of this subpart unless it is known from label or nameplate information, manufacturer’s literature (including documented communications with the manufacturer), or chemical analysis that the capacitor does not contain PCBs.


(ii) Any person may dispose of PCB Small Capacitors as municipal solid waste, unless that person is subject to the requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section.


(iii) Any PCB Large High or Low Voltage Capacitor which contains 500 ppm or greater PCBs, owned by any person, shall be disposed of in accordance with either of the following:


(A) Disposal in an incinerator that complies with § 761.70; or


(B) Until March 1, 1981, disposal in a chemical waste landfill that complies with § 761.75.


(iv) Any person who manufactures or at any time manufactured PCB Capacitors or PCB Equipment, and acquired the PCB Capacitor in the course of such manufacturing, shall place the PCB Small Capacitors in a container meeting the DOT packaging requirements at 49 CFR parts 171 through 180 and dispose of them in accordance with either of the following:


(A) Disposal in an incinerator which complies with § 761.70; or


(B) Until March 1, 1981, disposal in a chemical waste landfill which complies with § 761.75.


(v) Notwithstanding the restrictions imposed by paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B) or (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section, PCB capacitors may be disposed of in PCB chemical waste landfills that comply with § 761.75 subsequent to March 1, 1981, if EPA publishes a notice in the Federal Register declaring that those landfills are available for such disposal and explaining the reasons for the extension or reopening. An extension or reopening for disposal of PCB capacitors that is granted under this subsection shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Assistant Administrator may prescribe and shall be in effect for such period as the Assistant Administrator may prescribe. EPA may permit disposal of PCB capacitors in EPA-approved chemical waste landfills after March 1, 1981, if in its opinion,


(A) Adequate incineration capability for PCB capacitors is not available, or


(B) The incineration of PCB capacitors will significantly interfere with the incineration of liquid PCBs, or


(C) There is other good cause shown.


As part of this evaluation, the Assistant Administrator will consider the impact of his action on the incentives to construct or expand PCB incinerators.

(vi) Any person disposing of large PCB capacitors or small PCB capacitors described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section in a chemical waste landfill approved under § 761.75, shall first place them in a container meeting the DOT packaging requirements at 49 CFR parts 171 through 180. In all cases, the person must fill the interstitial space in the container with sufficient absorbent material (such as soil) to absorb any liquid PCBs remaining in the capacitors.


(3) PCB hydraulic machines. (i) Any person disposing of PCB hydraulic machines containing PCBs at concentrations of ≥50 ppm, such as die casting machines, shall do so by one of the following methods:


(A) In accordance with § 761.79.


(B) In a facility which is permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal solid waste subject to part 258 of this chapter or non-municipal non-hazardous waste subject to §§ 257.5 through 257.30 of this chapter, as applicable (excluding thermal treatment units).


(C) In a scrap metal recovery oven or smelter operating in compliance with § 761.72.


(D) In a disposal facility approved under this part.


(ii) All free-flowing liquid must be removed from each machine and the liquid must be disposed of in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section. If the PCB liquid contains ≥1,000 ppm PCB, then the hydraulic machine must be decontaminated in accordance with § 761.79 or flushed prior to disposal with a solvent listed at paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B) of this section which contains

(4) PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment. Any person disposing of PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment, except capacitors, shall do so in accordance with paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(A) of this section. Any person disposing of Large Capacitors that contain ≥50 ppm but

(5) Natural gas pipeline systems containing PCBs. The owner or operator of natural gas pipeline systems containing ≥50 ppm PCBs, when no longer in use, shall dispose of the system either by abandonment in place of the pipe under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section or removal with subsequent action under paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section. Any person determining the PCB concentrations in natural gas pipeline systems shall do so in accordance with paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section.


(i) Abandonment. Natural gas pipe containing ≥50 ppm PCBs may be abandoned in place under one or more of the following provisions:


(A) Natural gas pipe having a nominal inside diameter of ≤4 inches, and containing PCBs at any concentration but no free-flowing liquids, may be abandoned in the place it was used to transport natural gas if each end is sealed closed and the pipe is either:


(1) Included in a public service notification program, such as a “one-call” system under 49 CFR 192.614(a) and (b).


(2) Filled to 50 percent or more of the volume of the pipe with grout (such as a hardening slurry consisting of cement, bentonite, or clay) or high density polyurethane foam.


(B) PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe of any diameter, where the PCB concentration was determined after the last transmission of gas through the pipe or at the time of abandonment, that contains no free-flowing liquids may be abandoned in the place it was used to transport natural gas if each end is sealed closed.


(C) Natural gas pipe of any diameter which contains PCBs at any concentration but no free-flowing liquids, may be abandoned in the place it was used to transport natural gas, if each end is sealed closed, and either:


(1) The interior surface is decontaminated with one or more washes of a solvent in accordance with the use and disposal requirements of § 761.79(d). This decontamination process must result in a recovery of 95 percent of the solvent volume introduced into the system, and the PCB concentration of the recovered wash must be

(2) The pipe is filled to 50 percent or more of the volume of the pipe with grout (such as a hardening slurry-like cement, bentonite, or clay) or high density polyurethane foam (except that only cement shall be used as grout under rivers or streams) and each end is sealed closed.


(D) Natural gas pipe of any diameter which contains PCBs at any concentration may be abandoned in place after decontamination in accordance with § 761.79(c)(3), (c)(4) or (h) or a PCB disposal approval issued under § 761.60(e) or § 761.61(c).


(ii) Removal with subsequent action. Natural gas pipeline systems may be disposed of under one of the following provisions:


(A) The following classifications of natural gas pipe containing no free-flowing liquids may be disposed of in a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal solid waste subject to part 258 of this chapter or non-municipal non-hazardous waste subject to §§ 257.5 through 257.30 of this chapter, as applicable (excluding thermal treatment units); a scrap metal recovery oven or smelter operating in compliance with the requirements of § 761.72; or a disposal facility approved under this part:


(1) PCB-Contaminated natural gas pipe of any diameter where the PCB concentration was determined after the last transmission of gas through the pipe or during removal from the location it was used to transport natural gas.


(2) Natural gas pipe containing PCBs at any concentration and having a nominal inside diameter ≤4 inches.


(B) Any component of a natural gas pipeline system may be disposed of under one of the following provisions:


(1) In an incinerator operating in compliance with § 761.70.


(2) In a chemical waste landfill operating in compliance with § 761.75, provided that all free-flowing liquid PCBs have been thoroughly drained.


(3) As a PCB remediation waste in compliance with § 761.61.


(4) In accordance with § 761.79.


(iii) Characterization of natural gas pipeline systems by PCB concentration in condensate. (A) Any person disposing of a natural gas pipeline system under paragraphs (b)(5)(i)(B) or (b)(5)(ii)(A)(1) of this section must characterize it for PCB contamination by analyzing organic liquids collected at existing condensate collection points in the natural gas pipeline system. The level of PCB contamination found at a collection point is assumed to extend to the next collection point downstream. If no organic liquids are present, drain free-flowing liquids and collect standard wipe samples according to subpart M of this part. Collect condensate within 72 hours of the final transmission of natural gas through the part of the system to be abandoned or removed. Collect wipe samples after the last transmission of gas through the pipe or during removal from the location it was used to transport natural gas.


(B) PCB concentration of the organic phase of multi-phasic liquids shall be determined in accordance with § 761.1(b)(4).


(iv) Disposal of pipeline liquids. (A) Any person disposing of liquids containing PCBs ≥50 ppm removed, spilled, or otherwise released from a natural gas pipeline system must do so in accordance with § 761.61(a)(5)(iv) based on the PCB concentration at the time of removal from the system. Any person disposing of material contaminated by spills or other releases of PCBs ≥50 ppm from a natural gas pipeline system, must do so in accordance with § 761.61 or § 761.79, as applicable.


(B) Any person who markets or burns for energy recovery liquid containing PCBs at concentrations

(6) Other PCB Articles. (i) PCB articles with concentrations at 500 ppm or greater must be disposed of:


(A) In an incinerator that complies with § 761.70; or


(B) In a chemical waste landfill that complies with § 761.75, provided that all free-flowing liquid PCBs have been thoroughly drained from any articles before the articles are placed in the chemical waste landfill and that the drained liquids are disposed of in an incinerator that complies with § 761.70.


(ii)(A) Except as specifically provided in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section, any person disposing of a PCB-Contaminated Article must do so by removing all free-flowing liquid from the article, disposing of the liquid in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, and disposing of the PCB-Contaminated Article with no free-flowing liquid by one of the following methods:


(1) In accordance with § 761.79.


(2) In a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal solid waste subject to part 258 of this chapter or non-municipal non-hazardous waste subject to §§ 257.5 through 257.30 of this chapter, as applicable (excluding thermal treatment units).


(3) In a scrap metal recovery oven or smelter operating in compliance with § 761.72.


(4) In a disposal facility approved under this part.


(B) Storage for disposal of PCB-Contaminated Articles from which all free-flowing liquids have been removed is not regulated under subpart D of this part.


(C) Requirements in subparts J and K of this part do not apply to PCB-Contaminated Articles from which all free-flowing liquids have been removed.


(iii) Fluorescent light ballasts containing PCBs in their potting material must be disposed of in a TSCA-approved disposal facility, as bulk product waste under § 761.62, as household waste under § 761.63 (where applicable), or in accordance with the decontamination provisions of § 761.79.


(7) Storage of PCB Articles. Except for a PCB Article described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section and hydraulic machines that comply with the municipal solid waste disposal provisions described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, any PCB Article, with PCB concentrations at 50 ppm or greater, shall be stored in accordance with § 761.65 prior to disposal.


(8) Persons disposing of PCB Articles must wear or use protective clothing or equipment to protect against dermal contact with or inhalation of PCBs or materials containing PCBs.


(c) PCB Containers. (1) Unless decontaminated in compliance with § 761.79 or as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, a PCB container with PCB concentrations at 500 ppm or greater shall be disposed of:


(i) In an incinerator which complies with § 761.70, or


(ii) In a chemical waste landfill that complies with § 761.75; provided that if there are PCBs in a liquid state, the PCB Container shall first be drained and the PCB liquid disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section.


(2) Any PCB Container used to contain only PCBs at a concentration less than 500 ppm shall be disposed of as municipal solid wastes; provided that if the PCBs are in a liquid state, the PCB Container shall first be drained and the PCB liquid shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section.


(3) Prior to disposal, a PCB container with PCB concentrations at 50 ppm or greater shall be stored in a unit which complies with § 761.65.


(d) [Reserved]


(e) Any person who is required to incinerate any PCBs and PCB items under this subpart and who can demonstrate that an alternative method of destroying PCBs and PCB items exists and that this alternative method can achieve a level of performance equivalent to an incinerator approved under § 761.70 or a high efficiency boiler operating in compliance with § 761.71, must submit a written request to the Regional Administrator or the Director, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, for a waiver from the incineration requirements of § 761.70 or § 761.71. Requests for approval of alternate methods that will be operated in more than one Region must be submitted to the Director, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, except for research and development activities involving less than 500 pounds of PCB material (see paragraph (i)(2) of this section). Requests for approval of alternate methods that will be operated in only one Region must be submitted to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator. The applicant must show that his or her method of destroying PCBs will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment. On the basis of such information and any available information, EPA may, in its discretion, approve the use of the alternate method if it finds that the alternate disposal method provides PCB destruction equivalent to disposal in a § 761.60 incinerator or a § 761.61 high efficiency boiler and will not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment. Any approval must be stated in writing and may include such conditions and provisions as EPA deems appropriate. The person to whom such waiver is issued must comply with all limitations contained in such determination. No person may use the alternate method of destroying PCBs or PCB items prior to obtaining permission from the appropriate EPA official.


(f)(1) Each operator of a chemical waste landfill, incinerator, or alternative to incineration approved under paragraph (e) of this section shall give the following written notices to the state and local governments within whose jurisdiction the disposal facility is located:


(i) Notice at least thirty (30) days before a facility is first used for disposal of PCBs required by these regulations; and


(ii) At the request of any state or local government, annual notice of the quantities and general description of PCBs disposed of during the year. This annual notice shall be given no more than thirty (30) days after the end of the year covered.


(iii) The Regional Administrator may reduce the notice period required by paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section from thirty days to a period of no less than five days in order to expedite interim approval of the chemical waste landfill located in Sedgwick County, Kansas.


(2) [Reserved]


(g) Testing procedures. (1) Owners or users of mineral oil dielectric fluid electrical equipment may use the following procedures to determine the concentration of PCBs in the dielectric fluid:


(i) Dielectric fluid removed from mineral oil dielectric fluid electrical equipment may be collected in a common container, provided that no other chemical substances or mixtures are added to the container. This common container option does not permit dilution of the collected oil. Mineral oil that is assumed or known to contain at least 50 ppm PCBs must not be mixed with mineral oil that is known or assumed to contain less than 50 ppm PCBs to reduce the concentration of PCBs in the common container. If dielectric fluid from untested, oil-filled circuit breakers, reclosers, or cable is collected in a common container with dielectric fluid from other oil-filled electrical equipment, the entire contents of the container must be treated as PCBs at a concentration of at least 50 ppm, unless all of the fluid from the other oil-filled electrical equipment has been tested and shown to contain less than 50 ppm PCBs.


(ii) For purposes of complying with the marking and disposal requirements, representative samples may be taken from either the common containers or the individual electrical equipment to determine the PCB concentration, except that if any PCBs at a concentration of 500 ppm or greater have been added to the container or equipment then the total container contents must be considered as having a PCB concentration of 500 ppm or greater for purposes of complying with the disposal requirements of this subpart. For purposes of this subparagraph, representative samples of mineral oil dielectric fluid are either samples taken in accordance with ASTM D 923-86 or ASTM D 923-89 or samples taken from a container that has been thoroughly mixed in a manner such that any PCBs in the container are uniformly distributed throughout the liquid in the container.


(iii) Unless otherwise specified in this part, any person conducting the chemical analysis of PCBs shall do so using gas chromatography. Any gas chromatographic method that is appropriate for the material being analyzed may be used, including EPA Method 608, “Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs” at 40 CFR part 136, Appendix A;” EPA Method 8082, “Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) by Capillary Column Gas Chromatography” of SW-846, “OSW Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste,” which is available from NTIS; and ASTM Standard D-4059, “Standard Test Method for Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Insulating Liquids by Gas Chromatography,” which is available from ASTM.


(2) Owners or users of waste oil may use the following procedures to determine the PCB concentration of waste oil:


(i) Waste oil from more than one source may be collected in a common container, provided that no other chemical substances or mixtures, such as non-waste oils, are added to the container.


(ii) For purposes of complying with the marking and disposal requirements, representative samples may be taken from either the common containers or the individual electrical equipment to determine the PCB concentration. Except, That if any PCBs at a concentration of 500 ppm or greater have been added to the container or equipment then the total container contents must be considered as having a PCB concentration of 500 ppm or greater for purposes of complying with the disposal requirements of this subpart. For purposes of this paragraph, representative samples of mineral oil dielectric fluid are either samples taken in accordance with ASTM D 923-86 or ASTM D 923-89 or samples taken from a container that has been thoroughly mixed in a manner such that any PCBs in the container are uniformly distributed throughout the liquid in the container.


(iii) Unless otherwise specified in this part, any person conducting the chemical analysis of PCBs shall do so using gas chromatography. Any gas chromatographic method that is appropriate for the material being analyzed may be used, including those indicated in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section.


(h) Requirements for export and import of PCBs and PCB Items for disposal are found in subpart F of this part.


(i) Approval authority for disposal methods. (1) The officials designated in paragraph (e) of this section and § 761.70(a) and (b) to receive requests for approval of PCB disposal activities are the primary approval authorities for these activities. Notwithstanding, EPA may, at its discretion, assign the authority to review and approve any aspect of a disposal system to the Office of Land and Emergency Management or to a Regional Administrator.


(2) Except for activity authorized under paragraph (j) of this section, research and development (R&D) for PCB disposal using a total of

(j) Self-implementing requirements for research and development (R&D) for PCB disposal. (1) Any person may conduct R&D for PCB disposal without prior written approval from EPA if they meet the following conditions:


(i) File a notification and obtain an EPA identification number pursuant to subpart K of this part.


(ii) Notify in writing the EPA Regional Administrator, the State environmental protection agency, and local environmental protection agency, having jurisdiction where the R&D for PCB disposal activity will occur at least 30 days prior to the commencement of any R&D for PCB disposal activity conducted under this section. Each written notification shall include the EPA identification number of the site where the R&D for PCB disposal activities will be conducted, the quantity of PCBs to be treated, the type of R&D technology to be used, the general physical and chemical properties of material being treated, and an estimate of the duration of the PCB activity. The EPA Regional Administrator, the State environmental protection agency, and the local environmental protection agency may waive notification in writing prior to commencement of the research.


(iii) The amount of material containing PCBs treated annually by the facility during R&D for PCB disposal activities does not exceed 500 gallons or 70 cubic feet of liquid or non-liquid PCBs and does not exceed a maximum concentration of 10,000 ppm PCBs.


(iv) No more than 1 kilogram total of pure PCBs per year is disposed of in all R&D for PCB disposal activities at a facility.


(v) Each R&D for PCB disposal activity under this section lasts no more than 1 calendar year.


(vi) Store all PCB wastes (treated and untreated PCB materials, testing samples, spent laboratory samples, residuals, untreated samples, contaminated media or instrumentation, clothing, etc.) in compliance with § 761.65(b) and dispose of them according to the undiluted PCB concentration prior to treatment. However, PCB materials not treated in the R&D for PCB disposal activity may be returned either to the physical location where the samples were collected or a location where other regulated PCBs from the physical location where the samples were collected are being stored for disposal.


(vii) Use manifests pursuant to subpart K of this part for all R&D PCB wastes being transported from the R&D facility to an approved PCB storage or disposal facility. However, §§ 761.207 through 761.219 do not apply if the residuals or treated samples are returned either to the physical location where the samples were collected or a location where other regulated PCBs from the physical location where the samples were collected are being stored for disposal.


(viii) Package and ship all PCB wastes pursuant to DOT requirements under 49 CFR parts 171 through 180.


(ix) Comply with the recordkeeping requirements of § 761.180.


(2) Do not exceed material limitations set out in paragraphs (j)(1) (iii) and (iv) of this section and the time limitation set out in paragraph (j)(1)(v) of this section without prior written approval from EPA. Requests for approval to exceed the material limitations for PCBs in R&D for PCB disposal activities as specified in this section must be submitted in writing to the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in which the facility conducting R&D for PCB disposal activities is located. Each request shall specify the quantity or concentration requested or additional time needed for disposal and include a justification for each increase. For extensions to the duration of the R&D for PCB disposal activity, the request shall also include a report on the accomplishments and progress of the previously authorized R&D for PCB disposal activity for which the extension is sought. The EPA Regional Administrator may grant a waiver in writing for an increase in the volume of PCB material, the maximum concentration of PCBs, the total amount of pure PCBs, or the duration of the R&D activity. Approvals will state all requirements applicable to the R&D for PCB disposal activity.


(3) The EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in which an R&D for PCB disposal activity is conducted may determine, at any time, that an R&D PCB disposal approval is required under paragraphs (e) and (i)(2) of this section or § 761.70(d) to ensure that any R&D for PCB disposal activity does not present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(Sec. 6, Pub. L. 94-469, 90 Stat. 2020 (15 U.S.C. 2605)

[44 FR 31542, May 31, 1979]


Editorial Note:For Federal Register citations affecting § 761.60, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§ 761.61 PCB remediation waste.

This section provides cleanup and disposal options for PCB remediation waste. Any person cleaning up and disposing of PCBs managed under this section shall do so based on the concentration at which the PCBs are found. This section does not prohibit any person from implementing temporary emergency measures to prevent, treat, or contain further releases or mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste.


(a) Self-implementing on-site cleanup and disposal of PCB remediation waste. EPA designed the self-implementing procedure for a general, moderately-sized site where there should be low residual environmental impact from remedial activities. The procedure may be less practical for larger or environmentally diverse sites. For these other sites, the self-implementing procedure still applies, but an EPA Regional Administrator may authorize more practical procedures through paragraph (c) of this section. Any person may conduct self-implementing cleanup and disposal of PCB remediation waste in accordance with the following requirements without prior written approval from EPA.


(1) Applicability. (i) The self-implementing procedures may not be used to clean up:


(A) Surface or ground waters.


(B) Sediments in marine and freshwater ecosystems.


(C) Sewers or sewage treatment systems.


(D) Any private or public drinking water sources or distribution systems.


(E) Grazing lands.


(F) Vegetable gardens.


(ii) The self-implementing cleanup provisions shall not be binding upon cleanups conducted under other authorities, including but not limited to, actions conducted under section 104 or section 106 of CERCLA, or section 3004(u) and (v) or section 3008(h) of RCRA.


(2) Site characterization. Any person conducting self-implementing cleanup of PCB remediation waste must characterize the site adequately to be able to provide the information required by paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Subpart N of this part provides a method for collecting new site characterization data or for assessing the sufficiency of existing site characterization data.


(3) Notification and certification. (i) At least 30 days prior to the date that the cleanup of a site begins, the person in charge of the cleanup or the owner of the property where the PCB remediation waste is located shall notify, in writing, the EPA Regional Administrator, the Director of the State or Tribal environmental protection agency, and the Director of the county or local environmental protection agency where the cleanup will be conducted. The notice shall include:


(A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials contaminated.


(B) A summary of the procedures used to sample contaminated and adjacent areas and a table or cleanup site map showing PCB concentrations measured in all pre-cleanup characterization samples. The summary must include sample collection and analysis dates. The EPA Regional Administrator may require more detailed information including, but not limited to, additional characterization sampling or all sample identification numbers from all previous characterization activities at the cleanup site.


(C) The location and extent of the identified contaminated area, including topographic maps with sample collection sites cross referenced to the sample identification numbers in the data summary from paragraph (a)(3)(i)(B) of this section.


(D) A cleanup plan for the site, including schedule, disposal technology, and approach. This plan should contain options and contingencies to be used if unanticipated higher concentrations or wider distributions of PCB remediation waste are found or other obstacles force changes in the cleanup approach.


(E) A written certification, signed by the owner of the property where the cleanup site is located and the party conducting the cleanup, that all sampling plans, sample collection procedures, sample preparation procedures, extraction procedures, and instrumental/chemical analysis procedures used to assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are on file at the location designated in the certificate, and are available for EPA inspection. Persons using alternate methods for chemical extraction and chemical analysis for site characterization must include in the certificate a statement that such a method will be used and that a comparison study which meets or exceeds the requirements of subpart Q of this part, and for which records are on file, has been completed prior to verification sampling.


(ii) Within 30 calendar days of receiving the notification, the EPA Regional Administrator will respond in writing approving of the self-implementing cleanup, disapproving of the self-implementing cleanup, or requiring additional information. If the EPA Regional Administrator does not respond within 30 calendar days of receiving the notice, the person submitting the notification may assume that it is complete and acceptable and proceed with the cleanup according to the information the person provided to the EPA Regional Administrator. Once cleanup is underway, the person conducting the cleanup must provide any proposed changes from the notification to the EPA Regional Administrator in writing no less than 14 calendar days prior to the proposed implementation of the change. The EPA Regional Administrator will determine in his or her discretion whether to accept the change, and will respond to the change notification verbally within 7 calendar days and in writing within 14 calendar days of receiving it. If the EPA Regional Administrator does not respond verbally within 7 calendar days and in writing within 14 calendar days of receiving the change notice, the person who submitted it may deem it complete and acceptable and proceed with the cleanup according to the information in the change notice provided to the EPA Regional Administrator.


(iii) Any person conducting a cleanup activity may obtain a waiver of the 30-day notification requirement, if they receive a separate waiver, in writing, from each of the agencies they are required to notify under this section. The person must retain the original written waiver as required in paragraph (a)(9) of this section.


(4) Cleanup levels. For purposes of cleaning, decontaminating, or removing PCB remediation waste under this section, there are four general waste categories: bulk PCB remediation waste, non-porous surfaces, porous surfaces, and liquids. Cleanup levels are based on the kind of material and the potential exposure to PCBs left after cleanup is completed.


(i) Bulk PCB remediation waste. Bulk PCB remediation waste includes, but is not limited to, the following non-liquid PCB remediation waste: soil, sediments, dredged materials, muds, PCB sewage sludge, and industrial sludge.


(A) High occupancy areas. The cleanup level for bulk PCB remediation waste in high occupancy areas is ≤1 ppm without further conditions. High occupancy areas where bulk PCB remediation waste remains at concentrations >1 ppm and ≤10 ppm shall be covered with a cap meeting the requirements of paragraphs (a)(7) and (a)(8) of this section.


(B) Low occupancy areas. (1) The cleanup level for bulk PCB remediation waste in low occupancy areas is ≤25 ppm unless otherwise specified in this paragraph.


(2) Bulk PCB remediation wastes may remain at a cleanup site at concentrations >25 ppm and ≤50 ppm if the site is secured by a fence and marked with a sign including the ML mark.


(3) Bulk PCB remediation wastes may remain at a cleanup site at concentrations >25 ppm and ≤100 ppm if the site is covered with a cap meeting the requirements of paragraphs (a)(7) and (a)(8) of this section.


(ii) Non-porous surfaces. In high occupancy areas, the surface PCB cleanup standard is ≤10 µg/100 cm
2 of surface area. In low occupancy areas, the surface cleanup standard is 2 of surface area. Select sampling locations in accordance with subpart P of this part or a sampling plan approved under paragraph (c) of this section.


(iii) Porous surfaces. In both high and low occupancy areas, any person disposing of porous surfaces must do so based on the levels in paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section. Porous surfaces may be cleaned up for use in accordance with § 761.79(b)(4) or § 761.30(p).


(iv) Liquids. In both high and low occupancy areas, cleanup levels are the concentrations specified in § 761.79(b)(1) and (b)(2).


(v) Change in the land use for a cleanup site. Where there is an actual or proposed change in use of an area cleaned up to the levels of a low occupancy area, and the exposure of people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a change in status from a low occupancy area to a high occupancy area, the owner of the area shall clean up the area in accordance with the high occupancy area cleanup levels in paragraphs (a)(4)(i) through (a)(4)(iv) of this section.


(vi) The EPA Regional Administrator, as part of his or her response to a notification submitted in accordance with § 761.61(a)(3) of this part, may require cleanup of the site, or portions of it, to more stringent cleanup levels than are otherwise required in this section, based on the proximity to areas such as residential dwellings, hospitals, schools, nursing homes, playgrounds, parks, day care centers, endangered species habitats, estuaries, wetlands, national parks, national wildlife refuges, commercial fisheries, and sport fisheries.


(5) Site cleanup. In addition to the options set out in this paragraph, PCB disposal technologies approved under §§ 761.60 and 761.70 are acceptable for on-site self-implementing PCB remediation waste disposal within the confines of the operating conditions of the respective approvals.


(i) Bulk PCB remediation waste. Any person cleaning up bulk PCB remediation waste shall do so to the levels in paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section.


(A) Any person cleaning up bulk PCB remediation waste on-site using a soil washing process may do so without EPA approval, subject to all of the following:


(1) A non-chlorinated solvent is used.


(2) The process occurs at ambient temperature.


(3) The process is not exothermic.


(4) The process uses no external heat.


(5) The process has secondary containment to prevent any solvent from being released to the underlying or surrounding soils or surface waters.


(6) Solvent disposal, recovery, and/or reuse is in accordance with relevant provisions of approvals issued according to paragraphs (b)(1) or (c) of this section or applicable paragraphs of § 761.79.


(B) Bulk PCB remediation waste may be sent off-site for decontamination or disposal in accordance with this paragraph, provided the waste is either dewatered on-site or transported off-site in containers meeting the requirements of the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) at 49 CFR parts 171 through 180.


(1) Removed water shall be disposed of according to paragraph (b)(1) of this section.


(2) Any person disposing off-site of dewatered bulk PCB remediation waste shall do so as follows:


(i) Unless sampled and analyzed for disposal according to the procedures set out in §§ 761.283, 761.286, and 761.292, the bulk PCB remediation waste shall be assumed to contain ≥50 ppm PCBs.


(ii) Bulk PCB remediation wastes with a PCB concentration of

(iii) Bulk PCB remediation wastes with a PCB concentration ≥50 ppm shall be disposed of in a hazardous waste landfill permitted by EPA under section 3004 of RCRA, or by a State authorized under section 3006 of RCRA, or a PCB disposal facility approved under this part.


(iv) The generator must provide written notice, including the quantity to be shipped and highest concentration of PCBs (using extraction EPA Method 3500B/3540C or Method 3500B/3550B followed by chemical analysis using EPA Method 8082 in SW-846 or methods validated under subpart Q of this part) at least 15 days before the first shipment of bulk PCB remediation waste from each cleanup site by the generator, to each off-site facility where the waste is destined for an area not subject to a TSCA PCB Disposal Approval.


(3) Any person may decontaminate bulk PCB remediation waste in accordance with § 761.79 and return the waste to the cleanup site for disposal as long as the cleanup standards of paragraph (a)(4) of this section are met.


(ii) Non-porous surfaces. PCB remediation waste non-porous surfaces shall be cleaned on-site or off-site for disposal on-site, disposal off-site, or use, as follows:


(A) For on-site disposal, non-porous surfaces shall be cleaned on-site or off-site to the levels in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section using:


(1) Procedures approved under § 761.79.


(2) Technologies approved under § 761.60(e).


(3) Procedures or technologies approved under paragraph (c) of this section.


(B) For off-site disposal, non-porous surfaces:


(1) Having surface concentrations 2 shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a)(5)(i)(B)(2)(ii) of this section. Metal surfaces may be thermally decontaminated in accordance with § 761.79(c)(6)(i).


(2) Having surface concentrations ≥100 µg/100 cm
2 shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a)(5)(i)(B)(2)(iii) of this section. Metal surfaces may be thermally decontaminated in accordance with § 761.79(c)(6)(ii).


(C) For use, non-porous surfaces shall be decontaminated on-site or off-site to the standards specified in § 761.79(b)(3) or in accordance with § 761.79(c).


(iii) Porous surfaces. Porous surfaces shall be disposed on-site or off-site as bulk PCB remediation waste according to paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section or decontaminated for use according to § 761.79(b)(4), as applicable.


(iv) Liquids. Any person disposing of liquid PCB remediation waste shall either:


(A) Decontaminate the waste to the levels specified in § 761.79(b)(1) or (b)(2).


(B) Dispose of the waste in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section or an approval issued under paragraph (c) of this section.


(v) Cleanup wastes. Any person generating the following wastes during and from the cleanup of PCB remediation waste shall dispose of or reuse them using one of the following methods:


(A) Non-liquid cleaning materials and personal protective equipment waste at any concentration, including non-porous surfaces and other non-liquid materials such as rags, gloves, booties, other disposable personal protective equipment, and similar materials resulting from cleanup activities shall be either decontaminated in accordance with § 761.79(b) or (c), or disposed of in one of the following facilities, without regard to the requirements of subparts J and K of this part:


(1) A facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal solid waste subject to part 258 of this chapter.


(2) A facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage non-municipal non-hazardous waste subject to §§ 257.5 through 257.30 of this chapter, as applicable.


(3) A hazardous waste landfill permitted by EPA under section 3004 of RCRA, or by a State authorized under section 3006 of RCRA.


(4) A PCB disposal facility approved under this part.


(B) Cleaning solvents, abrasives, and equipment may be reused after decontamination in accordance with § 761.79.


(6) Cleanup verification – (i) Sampling and analysis. Any person collecting and analyzing samples to verify the cleanup and on-site disposal of bulk PCB remediation wastes and porous surfaces must do so in accordance with subpart O of this part. Any person collecting and analyzing samples from non-porous surfaces must do so in accordance with subpart P of this part. Any person collecting and analyzing samples from liquids must do so in accordance with § 761.269. Any person conducting interim sampling during PCB remediation waste cleanup to determine when to sample to verify that cleanup is complete, may use PCB field screening tests.


(ii) Verification. (A) Where sample analysis results in a measurement of PCBs less than or equal to the levels specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, self-implementing cleanup is complete.


(B) Where sample analysis results in a measurement of PCBs greater than the levels specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, self-implementing cleanup of the sampled PCB remediation waste is not complete. The owner or operator of the site must either dispose of the sampled PCB remediation waste, or reclean the waste represented by the sample and reinitiate sampling and analysis in accordance with paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section.


(7) Cap requirements. A cap means, when referring to on-site cleanup and disposal of PCB remediation waste, a uniform placement of concrete, asphalt, or similar material of minimum thickness spread over the area where remediation waste was removed or left in place in order to prevent or minimize human exposure, infiltration of water, and erosion. Any person designing and constructing a cap must do so in accordance with § 264.310(a) of this chapter, and ensure that it complies with the permeability, sieve, liquid limit, and plasticity index parameters in § 761.75(b)(1)(ii) through (b)(1)(v). A cap of compacted soil shall have a minimum thickness of 25 cm (10 inches). A concrete or asphalt cap shall have a minimum thickness of 15 cm (6 inches). A cap must be of sufficient strength to maintain its effectiveness and integrity during the use of the cap surface which is exposed to the environment. A cap shall not be contaminated at a level ≥1 ppm PCB per Aroclor
TM (or equivalent) or per congener. Repairs shall begin within 72 hours of discovery for any breaches which would impair the integrity of the cap.


(8) Deed restrictions for caps, fences and low occupancy areas. When a cleanup activity conducted under this section includes the use of a fence or a cap, the owner of the site must maintain the fence or cap, in perpetuity. In addition, whenever a cap, or the procedures and requirements for a low occupancy area, is used, the owner of the site must meet the following conditions:


(i) Within 60 days of completion of a cleanup activity under this section, the owner of the property shall:


(A) Record, in accordance with State law, a notation on the deed to the property, or on some other instrument which is normally examined during a title search, that will in perpetuity notify any potential purchaser of the property:


(1) That the land has been used for PCB remediation waste disposal and is restricted to use as a low occupancy area as defined in § 761.3.


(2) Of the existence of the fence or cap and the requirement to maintain the fence or cap.


(3) The applicable cleanup levels left at the site, inside the fence, and/or under the cap.


(B) Submit a certification, signed by the owner, that he/she has recorded the notation specified in paragraph (a)(8)(i)(A) of this section to the EPA Regional Administrator.


(ii) The owner of a site being cleaned up under this section may remove a fence or cap after conducting additional cleanup activities and achieving cleanup levels, specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, which do not require a cap or fence. The owner may remove the notice on the deed no earlier than 30 days after achieving the cleanup levels specified in this section which do not require a fence or cap.


(9) Recordkeeping. For paragraphs (a)(3), (a)(4), and (a)(5) of this section, recordkeeping is required in accordance with § 761.125(c)(5).


(b) Performance-based disposal. (1) Any person disposing of liquid PCB remediation waste shall do so according to § 761.60(a) or (e), or decontaminate it in accordance with § 761.79.


(2) Any person disposing of non-liquid PCB remediation waste shall do so by one of the following methods:


(i) Dispose of it in a high temperature incinerator approved under § 761.70(b), an alternate disposal method approved under § 761.60(e), a chemical waste landfill approved under § 761.75, or in a facility with a coordinated approval issued under § 761.77.


(ii) Decontaminate it in accordance with § 761.79.


(3) Any person may manage or dispose of material containing

(i) In accordance with a permit that has been issued under section 404 of the Clean Water Act, or the equivalent of such a permit as provided for in regulations of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at 33 CFR part 320.


(ii) In accordance with a permit issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, or the equivalent of such a permit as provided for in regulations of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at 33 CFR part 320.


(c) Risk-based disposal approval. (1) Any person wishing to sample, cleanup, or dispose of PCB remediation waste in a manner other than prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, or store PCB remediation waste in a manner other than prescribed in § 761.65, must apply in writing to the Regional Administrator in the Region where the sampling, cleanup, disposal, or storage site is located, for sampling, cleanup, disposal, or storage occurring in a single EPA Region; or to the Director, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, for sampling, cleanup, disposal, or storage occurring in more than one EPA Region. Each application must include information described in the notification required by paragraph (a)(3) of this section. EPA may request other information that it believes necessary to evaluate the application. No person may conduct cleanup activities under this paragraph prior to obtaining written approval by EPA.


(2) EPA will issue a written decision on each application for a risk-based method for PCB remediation wastes. EPA will approve such an application if it finds that the method will not pose an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


[63 FR 35448, June 29, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 33761, June 24, 1999; 72 FR 57239, Oct. 9, 2007; 74 FR 30232, June 25, 2009]


§ 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

PCB bulk product waste shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section. Under some of these provisions, it may not be necessary to determine the PCB concentration or leaching characteristics of the PCB bulk product waste. When it is necessary to analyze the waste to make either of these determinations, use the applicable procedures in subpart R of this part to sample the waste for analysis, unless EPA approves another sampling plan under paragraph (c) of this section.


(a) Performance-based disposal. Any person disposing of PCB bulk product waste may do so as follows:


(1) In an incinerator approved under § 761.70.


(2) In a chemical waste landfill approved under § 761.75.


(3) In a hazardous waste landfill permitted by EPA under section 3004 of RCRA, or by a State authorized under section 3006 of RCRA.


(4) Under an alternate disposal approval under § 761.60(e).


(5) In accordance with the decontamination provisions of § 761.79.


(6) For metal surfaces in contact with PCBs, in accordance with the thermal decontamination provisions of § 761.79(c)(6).


(7) In accordance with a TSCA PCB Coordinated Approval issued under § 761.77.


(b) Disposal in solid waste landfills. (1) Any person may dispose of the following PCB bulk product waste in a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State as a municipal or non-municipal non-hazardous waste landfill:


(i) Plastics (such as plastic insulation from wire or cable; radio, television and computer casings; vehicle parts; or furniture laminates); preformed or molded rubber parts and components; applied dried paints, varnishes, waxes or other similar coatings or sealants; caulking; Galbestos; non-liquid building demolition debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste from the shredding of automobiles or household appliances from which PCB small capacitors have been removed (shredder fluff).


(ii) Other PCB bulk product waste, sampled in accordance with the protocols set out in subpart R of this part, that leaches PCBs at

(2) Any person may dispose of PCB bulk product waste other than those materials meeting the conditions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, (e.g., paper or felt gaskets contaminated by liquid PCBs in a facility that is permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal solid waste subject to part 258 of this chapter or non-municipal non-hazardous waste subject to §§ 257.5 through 257.30 of this chapter, as applicable, if:


(i) The PCB bulk product waste is segregated from organic liquids disposed of in the landfill unit.


(ii) Leachate is collected from the landfill unit and monitored for PCBs.


(3) Any release of PCBs (including but not limited to leachate) from the landfill unit shall be cleaned up in accordance with § 761.61.


(4)(i) Any person disposing off-site of PCB bulk product waste regulated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section at a waste management facility not having a commercial PCB storage or disposal approval must provide written notice to the facility a minimum of 15 days in advance of the first shipment from the same disposal waste stream. The notice shall state that the PCB bulk product waste may include components containing PCBs at ≥50 ppm based on analysis of the waste in the shipment or application of a general knowledge of the waste stream (or similar material) which is known to contain PCBs at those levels, and that the PCB bulk product waste is known or presumed to leach

(ii) Any person disposing off-site of PCB bulk product waste regulated under paragraph (b)(2) of this section at a waste management facility not having a commercial PCB storage or disposal approval must provide written notice to the facility a minimum of 15 days in advance of the first shipment from the same disposal waste stream and with each shipment thereafter. The notice shall state that the PCB bulk product waste may include components containing PCBs at ≥50 ppm based on analysis of the waste in the shipment or application of a general knowledge of the waste stream (or similar material) which is known to contain PCBs at those levels, and that the PCB bulk product waste is known or presumed to leach ≥10 µg/L PCBs.


(5) Any person disposing of PCB bulk product waste must maintain a written record of all sampling and analysis of PCBs or notifications made under this paragraph for 3 years from the date of the waste’s generation. The records must be made available to EPA upon request.


(6) Requirements in subparts C, J, and K of this part do not apply to waste disposed of under paragraph (b) of this section.


(c) Risk-based disposal approval. (1) Any person wishing to sample or dispose of PCB bulk product waste in a manner other than prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, or store PCB bulk product waste in a manner other than prescribed in § 761.65, must apply in writing to the Regional Administrator in the Region where the sampling, disposal, or storage site is located, for sampling, disposal, or storage occurring in a single EPA Region; or to the Director, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, for sampling, disposal, or storage occurring in more than one EPA Region. Each application must contain information indicating that, based on technical, environmental, or waste-specific characteristics or considerations, the proposed sampling, disposal, or storage methods or locations will not pose an unreasonable risk or injury to health or the environment. EPA may request other information that it believes necessary to evaluate the application. No person may conduct sampling, disposal, or storage activities under this paragraph prior to obtaining written approval by EPA.


(2) EPA will issue a written decision on each application for a risk-based sampling, disposal, or storage method for PCB bulk product wastes. EPA will approve such an application if it finds that the method will not pose an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(d) Disposal as daily landfill cover or roadbed. Bulk product waste described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be disposed of:


(1) As daily landfill cover as long as the daily cover remains in the landfill and is not released or dispersed by wind or other action; or


(2) Under asphalt as part of a road bed.


[63 FR 35451, June 29, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 33761, June 24, 1999; 72 FR 57239, Oct. 9, 2007; 74 FR 30232, June 25, 2009]


§ 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal.

PCB household waste, as defined at § 761.3, managed in a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of PCB bulk product waste under § 761.62(c), is not subject to any other requirements of part 761 of this chapter. PCB household waste stored in a unit regulated for storage of PCB waste must not be commingled with PCB waste.


[63 FR 35452, June 29, 1998]


§ 761.64 Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs.

This section provides disposal requirements for wastes generated during and as a result of research and development authorized under § 761.30(j). This section also provides disposal requirements for wastes generated during the chemical analysis of samples containing PCBs under part 761, including §§ 761.30, 761.60, 761.61, 761.62, and 761.79. For determining the presence of PCBs in samples, chemical analysis includes: sample preparation, sample extraction, extract cleanup, extract concentration, addition of PCB standards, and instrumental analysis.


(a) Portions of samples of a size designated in a chemical extraction and analysis method for PCBs and extracted for purposes of determining the presence of PCBs or concentration of PCBs are unregulated for PCB disposal under this part.


(b) All other wastes generated during these activities are regulated for disposal based on their concentration at the time of disposal as follows:


(1) Liquid wastes, including rinse solvents, must be disposed of according to § 761.61(a)(5)(iv).


(2) Non-liquid wastes must be disposed of in the same manner as non-liquid cleaning materials and personal protective equipment waste according to § 761.61(a)(5)(v)(A).


[63 FR 35452, June 29, 1998]


§ 761.65 Storage for disposal.

This section applies to the storage for disposal of PCBs at concentrations of 50 ppm or greater and PCB Items with PCB concentrations of 50 ppm or greater.


(a)(1) Storage limitations. Any PCB waste shall be disposed of as required by subpart D of this part within 1-year from the date it was determined to be PCB waste and the decision was made to dispose of it. This date is the date of removal from service for disposal and the point at which the 1-year time frame for disposal begins. PCB/radioactive waste removed from service for disposal is exempt from the 1-year time limit provided that the provisions at paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) and (a)(2)(iii) of this section are followed and the waste is managed in accordance with all other applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations for the management of radioactive material.


(2) One-year extension. Any person storing PCB waste that is subject to the 1-year time limit for storage and disposal in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may provide written notification to the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in which the PCB waste is stored that their continuing attempts to dispose of or secure disposal for their waste within the 1-year time limit have been unsuccessful. Upon receipt of the notice by the EPA Regional Administrator, the time for disposal is automatically extended for 1 additional year (2 years total) if the following conditions are met:


(i) The notification is received by the EPA Regional Administrator at least 30 days before the initial 1-year time limit expires and the notice identifies the storer, the types, volumes, and locations of the waste and the reasons for failure to meet the initial 1-year time limit.


(ii) A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of.


(iii) The written record required by paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA.


(iv) Continuing attempts to secure disposal were initiated within 270 days after the time the waste was first subject to the 1-year time limit requirement, as specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Failure to initiate and continue attempts to secure disposal throughout the total time the waste is in storage shall automatically disqualify the notifier from receiving an automatic extension under this section.


(3) Additional extensions. Upon written request, the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in which the wastes are stored or the appropriate official at EPA Headquarters, may grant additional extensions beyond the 1-year extension authorized in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. At the time of the request, the requestor must supply specific justification for the additional extension and indicate what measures the requestor is taking to secure disposal of the waste or indicate why disposal could not be conducted during the period of the prior extension. The EPA Regional Administrator or the appropriate official at EPA Headquarters may require, as a condition to granting any extension under this section, specific actions including, but not limited to, marking, inspection, recordkeeping, or financial assurance to ensure that the waste does not pose an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.


(4) Storage at an approved facility. Increased time for storage may be granted as a condition of any TSCA PCB storage or disposal approval, by the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in which the PCBs or PCB Items are to be stored or disposed of, or by the appropriate official at EPA Headquarters, if EPA determines that there is a demonstrated need or justification for additional time, that the owner or operator of the facility is pursuing relevant treatment or disposal options, and that no unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment will result from the increased storage time. In making this determination, EPA will consider such factors as absence of any approved treatment technology and insufficient time to complete the treatment or destruction process. EPA may require as a condition of the approval that the owner or operator submit periodic progress reports.


(b) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2), (c)(1), (c)(7), (c)(9), and (c)(10) of this section, after July 1, 1978, owners or operators of any facilities used for the storage of PCBs and PCB Items designated for disposal shall comply with the following storage unit requirements:


(1) The facilities shall meet the following criteria:


(i) Adequate roof and walls to prevent rain water from reaching the stored PCBs and PCB Items;


(ii) An adequate floor that has continuous curbing with a minimum 6 inch high curb. The floor and curbing must provide a containment volume equal to at least two times the internal volume of the largest PCB Article or PCB Container or 25 percent of the total internal volume of all PCB Articles or PCB Containers stored there, whichever is greater. PCB/radioactive wastes are not required to be stored in an area with a minimum 6 inch high curbing. However, the floor and curbing must still provide a containment volume equal to at least two times the internal volume of the largest PCB Container or 25 percent of the total internal volume of all PCB Containers stored there, whichever is greater.


(iii) No drain valves, floor drains, expansion joints, sewer lines, or other openings that would permit liquids to flow from the curbed area;


(iv) Floors and curbing constructed of Portland cement, concrete, or a continuous, smooth, non-porous surface as defined at § 761.3, which prevents or minimizes penetration of PCBs.


(v) Not located at a site that is below the 100-year flood water elevation.


(2) No person may store PCBs and PCB Items designated for disposal in a storage unit other than one approved pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section or meeting the design requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, unless the unit meets one of the following conditions:


(i) Is permitted by EPA under section 3004 of RCRA to manage hazardous waste in containers, and spills of PCBs are cleaned up in accordance with subpart G of this part.


(ii) Qualifies for interim status under section 3005 of RCRA to manage hazardous waste in containers, meets the requirements for containment at § 264.175 of this chapter, and spills of PCBs are cleaned up in accordance with subpart G of this part.


(iii) Is permitted by a State authorized under section 3006 of RCRA to manage hazardous waste in containers, and spills of PCBs are cleaned up in accordance with subpart G of this part.


(iv) Is approved or otherwise regulated pursuant to a State PCB waste management program no less stringent in protection of health or the environment than the applicable TSCA requirements found in this part.


(v) Is subject to a TSCA Coordinated Approval, which includes provisions for storage of PCBs, issued pursuant to § 761.77.


(vi) Has a TSCA PCB waste management approval, which includes provisions for storage, issued pursuant to § 761.61(c) or § 761.62(c).


(c)(1) The following PCB Items may be stored temporarily in an area that does not comply with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section for up to thirty days from the date of their removal from service, provided that a notation is attached to the PCB Item or a PCB Container (containing the item) indicating the date the item was removed from service:


(i) Non-leaking PCB Articles and PCB Equipment;


(ii) Leaking PCB Articles and PCB Equipment if the PCB Items are placed in a non-leaking PCB Container that contains sufficient sorbent materials to absorb any liquid PCBs remaining in the PCB Items;


(iii) PCB Containers containing non-liquid PCBs such as contaminated soil, rags, and debris; and


(iv) PCB containers containing liquid PCBs at concentrations of ≥50 ppm, provided a Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure Plan has been prepared for the temporary storage area in accordance with part 112 of this chapter and the liquid PCB waste is in packaging authorized in the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulations at 49 CFR parts 171 through 180 or stationary bulk storage tanks (including rolling stock such as, but not limited to, tanker trucks, as specified by DOT).


(2) Non-leaking and structurally undamaged PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors and PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment that have not been drained of free flowing dielectric fluid may be stored on pallets next to a storage facility that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section. PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment that has been drained of free flowing dielectric fluid is not subject to the storage provisions of § 761.65. Storage under this subparagraph will be permitted only when the storage facility has immediately available unfilled storage space equal to 10 percent of the volume of capacitors and equipment stored outside the facility. The capacitors and equipment temporarily stored outside the facility shall be checked for leaks weekly.


(3) Any storage area subject to the requirements of paragraph (b) or paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall be marked as required in subpart C § 761.40(a)(10).


(4) No item of movable equipment that is used for handling PCBs and PCB Items in the storage units and that comes in direct contact with PCBs shall be removed from the storage unit area unless it has been decontaminated as specified in § 761.79.


(5) All PCB Items in storage shall be checked for leaks at least once every 30 days. Any leaking PCB Items and their contents shall be transferred immediately to properly marked non-leaking containers. Any spilled or leaked materials shall be immediately cleaned up and the materials and residues containing PCBs shall be disposed of in accordance with § 761.61. Records of inspections, maintenance, cleanup and disposal must be maintained in accordance with § 761.180(a) and (b).


(6) Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(6)(i) and (c)(6)(ii) of this section, any container used for the storage of liquid or non-liquid PCB waste shall be in accordance with the requirements set forth in the DOT Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) at 49 CFR parts 171 through 180. PCB waste not subject to the HMR (i.e., PCB wastes at concentrations of

(i) Containers other than those meeting HMR performance standards may be used for storage of PCB/radioactive waste provided the following requirements are met:


(A) Containers used for storage of liquid PCB/radioactive wastes must be non-leaking.


(B) Containers used for storage of non-liquid PCB/ radioactive wastes must be designed to prevent the buildup of liquids if such containers are stored in an area meeting the containment requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, as well as all other applicable State or Federal regulations or requirements for control of radioactive materials.


(C) Containers used to store both liquid and non-liquid PCB/radioactive wastes must meet all regulations and requirements pertaining to nuclear criticality safety. Acceptable container materials currently include polyethylene and stainless steel provided that the container material is chemically compatible with the wastes being stored. Other containers may be used to store both liquid and non-liquid PCB/radioactive wastes if the users are able to demonstrate, to the appropriate Regional Administrator and other appropriate regulatory authorities (i.e., Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Energy or the Department of Transportation), that the use of such containers is protective of health and the environment as well as public health and safety.


(ii) The following DOT specification containers that conform to the requirements of 49 CFR, chapter I, subchapter C in effect on September 30, 1991, may be used for storage and transportation activities that are not subject to DOT regulation, and may be used on a transitional basis as permitted at 49 CFR 171.14. For liquid PCBs: Specification 5 container without removable head, Specification 5B container without removable head, Specification 6D overpack with Specification 2S or 2SL polyethylene containers, or Specification 17E container. For non-liquid PCBs: Specification 5 container, Specification 5B container, or Specification 17C container.


(7) Stationary storage containers for liquid PCBs can be larger than the containers specified in paragraph (c)(6) of this section provided that:


(i) The containers are designed, constructed, and operated in compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR 1910.106, Flammable and combustible liquids. Before using these containers for storing PCBs, the design of the containers must be reviewed to determine the effect on the structural safety of the containers that will result from placing liquids with the specific gravity of PCBs into the containers (see 29 CFR 1910.106(b)(1)(i)(f