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Title 44 – Emergency Management and Assistance–Volume 1

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Title 44 – Emergency Management and Assistance–Volume 1


Part


chapter i – Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security

1


chapter iv – Department of Commerce and Department of Transportation

401

CHAPTER I – FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

SUBCHAPTER A – GENERAL

PART 0 – GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY [RESERVED]

PART 1 – RULEMAKING, POLICY, AND PROCEDURES


Authority:5 U.S.C. 551, 553; 6 U.S.C. 101 et seq.; Department of Homeland Security Delegation 9001.1.



Source:87 FR 11977, Mar. 3, 2022, unless otherwise noted.

§ 1.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) This part contains FEMA’s procedures for informal rulemaking under the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553) that affect the public.


(b) This part does not apply to rules issued in accordance with the formal rulemaking provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 556, 557).


§ 1.2 Definitions.

(a) Rule or regulation have the same meaning as those terms are defined in the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551(4)).


(b) Rulemaking means the FEMA process for considering and formulating the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a rule.


(c) Administrator means the Administrator, FEMA, or an official to whom the Administrator has expressly delegated authority to issue rules.


(d) FEMA means Federal Emergency Management Agency.


§ 1.3 Regulatory policy.

(a) It is the general policy of FEMA to provide for public participation in rulemaking regarding its programs and functions, including matters that relate to public property, loans, grants, or benefits, or contracts, even though these matters are not subject to a requirement for notice and public comment rulemaking by law.


(b) It is the general policy of FEMA that its notices of proposed rulemaking are to afford the public at least 60 days for submission of comments unless the Administrator makes an exception and sets forth the reasons for the exception in the preamble to the notice of proposed rulemaking.


(c) The general policies contained in this section are not intended to and do not create a right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable against the United States or its agencies or officers. FEMA may depart from such policies in its absolute discretion, including for its annual grant programs and in other cases as circumstances warrant.


§ 1.4 Public rulemaking docket.

(a) FEMA maintains a public docket for each rulemaking after it is published in the Federal Register and until the rulemaking is closed and archived at the National Archives and Records Administration. The public docket includes every document published in the Federal Register in conjunction with a rulemaking. It also includes regulatory assessments and analyses, written comments from the public addressed to the merits of a proposed rule, comments from the public received in response to notices, or to withdrawals or terminations of a proposed rulemaking, requests for a public meeting, requests for extension of time, petitions for rulemaking, grants or denials of petitions or requests, and transcripts or minutes of informal hearings. The public rulemaking docket is maintained by the Regulatory Affairs Division, Office of Chief Counsel.


(b) After FEMA establishes a public rulemaking docket, any person may examine docketed material during established business hours by prearrangement with the Regulatory Affairs Division, Office of Chief Counsel, FEMA, 500 C St. SW, Washington, DC 20472, and may obtain a copy of any docketed material (except for copyrighted material). FEMA also maintains a copy of each public docket electronically, with the exception of copyrighted material, on www.regulations.gov. To access the docket on www.regulations.gov, search for the docket ID associated with the rulemaking.


(c) The docket for flood hazard elevation rules issued by the National Flood Insurance Program are partially maintained at the locality that is the subject of the rule. FEMA includes in the preamble of each flood hazard elevation rule the repository address for supporting material.


§ 1.5 Public comments.

A member of the public may submit comments via mail or courier to the Regulatory Affairs Division, Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C St. SW, Washington, DC 20472, or may submit comments electronically to the rulemaking docket at www.regulations.gov under the applicable docket ID.


§ 1.6 Ex parte communications.

(a) All oral or written communications from outside the Federal Executive branch of significant information and argument respecting the merits of a rulemaking document, received after publication of a notice of proposed rulemaking, by FEMA or its offices and divisions or their personnel participating in the decision, must be summarized in writing and placed promptly in the public docket. This applies until the agency publishes a final regulatory action such as a withdrawal of the notice of proposed rulemaking or a final rule.


(b) FEMA may conclude that restrictions on ex parte communications are necessitated at other times by considerations of fairness or for other reasons.


(c) This section does not apply to Tribal consultations.


§ 1.7 Hearings.

(a) When FEMA affords an opportunity for oral presentation, the hearing is an informal, non-adversarial, fact-finding proceeding. Any rulemaking issued in a proceeding under this part in which a hearing is held need not be based exclusively on the record of such hearing.


(b) When such a hearing is provided, the Administrator will designate a representative to conduct the hearing.


(c) The transcript or minutes of the hearing will be kept and filed in the public rulemaking docket.


§ 1.8 Petitions for rulemaking.

(a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a rule. For purposes of this section, the term person includes any member of the public and any entity outside the Federal Executive branch of Government. Each petitioner must:


(1) Submit the petition to the Regulatory Affairs Division, Office of Chief Counsel, FEMA, 8NE, 500 C Street SW, Washington, DC 20472;


(2) Label the petition with the following: “Petition for Rulemaking” or “Rulemaking Petition”;


(3) Set forth the substance of the rule or amendment proposed or specify the rule sought to be repealed or amended;


(4) Explain the interest of the petitioner in support of the action sought; and


(5) Set forth all data and arguments available to the petitioner in support of the action sought.


(b) FEMA will specify additional methods of submitting rulemaking petitions on its website at www.fema.gov/about/offices/chief-counsel/rulemaking and petitioners seeking to confirm whether FEMA has received or responded to a specific rulemaking petition may inquire at [email protected] The website may also contain other information about the petition for rulemaking process.


(c)(1) FEMA may solicit public comment on the petition in its discretion. If the Administrator finds that the petition contains adequate justification, a rulemaking proceeding will be initiated, or a final rule will be issued as appropriate. If the Administrator finds that the petition does not contain adequate justification, the petition will be denied by letter or other notice, with a brief statement of the ground for denial. The disposition will be posted on www.regulations.gov under docket ID FEMA-2022-0011.


(2) The Administrator may consider new evidence at any time; however, FEMA will not consider repetitious petitions for rulemaking.


§ 1.9 Petitions for reconsideration.

Petitions for reconsideration of a final rule will not be considered. Such petitions, if filed, will be treated as petitions for rulemaking in accordance with § 1.8.


PART 2 – OMB CONTROL NUMBERS


Authority:5 U.S.C. 552; 42 U.S.C. 3507; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 5 U.S.C. App. 1; E.O. 12127, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376; E.O. 12148, as amended, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 412.


Source:74 FR 15332, Apr. 3, 2009, unless otherwise noted.

§ 2.1 Purpose.

This part collects and displays the control numbers assigned to information collection requirements of FEMA by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). FEMA intends that this part comply with the requirements of section 3507(f) of the Paperwork Reduction Act, which requires that agencies display a current control number assigned by the Director of OMB for each agency information collection requirement.


§ 2.2 OMB control numbers assigned to information collections.

44 CFR part or section where identified or described
Current OMB Control No.
591660-0023
59.221660-0003, 1660-0004
59 subpart C1660-0045
60.6, 60.31660-0033
61.131660-0006
62 subpart B1660-0005,1660-0095
62.23(l)1660-0086
62.241660-0020, 1660-0038
65, 70 generally1660-0037
71.41660-0010
721660-0015, 1660-0016
75.111660-0013
781660-0062, 1660-0072,1660-0075
79.7(d)1660-0104
801660-0103
151.111660-0014
152.4, 152.71660-0069
2011660-0062, 1660-0072, 1660-0103
2041660-0058
206 subpart B: 206.34, 206.35, 206.36, 206.46, 206.471660-0009
206 subpart D: 206.101(e), 202.110, 206.117, 206.1191660-0002
206.112, 206.114, 206.1151660-0061
206.1711660-0085
206.202(f)(2), 206.203(c), 206.203(d)(i), 206.204(f)1660-0017
206 subpart K1660-0082, 1660-0083
206 subpart N1660-0076
206.4371660-0026
206.4401660-0076
2081660-0073
3521660-0024

PART 3 [RESERVED]

PART 4 – INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA) PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES


Authority:E.O. 12372, July 14, 1982 (47 FR 30959), as amended April 8, 1983 (48 FR 15887); sec. 401, Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968, as amended (31 U.S.C. 6506); sec. 204, Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966, as amended (42 U.S.C. 3334).


Source:48 FR 29316, June 24, 1983, unless otherwise noted.


Editorial Note:For additional information, see related documents published at 47 FR 57369, Dec. 23, 1982; 48 FR 17101, Apr. 21, 1983; and 48 FR 29096, June 24, 1983.

§ 4.1 What is the purpose of these regulations?

(a) The regulations in this part implement Executive Order 12372, “Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs,” issued July 14, 1982 and amended on April 8, 1983. These regulations also implement applicable provisions of section 401 of the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 and section 204 of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966.


(b) These regulations are intended to foster an intergovernmental partnership and a strengthened Federalism by relying on state processes and on State, areawide, regional and local coordination for review of proposed Federal financial assistance and direct Federal development.


(c) These regulations are intended to aid the internal management of FEMA, and are not intended to create any right or benefit enforceable at law by a party against FEMA or its officers.


§ 4.2 What definitions apply to these regulations?

Administrator means the Administrator of FEMA or an official or employee of FEMA acting for the Administrator of FEMA under a delegation of authority.


FEMA means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Order means Executive Order 12372, issued July 14, 1982, and amended April 8, 1983 and titled “Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs.”


State means any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.


[48 FR 29316, June 24, 1983, as amended at 74 FR 15332, Apr. 3, 2009]


§ 4.3 What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations?

The Administrator publishes in the Federal Register a list of FEMA’s programs and activities that are subject to these regulations and identifies which of these are subject to the requirements of section 204 of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act.


§ 4.4 [Reserved]

§ 4.5 What is the Administrator’s obligation with respect to Federal interagency coordination?

The Administrator, to the extent practicable, consults with and seeks advice from all other substantially affected Federal departments and agencies in an effort to assure full coordination between such agencies and FEMA regarding programs and activities covered under these regulations.


§ 4.6 What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

(a) A State may select any program or activity published in the Federal Register in accordance with § 4.3 of this part for intergovernmental review under these regulations. Each State, before selecting programs and activities, shall consult with local elected officials.


(b) Each State that adopts a process shall notify the Administrator of FEMA’s programs and activities selected for that process.


(c) A State may notify the Administrator of changes in its selections at any time. For each change, the State shall submit to the Administrator an assurance that the State has consulted with local elected officials regarding the change. FEMA may establish deadlines by which States are required to inform the Administrator of changes in their program selections.


(d) The Administrator uses a State’s process as soon as feasible, depending on individual programs and activities, after the Administrator is notified of its selections.


§ 4.7 How does the Administrator communicate with State and local officials concerning FEMA’s programs and activities?

(a) For those programs and activities covered by a state process under § 4.6, the Administrator, to the extent permitted by law:


(1) Uses the state process to determine views of State and local elected officials; and,


(2) Communicates with State and local elected officials, through the state process, as early in a program planning cycle as is reasonably feasible to explain specific plans and actions.


(b) The Administrator provides notice to directly affected State, areawide, regional, and local entities in a State of proposed Federal financial assistance or direct Federal development if:


(1) The State has not adopted a process under the Order; or


(2) The assistance or development involves a program or activity not selected for the State process.


This notice may be made by publication in the Federal Register or other appropriate means, which FEMA in its discretion deems appropriate.


§ 4.8 How does the Administrator provide an opportunity to comment on proposed Federal financial assistance and direct Federal development?

(a) Except in unusual circumstances, the Administrator gives state processes or directly affected State, areawide, regional and local officials and entities at least 60 days from the date established by the Administrator to comment on proposed direct Federal development or Federal financial assistance.


(b) This section also applies to comments in cases in which the review, coordination, and communication with FEMA have been delegated.


(c) Applicants for programs and activities subject to section 204 of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Act shall allow areawide agencies a 60-day opportunity for review and comment.


§ 4.9 How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments?

(a) The Administrator follows the procedures in § 4.10 if:


(1) A State office or official is designated to act as a single point of contact between a state process and all Federal agencies, and


(2) That office or official transmits a state process recommendation for a program selected under § 4.6.


(b)(1) The single point of contact is not obligated to transmit comments from State, areawide, regional or local officials and entities where there is no state process recommendation.


(2) If a state process recommendation is transmitted by a single point of contact, all comments from state, areawide, regional, and local officials and entities that differ from it must also be transmitted.


(c) If a State has not established a process, or is unable to submit a state process recommendation, State, areawide, regional and local officials and entities may submit comments to FEMA.


(d) If a program or activity is not selected for a state process, State, areawide, regional and local officials and entities may submit comments to FEMA. In addition, if a state process recommendation for a nonselected program or activity is transmitted to FEMA by the single point of contact, the Administrator follows the procedures of § 4.10 of this part.


(e) The Administrator considers comments which do not constitute a state process recommendation submitted under these regulations and for which the Administrator is not required to apply the procedures of § 4.10 of this part, when such comments are provided by a single point of contact, by the applicant or directly to FEMA by a commenting party.


§ 4.10 How does the Administrator make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

(a) If a state process provides a state process recommendation to FEMA through its single point of contact, the Administrator either:


(1) Accepts the recommendation;


(2) Reaches a mutually agreeable solution with the state process; or


(3) Provides the single point of contact with such written explanation of the decision, as the Administrator in his or her discretion deems appropriate. The Administrator may also supplement the written explanation by providing the explanation to the single point of contact by telephone, other telecommunication, or other means.


(b) In any explanation under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the Administrator informs the single point of contact that:


(1) FEMA will not implement its decision for at least ten days after the single point of contact receives the explanation; or


(2) The Administrator has reviewed the decision and determined that, because of unusual circumstances, the waiting period of at least ten days is not feasible.


(c) For purposes of computing the waiting period under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a single point of contact is presumed to have received written notification 5 days after the date of mailing of such notification.


§ 4.11 What are the Administrator’s obligations in interstate situations?

(a) The Administrator is responsible for:


(1) Identifying proposed Federal financial assistance and direct Federal development that have an impact on interstate areas;


(2) Notifying appropriate officials and entities in states which have adopted a process and which select FEMA’s program or activity;


(3) Making efforts to identify and notify the affected State, areawide, regional, and local officials and entities in those States that have not adopted a process under the Order or do not select FEMA’s program or activity;


(4) Responding pursuant to § 4.10 of this part if the Administrator receives a recommendation from a designated areawide agency transmitted by a single point of contact, in cases in which the review, coordination, and communication with FEMA have been delegated.


(b) The Administrator uses the procedures in § 4.10 if a state process provides a state process recommendation to FEMA through a single point of contact.


§ 4.12 How may a State simplify, consolidate, or substitute federally required State plans?

(a) As used in this section:


(1) Simplify means that a State may develop its own format, choose its own submission date, and select the planning period for a State plan.


(2) Consolidate means that a State may meet statutory and regulatory requirements by combining two or more plans into one document and that the State can select the format, submission date, and planning period for the consolidated plan.


(3) Substitute means that a State may use a plan or other document that it has developed for its own purposes to meet Federal requirements.


(b) If not inconsistent with law, a State may decide to try to simplify, consolidate, or substitute federally required state plans without prior approval by the Administrator.


(c) The Administrator reviews each state plan that a State has simplified, consolidated, or substituted and accepts the plan only if its contents meet Federal requirements.


§ 4.13 May the Administrator waive any provision of these regulations?

In an emergency, the Administrator may waive any provision of these regulations.


PART 5 – PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION


Authority:Pub. L. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135; 5 U.S.C. 301.



Source:44 FR 50287, Aug. 27, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

Subparts A-E [Reserved]

Subpart F – Subpoenas or Other Legal Demands for Testimony or the Production or Disclosure of Records or Other Information


Source:54 FR 11715, Mar. 22, 1989, unless otherwise noted.

§ 5.80 Scope and applicability.

(a) This subpart sets forth policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure or production by FEMA employees, in response to a subpoena, order or other demand of a court or other authority, of any material contained in the files of the Agency or any information relating to material contained in the files of the Agency or any information acquired by an employee as part of the performance of that person’s official duties or because of that person’s official status.


(b) This subpart applies to State and local judicial, administrative and legislative proceedings, and Federal judicial and administrative proceedings.


(c) This subpart does not apply to Congressional requests or subpoenas for testimony or documents, or to an employee making an appearance solely in his or her private capacity in judicial or administrative proceedings that do not relate to the Agency (such as cases arising out of traffic accidents, domestic relations, etc.).


(d) The Department of Homeland Security’s regulations, 6 CFR 5.41 through 5.49, apply to any subject matter not already covered by this subpart, including but not limited to demands or requests directed to current or former FEMA contractors.


[54 FR 11715, Mar. 22, 1989, as amended at 72 FR 43546, Aug. 6, 2007]


§ 5.81 Statement of policy.

(a) It is the policy of FEMA to make its records available to private litigants to the same extent and in the same manner as such records are made available to members of the general public, except where protected from disclosure by litigation procedural authority (e.g., Federal Rules of Civil Procedure) or other applicable law.


(b) It is FEMA’s policy and responsibility to preserve its human resources for performance of the official functions of the Agency and to maintain strict impartiality with respect to private litigants. Participation by FEMA employees in private litigation in their official capacities is generally contrary to this policy.


§ 5.82 Definitions.

For purposes of this subpart, the following terms have the meanings ascribed to them in this section:


(a) Demand refers to a subpoena, order, or other demand of a court of competent jurisdiction, or other specific authority (e.g., an administrative or State legislative body), signed by the presiding officer, for the production, disclosure, or release of FEMA records or information or for the appearance and testimony of FEMA personnel as witnesses in their official capacities.


(b) Employee of the Agency includes all officers and employees of the United States appointed by or subject to the supervision, jurisdiction or control of the Administrator of FEMA.


(c) Private litigation refers to any legal proceeding which does not involve as a named party the United States Government, or the Federal Emergency Management Agency, or any official thereof in his or her official capacity.


§ 5.83 Authority to accept service of subpoenas.

In all legal proceedings between private litigants, a subpoena duces tecum or subpoena ad testificandum or other demand by a court or other authority for the production of records held by FEMA Regional offices or for the oral or written testimony of FEMA Regional employees should be addressed to the appropriate Regional Administrator listed in § 5.26. For all other records or testimony, the subpoena should be addressed to the Chief Counsel, FEMA, 500 C Street SW., Washington, DC 20472 Washington, DC 20472. No other official or employee of FEMA is authorized to accept service of subpoenas on behalf of the Agency.


§ 5.84 Production of documents in private litigation.

(a) The production of records held by FEMA in response to a subpoena duces tecum or other demand issued pursuant to private litigation, whether or not served in accordance with the provisions of § 5.83 of this subpart, is prohibited absent authorization by the Chief Counsel.


(b) Whenever an official or employee of FEMA, including any Regional Administrator, receives a subpoena or other demand for the production of Agency documents or material, he or she shall immediately notify and provide a copy of the demand to the Chief Counsel.


(c) The Chief Counsel, after consultation with other appropriate officials as deemed necessary, shall promptly determine whether to disclose the material or documents identified in the subpoena or other demand. Generally, authorization to furnish the requested material or documents shall not be withheld unless their disclosure is prohibited by relevant law or for other compelling reasons.


(d) Whenever a subpoena or demand commanding the production of any record is served upon any Agency employee other than as provided in § 5.83 of this subpart, or the response to a demand is required before the receipt of instructions from the Chief Counsel, such employee shall appear in response thereto, respectfully decline to produce the record(s) on the ground that it is prohibited by this section and state that the demand has been referred for the prompt consideration of the Chief Counsel.


(e) Where the release of documents in response to a subpoena duces tecum is authorized by the Chief Counsel, the official having custody of the requested records will furnish, upon the request of the party seeking disclosure, authenticated copies of the documents. No official or employee of FEMA shall respond in strict compliance with the terms of a subpoena duces tecum unless specifically authorized by the Chief Counsel.


§ 5.85 Authentication and attestation of copies.

The Administrator, Deputy Administrators, Regional Administrators, Assistant Administrators, United States Fire Administrator, Federal Insurance Administrator, Chief Counsel, and their designees, and other heads of offices having possession of records are authorized in the name of the Administrator to authenticate and attest for copies or reproductions of records. Appropriate fees will be charged for such copies or reproductions based on the fee schedule set forth in section 5.46 of this part.


[74 FR 15334, Apr. 3, 2009]


§ 5.86 Records involved in litigation or other judicial process.

Subpoenas duces tecum issued pursuant to litigation or any other adjudicatory proceeding in which the United States is a party shall be referred to the Chief Counsel.


[81 FR 83643, Nov. 22, 2016]


§ 5.87 Testimony of FEMA employees in private litigation.

(a) No FEMA employee shall testify in response to a subpoena or other demand in private litigation as to any information relating to material contained in the files of the Agency, or any information acquired as part of the performance of that person’s official duties or because of that person’s official status, including the meaning of Agency documents.


(b) Whenever a demand is made upon a FEMA employee, for the disclosure of information described in paragraph (a) of this section, that employee shall immediately notify the Office of Chief Counsel. The Chief Counsel, upon receipt of such notice and absent waiver of the general prohibition against employee testimony at his or her discretion, shall arrange with the appropriate United States Attorney the taking of such steps as are necessary to quash the subpoena or seek a protective order.


(c) In the event that an immediate demand for testimony or disclosure is made in circumstances which would preclude prior notice to and consultation with the Chief Counsel, the employee shall respectfully request from the demanding authority a stay in the proceedings to allow sufficient time to obtain advice of counsel.


(d) If the court or other authority declines to stay the effect of the demand in response to a request made in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section pending consultation with counsel, or if the court or other authority rules that the demand must be complied with irrespective of instructions not to testify or disclose the information sought, the employee upon whom the demand has been made shall respectfully decline to comply with the demand, citing these regulations and United States ex rel. Touhy v. Ragen, 340 U.S. 462 (1951).


§ 5.88 Testimony in litigation in which the United States is a party.

(a) Whenever, in any legal proceeding in which the United States is a party, the attorney in charge of presenting the case for the United States requests it, the Chief Counsel shall arrange for an employee of the Agency to testify as a witness for the United States.


(b) The attendance and testimony of named employees of the Agency may not be required in any legal proceeding by the judge or other presiding officer, by subpoena or otherwise. However, the judge or other presiding officer may, upon a showing of exceptional circumstances (such as a case in which a particular named FEMA employee has direct personal knowledge of a material fact not known to the witness made available by the Agency) require the attendance and testimony of named FEMA personnel.


§ 5.89 Waiver.

The Chief Counsel may grant, in writing, a waiver of any policy or procedure prescribed by this subpart, where waiver is considered necessary to promote a significant interest of the Agency or for other good cause. In granting such waiver, the Chief Counsel shall attach to the waiver such reasonable conditions and limitations as are deemed appropriate in order that a response in strict compliance with the terms of a subpoena duces tecum or the providing of testimony will not interfere with the duties of the employee and will otherwise conform to the policies of this part. The Administrator may, in his or her discretion, review any decision to authorize a waiver of any policy or procedure prescribed by this subpart.


PART 6 – IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974


Authority:5 U.S.C. 552a; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978; and E.O. 12127.


Source:44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General

§ 6.1 Purpose and scope of part.

This part sets forth policies and procedures concerning the collection, use and dissemination of records maintained by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which are subject to the provision of 5 U.S.C. 552a, popularly known as the “Privacy Act of 1974” (hereinafter referred to as the Act). These policies and procedures govern only those records as defined in § 6.2. Policies and procedures governing the disclosure and availability of records in general are in part 5 of this chapter. This part also covers: (a) Procedures for notification to individuals of a FEMA system of records pertaining to them; (b) guidance to individuals in obtaining information, including inspections of, and disagreement with, the content of records; (c) accounting of disclosure; (d) special requirements for medical records; and (e) fees.


§ 6.2 Definitions.

For the purpose of this part:


(a) Agency includes any executive department, military department, Government corporation, Government controlled corporation, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency (see 5 U.S.C. 552(e)).


(b) Individual means a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.


(c) Maintain includes maintain, collect, use, and disseminate.


(d) Record means any item, collection, or grouping of information about an individual that is maintained by an agency, including, but not limited to those concerning education, financial transactions, medical history, and criminal or employment history, and that contains the name or other identifying particular assigned to the individual, such as a fingerprint, voiceprint, or photograph.


(e) System of records means a group of any records under the control of an agency from which information is retrieved by the name of the individual or by some identifying number, symbol, or other identification assigned to that individual.


(f) Statistical record means a record in a system of records maintained for statistical research or reporting purposes only and not used in whole or in part in making any determination about an identifiable individual, except as provided by 13 U.S.C. 8.


(g) Routine use means, with respect to the disclosure of a record, the use of that record for a purpose which is compatible with the purpose for which it was collected.


(h) System manager means the employee of FEMA who is responsible for the maintenance of a system of records and for the collection, use, and dissemination of information therein.


(i) Subject individual means the individual named or discussed in a record of the individual to whom a record otherwise pertains.


(j) Disclosure means a transfer of a record, a copy of a record, or any or all of the information contained in a record to a recipient other than the subject individual, or the review of a record by someone other than the subject individual.


(k) Access means a transfer of a record, a copy of a record, or the information in a record to the subject individual, or the review of a record by the subject individual.


(l) Solicitation means a request by an officer or employee of FEMA that an individual provide information about himself or herself.


(m) Administrator means the Administrator, FEMA.


(n) Deputy Administrator means the Deputy Administrator, FEMA, or, in the case of the absence of the Deputy Administrator, or a vacancy in that office, a person designated by the Administrator to perform the functions under this regulation of the Deputy Administrator.


(o) Privacy Appeals Officer means the FOIA/Privacy Act Specialist or his/her designee.


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 17152, Mar. 18, 1980; 51 FR 34604, Sept. 30, 1986]


§ 6.3 Collection and use of information (Privacy Act statements).

(a) General. Any information used in whole or in part in making a determination about an individual’s rights, benefits, or privileges under FEMA programs will be collected directly from the subject individual to the extent practicable. The system manager also shall ensure that information collected is used only in conformance with the provisions of the Act and these regulations.


(b) Solicitation of information. System managers shall ensure that at the time information is solicited the solicited individual is informed of the authority for collecting that information, whether providing the information is mandatory or voluntary, the purpose for which the information will be used, the routine uses to be made of the information, and the effects on the individual, if any, of not providing the information. The Director, Records Management Division, Office of Management and Regional Administrators shall ensure that forms used to solicit information are in compliance with the Act and these regulations.


(c) Solicitation of Social Security numbers. Before an employee of FEMA can deny to any individual a right, benefit, or privilege provided by law because such individual refuses to disclose his/her social security account number, the employee of FEMA shall ensure that either:


(1) The disclosure is required by Federal statute; or


(2) The disclosure of a social security number was required under a statute or regulation adopted before January 1, 1975, to verify the identity of an individual, and the social security number will become a part of a system of records in existence and operating before January 1, 1975.


If solicitation of the social security number is authorized under paragraph (c) (1) or (2) of this section, the FEMA employee who requests an individual to disclose the social security account number shall first inform that individual whether that disclosure is mandatory or voluntary, by what statutory or other authority the number is solicited, and the use that will be made of it.

(d) Soliciting information from third parties. An employee of FEMA shall inform third parties who are requested to provide information about another individual of the purposes for which the information will be used.


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 47 FR 13149, Mar. 29, 1982; 48 FR 12091, Mar. 23, 1983; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985]


§ 6.4 Standards of accuracy.

The system manager shall ensure that all records which are used by FEMA to make determinations about any individual are maintained with such accuracy, relevance, timeliness, and completeness as is reasonably necessary to ensure fairness to the individual.


§ 6.5 Rules of conduct.

Employees of FEMA involved in the design, development, operation, or maintenance of any system of records or in maintaining any record, shall conduct themselves in accordance with the rules of conduct concerning the protection of personal information in § 3.25 of this chapter.


§ 6.6 Safeguarding systems of records.

(a) Systems managers shall ensure that appropriate administrative, technical, and physical safeguards are established to ensure the security and confidentiality of records and to protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to their security or integrity which could result in substantial harm, embarrassment, inconvenience, or unfairness to any individual on whom information is maintained.


(b) Personnel information contained in both manual and automated systems of records shall be protected by implementing the following safeguards:


(1) Official personnel folders, authorized personnel operating or work folders and other records of personnel actions effected during an employee’s Federal service or affecting the employee’s status and service, including information on experience, education, training, special qualification, and skills, performance appraisals, and conduct, shall be stored in a lockable metal filing cabinet when not in use by an authorized person. A system manager may employ an alternative storage system providing that it furnished an equivalent degree of physical security as storage in a lockable metal filing cabinet.


(2) System managers, at their discretion, may designate additional records of unusual sensitivity which require safeguards similar to those described in paragraph (a) of this section.


(3) A system manager shall permit access to and use of automated or manual personnel records only to persons whose official duties require such access, or to a subject individual or his or her representative as provided by this part.


§ 6.7 Records of other agencies.

If FEMA receives a request for access to records which are the primary responsibility of another agency, but which are maintained by or in the temporary possession of FEMA on behalf of that agency, FEMA will advise the requestor that the request has been forwarded to the responsible agency. Records in the custody of FEMA which are the primary responsibility of the Office of Personnel Management are governed by the rules promulgated by it pursuant to the Privacy Act.


§ 6.8 Subpoena and other legal demands.

Access to records in systems of records by subpoena or other legal process shall be in accordance with the provisions of part 5 of this chapter.


§ 6.9 Inconsistent issuances of FEMA and/or its predecessor agencies superseded.

Any policies and procedures in any issuances of FEMA or any of its predecessor agencies which are inconsistent with the policies and procedures in this part are superseded to the extent of that inconsistency.


§ 6.10 Assistance and referrals.

Requests for assistance and referral to the responsible system manager or other FEMA employee charged with implementing these regulations should be made to the Privacy Appeals Officer, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC 20472.


[45 FR 17152, Mar. 18, 1980]


Subpart B – Disclosure of Records

§ 6.20 Conditions of disclosure.

No employee of FEMA shall disclose any record to any person or to another agency without the express written consent of the subject individual unless the disclosure is:


(a) To officers or employees of FEMA who have a need for the information in the official performance of their duties;


(b) Required by the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552.


(c) For a routine use as published in the notices in the Federal Register;


(d) To the Bureau of the Census for use pursuant to title 13, United States Code;


(e) To a recipient who has provided FEMA with advance adequate written assurance that the record will be used solely as a statistical research or reporting record subject to the following: The record shall be transferred in a form that is not individually identifiable. The written statement should include as a minimum (1) a statement of the purpose for requesting the records; and (2) certification that the records will be used only for statistical purposes. These written statements should be maintained as accounting records. In addition to deleting personal identifying information from records released for statistical purposes, the system manager shall ensure that the identity of the individual cannot reasonably be deduced by combining various statistical records;


(f) To the National Archives of the United States as a record which has sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the United States Government, or for evaluation by the Administrator of The National Archives and Records Administration or his designee to determine whether the record has such value;


(g) To another agency or instrumentality of any governmental jurisdiction within or under the control of the United States for civil or criminal law enforcement activity, if the activity is authorized by law, and if the head of the agency or instrumentality or his designated representative has made a written request to the Administrator specifying the particular portion desired and the law enforcement activity for which the record is sought;


(h) To a person showing compelling circumstances affecting the health and safety of an individual to whom the record pertains. (Upon such disclosure, a notification must be sent to the last known address of the subject individual.)


(i) To either House of Congress or to a subcommittee or committee (joint or of either House, to the extent that the subject matter falls within their jurisdiction;


(j) To the Comptroller General or any duly authorized representatives of the Comptroller General in the course of the performance of the duties of the Government Accountability Office; or


(k) Pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction.


(l) To consumer reporting agencies as defined in the Fair Credit Reporting Act (35 U.S.C. 1681a(f) or the Debt Collection Act of 1982 (31 U.S.C. 3711(d)(4)).


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44543, Sept. 29, 1983; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985]


§ 6.21 Procedures for disclosure.

(a) Upon receipt of a request for disclosure, the system manager shall verify the right of the requestor to obtain disclosure pursuant to § 6.20. Upon that verification and subject to other requirements of this part, the system manager shall make the requested records available.


(b) If the system manager determines that the disclosure is not permitted under the provisions of § 6.20 or other provisions of this part, the system manager shall deny the request in writing and shall inform the requestor of the right to submit a request for review and final determination to the Administrator or designee.


§ 6.22 Accounting of disclosures.

(a) Except for disclosures made pursuant to § 6.20 (a) and (b), an accurate accounting of each disclosure shall be made and retained for 5 years after the disclosure or for the life of the record, whichever is longer. The accounting shall include the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure, and the name and address of the person or agency to whom the disclosure is made;


(b) The system manager also shall maintain in conjunction with the accounting of disclosures;


(1) A full statement of the justification for the disclosure.


(2) All documentation surrounding disclosure of a record for statistical or law enforcement purposes; and


(3) Evidence of written consent to a disclosure given by the subject individual.


(c) Except for the accounting of disclosures made to agencies or instrumentalities in law enforcement activities in accordance with § 6.20 (g) or of disclosures made from exempt systems the accounting of disclosures shall be made available to the individual upon request. Procedures for requesting access to the accounting are in subpart C of this part.


Subpart C – Individual Access to Records

§ 6.30 Form of requests.

(a) An individual who seeks access to his or her record or to any information pertaining to the individual which is contained in a system of records should notify the system manager at the address indicated in the Federal Register notice describing the pertinent system. The notice should bear the legend “Privacy Act Request” both on the request letter and on the envelope. It will help in the processing of a request if the request letter contains the complete name and identifying number of the system as published in the Federal Register; the full name and address of the subject individual; a brief description of the nature, time, place, and circumstances of the individual’s association with FEMA; and any other information which the individual believes would help the system manager to determine whether the information about the individual is included in the system of records. The system manager shall answer or acknowledge the request within 10 workdays of its receipt by FEMA.


(b) The system manager, at his discretion, may accept oral requests for access subject to verification of identity.


§ 6.31 Special requirements for medical records.

(a) A system manager who receives a request from an individual for access to those official medical records which belong to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management and are described in Chapter 339, Federal Personnel Manual (medical records about entrance qualifications or fitness for duty, or medical records which are otherwise filed in the Official Personnel Folder), shall refer the pertinent system of records to a Federal Medical Officer for review and determination in accordance with this section. If no Federal Medical Officer is available to make the determination required by this section, the system manager shall refer the request and the medical reports concerned to the Office of Personnel Management for determination.


(b) If, in the opinion of a Federal Medical Officer, medical records requested by the subject individual indicate a condition about which a prudent physician would hesitate to inform a person suffering from such a condition of its exact nature and probable outcome, the system manager shall not release the medical information to the subject individual nor to any person other than a physician designated in writing by the subject individual, or the guardian or conservator of the individual.


(c) If, in the opinion of a Federal Medical Officer, the medical information does not indicate the presence of any condition which would cause a prudent physician to hesitate to inform a person suffering from such a condition of its exact nature and probable outcome, the system manager shall release it to the subject individual or to any person, firm, or organization which the individual authorizes in writing to receive it.


§ 6.32 Granting access.

(a) Upon receipt of a request for access to non-exempt records, the system manager shall make these records available to the subject individual or shall acknowledge the request within 10 workdays of its receipt by FEMA. The acknowledgment shall indicate when the system manager will make the records available.


(b) If the system manager anticipates more than a 10 day delay in making a record available, he or she also shall include in the acknowledgment specific reasons for the delay.


(c) If a subject individual’s request for access does not contain sufficient information to permit the system manager to locate the records, the system manager shall request additional information from the individual and shall have 10 workdays following receipt of the additional information in which to make the records available or to acknowledge receipt of the request and indicate when the records will be available.


(d) Records will be available for authorized access during normal business hours at the offices where the records are located. A requestor should be prepared to identify himself or herself by signature; i.e., to note by signature the date of access and/or produce other identification verifying the signature.


(e) Upon request, a system manager shall permit an individual to examine the original of a non-exempt record, shall provide the individual with a copy of the record, or both. Fees shall be charged in accordance with subpart F.


(f) An individual may request to pick up a record in person or to receive it by mail, directed to the name and address provided by the individual in the request. A system manager shall not make a record available to a third party for delivery to the subject individual except for medical records as outlined in § 6.31.


(g) An individual who selects another person to review, or to accompany the individual in reviewing or obtaining a copy of the record must, prior to the disclosure, sign a statement authorizing the disclosure of the record. The system manager shall maintain this statement with the record.


(h) The procedure for access to an accounting of disclosure is identical to the procedure for access to a record as set forth in this section.


§ 6.33 Denials of access.

(a) A system manager may deny an individual access to that individual’s record only upon the grounds that FEMA has published the rules in the Federal Register exempting the pertinent system of records from the access requirement. These exempt systems of records are described in subpart G of this part.


(b) Upon receipt of a request for access to a record which the system manager believes is contained within an exempt system of records he or she shall forward the request to the appropriate official listed below or to his or her delegate through normal supervisory channels.


(1) Deputy Administrators.


(2) [Reserved]


(3) Federal Insurance Administrator.


(4) Assistant Administrators.


(5) United States Fire Administrator.


(6) Chief of Staff.


(7) Office Directors.


(8) Chief Counsel.


(9) [Reserved]


(10) Chief Financial Officer.


(11) Regional Administrators.


(c) In the event that the system manager serves in one of the positions listed in paragraph (b) of this section, he or she shall retain the responsibility for denying or granting the request.


(d) The appropriate official listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall, in consultation with the Office of Chief Counsel and such other officials as deemed appropriate, determine if the request record is contained within an exempt system of records and:


(1) If the record is not contained within an exempt system of records, the above official shall notify the system manager to grant the request in accordance with § 6.32, or


(2) If the record is contained within an exempt system said official shall;


(i) Notify the requestor that the request is denied, including a statement justifying the denial and advising the requestor of a right to judicial review of that decision as provided in § 6.57, or


(ii) Notify the system manager to make record available to the requestor in accordance with § 6.31, notwithstanding the record’s inclusion within an exempt system.


(e) The appropriate official listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall provide the Privacy Appeals Office with a copy of any denial of a requested access.


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44543, Sept. 29, 1983; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985; 51 FR 34604, Sept. 30, 1986; 74 FR 15334, Apr. 3, 2009]


§ 6.34 Appeal of denial of access within FEMA.

A requestor denied access in whole or in part, to records pertaining to that individual, exclusive of those records for which the system manager is the Administrator, may file an administrative appeal of that denial. Appeals of denied access will be processed in the same manner as processing for appeals from a denial of a request to amend a record set out in § 6.55, regardless whether the denial being appealed is made at headquarters or by a regional official.


Subpart D – Requests To Amend Records

§ 6.50 Submission of requests to amend records.

An individual who desires to amend any record containing personal information about the individual should direct a written request to the system manager specified in the pertinent Federal Register notice concerning FEMA’s systems of records. A current FEMA employee who desires to amend personnel records should submit a written request to the Director, Human Capital Division, Washington, DC 20472. Each request should include evidence of and justification for the need to amend the pertinent record. Each request should bear the legend “Privacy Act – Request to Amend Record” prominently marked on both the face of the request letter and the envelope.


§ 6.51 Review of requests to amend records.

(a) The system manager shall acknowledge the receipt of a request to amend a record within 10 workdays. If possible, the acknowledgment shall include the system manager’s determination either to amend the record or to deny the request to amend as provided in § 6.53.


(b) When reviewing a record in response to a request to amend, the system manager shall assess the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, and completeness of the existing record in light of the proposed amendment and shall determine whether the request for the amendment is justified. With respect to a request to delete information, the system manager also shall review the request and the existing record to determine whether the information is relevant and necessary to accomplish an agency purpose required to be accomplished by statute or Executive Order.


§ 6.52 Approval of requests to amend records.

If the system manager determines that amendment of a record is proper in accordance with the request to amend, he or she promptly shall make the necessary corrections to the record and shall send a copy of the corrected record to the individual. Where an accounting of disclosure has been maintained, the system manager shall advise all previous recipients of the record of the fact that a correction has been made and the substance of the correction. Where practicable, the system manager shall advise the Privacy Appeals Officer that a request to amend has been approved.


§ 6.53 Denial of requests to amend records.

(a) If the system manager determines that an amendment of a record is improper or that the record should be amended in a manner other than that requested by an individual, he shall refer the request to amend and his determinations and recommendations to the appropriate official listed in § 6.33(b) through normal supervisory channels.


(b) If the official listed in § 6.33, after reviewing the request to amend a record, determines to amend the record in accordance with the request, said official promptly shall return the request to the system manager with instructions to make the requested amendments in accordance with § 6.52.


(c) If the appropriate official listed in § 6.33, after reviewing the request to amend a record, determines not to amend the record in accordance with the request, the requestor shall be promptly advised in writing of the determination. The refusal letter (1) shall state the reasons for the denial of the request to amend; (2) shall include proposed alternative amendments, if appropriate; (3) shall state the requestor’s right to appeal the denial of the request to amend; and (4) shall state the procedures for appealing and the name and title of the official to whom the appeal is to be addressed.


(d) The appropriate official listed in § 6.33 shall furnish the Privacy Appeals Officer a copy of each initial denial of a request to amend a record.


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 17152, Mar. 18, 1980]


§ 6.54 Agreement to alternative amendments.

If the denial of a request to amend a record includes proposed alternative amendments, and if the requestor agrees to accept them, he or she must notify the official who signed the denial. That official immediately shall instruct the system manager to make the necessary amendments in accordance with § 6.52.


§ 6.55 Appeal of denial of request to amend a record.

(a) A requestor who disagrees with a denial of a request to amend a record may file an administrative appeal of that denial. The requestor should address the appeal to the FEMA Privacy Appeals Officer, Washington, DC 20472. If the requestor is an employee of FEMA and the denial to amend involves a record maintained in the employee’s Official Personnel Folder covered by an Office of Personnel Management Government-wide system notice, the appeal should be addressed to the Assistant Director, Information Systems, Agency Compliance and Evaluation Group, Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC 20415.


(b) Each appeal to the Privacy Act Appeals Officer shall be in writing and must be received by FEMA no later than 30 calendar days from the requestor’s receipt of a denial of a request to amend a record. The appeal should bear the legend “Privacy Act – Appeal,” both on the face of the letter and the envelope.


(c) Upon receipt of an appeal, the Privacy Act Appeals Officer shall consult with the system manager, the official who made the denial, the Chief Counsel or a member of that office, and such other officials as may be appropriate. If the Privacy Act Appeals Officer in consultation with these officials, determines that the record should be amended, as requested, the system manager shall be instructed immediately to amend the record in accordance with § 6.52 and shall notify the requestor of that action.


(d) If the Privacy Act Appeals Officer, in consultation with the officials specified in paragraph (c) of this section, determines that the appeal should be rejected, the Privacy Act Appeals Officer shall submit the file on the request and appeal, including findings and recommendations, to the Deputy Administrator for a final administrative determination.


(e) If the Deputy Administrator determines that the record should be amended as requested, he or she immediately shall instruct the system manager in writing to amend the record in accordance with § 6.52. The Deputy Administrator shall send a copy of those instructions to the Privacy Act Appeals Officer, who shall notify the requester of that action.


(f) If the Deputy Administrator determines to reject the appeal, the requestor shall immediately be notified in writing of that determination. This action shall constitute the final administrative determination on the request to amend the record and shall include:


(1) The reasons for the rejection of the appeal.


(2) Proposed alternative amendments, if appropriate, which the requestor subsequently may accept in accordance with § 6.54.


(3) Notice of the requestor’s right to file a Statement of Disagreement for distribution in accordance with § 6.56.


(4) Notice of the requestor’s right to seek judicial review of the final administrative determination, as provided in § 6.57.


(g) The final agency determination must be made no later than 30 workdays from the date on which the appeal is received by the Privacy Act Appeals Officer.


(h) In extraordinary circumstances, the Administrator may extend this time limit by notifying the requestor in writing before the expiration of the 30 workdays. The Administrator’s notification will include a justification for the extension.


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 17152, Mar. 18, 1980]


§ 6.56 Statement of disagreement.

Upon receipt of a final administrative determination denying a request to amend a record, the requestor may file a Statement of Disagreement with the appropriate system manager. The Statement of Disagreement should include an explanation of why the requestor believes the record to be inaccurate, irrelevant, untimely, or incomplete. The system manager shall maintain the Statement of Disagreement in conjunction with the pertinent record, and shall include a copy of the Statement of Disagreement in any disclosure of the pertinent record. The system manager shall provide a copy of the Statement of Disagreement to any person or agency to whom the record has been disclosed only if the disclosure was subject to the accounting requirements of § 6.22.


§ 6.57 Judicial review.

Within 2 years of receipt of a final administrative determination as provided in § 6.34 or § 6.55, a requestor may seek judicial review of that determination. A civil action must be filed in the Federal District Court in which the requestor resides or has his or her principal place of business or in which the agency records are situated, or in the District of Columbia.


Subpart E – Report on New Systems and Alterations of Existing Systems

§ 6.70 Reporting requirement.

(a) No later than 90 calendar days prior to the establishment of a new system of records, the prospective system manager shall notify the Privacy Appeals Officer of the proposed new system. The prospective system manager shall include with the notification a completed FEMA Form 11-2, System of Records Covered by the Privacy Act of 1974, and a justification for each system of records proposed to be established. If the Privacy Appeals Officer determines that the establishment of the proposed system is in the best interest of the Government, then no later than 60 calendar days prior to the establishment of that system of records, a report of the proposal shall be submitted by the Administrator or a designee thereof, to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget for their evaluation of the probable or potential effect of that proposal on the privacy and other personal or property rights of individuals.


(b) No later than 90 calendar days prior to the alteration of a system of records, the system manager responsible for the maintenance of that system of records shall notify the Privacy Appeals Officer of the proposed alteration. The system manager shall include with the notification a completed FEMA Form 11-2. System of Records Covered by the Privacy Act of 1974, and a justification for each system of records he proposes to alter. If it is determined that the proposed alteration is in the best interest of the Government, then, the Administrator, or a designee thereof, shall submit, no later than 60 calendar days prior to the establishment of that alteration, a report of the proposal to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget for their evaluation of the probable or potential effect of that proposal on the privacy and other personal or property rights of individuals.


(c) The reports required by this regulation are exempt from reports control.


(d) The Administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget may waive the time requirements set out in this section upon a finding that a delay in the establishing or amending the system would not be in the public interest and showing how the public interest would be adversely affected if the waiver were not granted and otherwise complying with OMB Circular A-130.


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 17152, Mar. 18, 1980; 51 FR 34604, Sept. 30, 1986]


§ 6.71 Federal Register notice of establishment of new system or alteration of existing system.

Notice of the proposed establishment or alteration of a system of records shall be published in the Federal Register, in accordance with FEMA procedures when:


(a) Notice is received that the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Office of Management and Budget do not object to the establishment of a new system or records or to the alteration of an existing system of records, or


(b) No fewer than 30 calendar days elapse from the date of submission of the proposal to the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Office of Management and Budget without receipt of an objection to the proposal. The notice shall include all of the information required to be provided in FEMA Form 11-2, System of Records Covered by the Privacy Act of 1974, and such other information as the Administrator deems necessary.


§ 6.72 Effective date of new system of records or alteration of an existing system of records.

Systems of records proposed to be established or altered in accordance with the provisions of this subpart shall be effective no sooner than 30 calendar days from the publication of the notice required by § 6.71.


Subpart F – Fees

§ 6.80 Records available at fee.

The system manager shall provide a copy of a record to a requestor at a fee prescribed in § 6.85 unless the fee is waived under § 6.82.


[44 FR 50293, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 45 FR 17152, Mar. 18, 1980]


§ 6.81 Additional copies.

A reasonable number of additional copies shall be provided for the applicable fee to a requestor who indicates that he has no access to commercial reproduction services.


§ 6.82 Waiver of fee.

The system manager shall make one copy of a record, up to 300 pages, available without charge to a requestor who is an employee of FEMA. The system manager may waive the fee requirement for any other requestor if the cost of collecting the fee is an unduly large part of, or greater than, the fee, or when furnishing the record without charge conforms to generally established business custom or is in the public interest.


[44 FR 50287, Aug. 27, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 13679, Apr. 24, 1987]


§ 6.83 Prepayment of fees.

(a) When FEMA estimates or determines that allowable charges that a requester may be required to pay are likely to exceed $250.00, FEMA may require a requester to make an advance payment of the entire fee before continuing to process the request.


(b) When a requester has previously failed to pay a fee charged in a timely fashion (i.e., within 30 days of the date of the billing), FEMA may require the requester to pay the full amount owed plus any applicable interest as provided in § 6.85(d), and to make an advance payment of the full amount of the estimated fee before the agency begins to process a new request or a pending request from that requester.


(c) When FEMA acts under § 5.44 (a) or (b), the administrative time limits prescribed in subsection (a)(6) of the FOIA (i.e., 10 working days from the receipt of initial requests and 20 working days from receipt of appeals from initial denial, plus permissible extensions of these time limits) will begin only after FEMA has received fee payments described under § 5.44 (a) or (b).


[52 FR 13679, Apr. 24, 1987]


§ 6.84 Form of payment.

Payment shall be by check or money order payable to The Federal Emergency Management Agency and shall be addressed to the system manager.


§ 6.85 Reproduction fees.

(a) Duplication costs. (1) For copies of documents reproduced on a standard office copying machine in sizes up to 8
1/2 × 14 inches, the charge will be $.15 per page.


(2) The fee for reproducing copies of records over 8
1/2 × 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by routine electrostatic copying shall be the direct cost of reproducing the records through Government or commercial sources. If FEMA estimates that the allowable duplication charges are likely to exceed $25, it shall notify the requester of the estimated amount of fees, unless the requester has indicated in advance his/her willingness to pay fees as high as those anticipated. Such a notice shall offer a requester the opportunity to confer with agency personnel with the objective of reformulating the request to meet his/her needs at a lower cost.


(3) For other methods of reproduction or duplication, FEMA shall charge the actual direct costs of producing the document(s). If FEMA estimates that the allowable duplication charges are likely to exceed $25, it shall notify the requester of the estimated amount of fees, unless the requester has indicated in advance his/her willingness to pay fees as high as those anticipated. Such a notice shall offer a requester the opportunity to confer with agency personnel with the objective of reformulating the request to meet his/her needs at a lower cost.


(b) Interest may be charge to those requesters who fail to pay fees charged. FEMA may begin assessing interest charges on the amount billed starting on the 31st day following the day on which the billing was sent. Interest will be at the rate prescribed in section 3717 of title 31 U.S.C.


[52 FR 13679, Apr. 24, 1987]


Subpart G – Exempt Systems of Records

§ 6.86 General exemptions.

(a) Whenever the Administrator, Federal Emergency Management Agency, determines it to be necessary and proper, with respect to any system of records maintained by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, to exercise the right to promulgate rules to exempt such systems in accordance with the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a (j) and (k), each specific exemption, including the parts of each system to be exempted, the provisions of the Act from which they are exempted, and the justification for each exemption shall be published in the Federal Register as part of FEMA’s Notice of Systems of Records.


(b) Exempt under 5 U.S.C. 552a(j)(2) from the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552a(c) (3) and (4), (d), (e) (1), (2), (3), (e)(4) (G), (H), and (I), (e) (5) and (8) (f) and (g) of the Privacy Act.


(1) Exempt systems. The following systems of records, which contain information of the type described in 5 U.S.C. 552(j)(2), shall be exempt from the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a listed in paragraph (b) of this section.



General Investigative Files (FEMA/IG-2) – Limited Access

(2) Reasons for exemptions. (i) 5 U.S.C. 552a (e)(4)(G) and (f)(1) enable individuals to be notified whether a system of records contains records pertaining to them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of these provisions to the above-listed system of records would give individuals an opportunity to learn whether they are of record either as suspects or as subjects of a criminal investigation; this would compromise the ability of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to complete investigations and identify or detect violators of laws administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency or other Federal agencies. Individuals would be able (A) to take steps to avoid detection, (B) to inform co-conspirators of the fact that an investigation is being conducted, (C) to learn the nature of the investigation to which they are being subjected, (D) to learn the type of surveillance being utilized, (E) to learn whether they are only suspects or identified law violators, (F) to continue to resume their illegal conduct without fear of detection upon learning that they are not in a particular system of records, and (G) to destroy evidence needed to prove the violation.


(ii) 5 U.S.C. 552a (d)(1), (e)(4)(H) and (f)(2), (3) and (5) enable individuals to gain access to records pertaining to them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of these provisions to the above-listed system of records would compromise its ability to complete or continue criminal investigations and to detect or identify violators of laws administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency or other Federal agencies. Permitting access to records contained in the above-listed system of records would provide individuals with significant information concerning the nature of the investigation, and this could enable them to avoid detection or apprehension in the following ways:


(A) By discovering the collection of facts which would form the basis for their arrest, (B) by enabling them to destroy evidence of criminal conduct which would form the basis for their arrest, and (C) by learning that the criminal investigators had reason to believe that a crime was about to be committed, they could delay the commission of the crime or change the scene of the crime to a location which might not be under surveillance. Granting access to ongoing or closed investigative files would also reveal investigative techniques and procedures, the knowledge of which could enable individuals planning criminal activity to structure their future operations in such a way as to avoid detection or apprehension, thereby neutralizing law enforcement officers’ established investigative tools and procedures. Further, granting access to investigative files and records could disclose the identity of confidential sources and other informers and the nature of the information which they supplied, thereby endangering the life or physical safety of those sources of information by exposing them to possible reprisals for having provided information relating to the criminal activities of those individuals who are the subjects of the investigative files and records; confidential sources and other informers might refuse to provide criminal investigators with valuable information if they could not be secure in the knowledge that their identities would not be revealed through disclosure of either their names or the nature of the information they supplied, and this would seriously impair the ability of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to carry out its mandate to enforce criminal and related laws. Additionally, providing access to records contained in the above-listed system of records could reveal the identities of undercover law enforcement personnel who compiled information regarding individual’s criminal activities, thereby endangering the life or physical safety of those undercover personnel or their families by exposing them to possible reprisals.


(iii) 5 U.S.C. 552a(d) (2), (3) and (4), (e)(4)(H) and (f)(4), which are dependent upon access having been granted to records pursuant to the provisions cited in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, enable individuals to contest (seek amendment to) the content of records contained in a system of records and require an agency to note an amended record and to provide a copy of an individual’s statement (of disagreement with the agency’s refusal to amend a record) to persons or other agencies to whom the record has been disclosed. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that the reasons set forth in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section are equally applicable to this paragraph and, accordingly, those reasons are hereby incorporated herein by reference.


(iv) 5 U.S.C. 552a(c)(3) requires that an agency make accountings of disclosures of records available to individuals named in the records at their request; such accountings must state the date, nature and purpose of each disclosure of a record and the name and address of the recipient. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of this provision to the above-listed system of records would impair the ability of other law enforcement agencies to make effective use of information provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in connection with the investigation, detection and apprehension of violators of the criminal laws enforced by those other law enforcement agencies. Making accountings of disclosure available to violators or possible violators would alert those individuals to the fact that another agency is conducting an investigation into their criminal activities, and this could reveal the geographic location of the other agency’s investigation, the nature and purpose of that investigation, and the dates on which that investigation was active. Violators possessing such knowledge would thereby be able to take appropriate measures to avoid detection or apprehension by altering their operations, by transferring their criminal activities to other geographic areas or by destroying or concealing evidence which would form the basis for their arrest. In addition, providing violators with accountings of disclosure would alert those individuals to the fact that the Federal Emergency Management Agency has information regarding their criminal activities and could inform those individuals of the general nature of that information; this, in turn, would afford those individuals a better opportunity to take appropriate steps to avoid detection or apprehension for violations of criminal and related laws.


(v) 5 U.S.C. 552a(c)(4) requires that an agency inform any person or other agency about any correction or notation of dispute made by the agency in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552a(d) of any record that has been disclosed to the person or agency if an accounting of the disclosure was made. Since this provision is dependent on an individual’s having been provided an opportunity to contest (seek amendment to) records pertaining to him/her, and since the above-listed system of records is proposed to be exempt from those provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a relating to amendments of records as indicated in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section, the Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that this provision should not be applicable to the above system of records.


(vi) 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4)(I) requires that an agency publish a public notice listing the categories of sources for information contained in a system of records. The categories of sources of this system of records have been published in the Federal Register in broad generic terms in the belief that this is all that subsection (e)(4)(I) of the Act requires. In the event, however, that this subsection should be interpreted to require more detail as to the identity of sources of the records in this system, exemption from this provision is necessary in order to protect the confidentiality of the sources of criminal and other law enforcement information. Such exemption is further necessary to protect the privacy and physical safety of witnesses and informants.


(vii) 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(1) requires that an agency maintain in its records only such information about an individual as is relevant and necessary to accomplish a purpose of the agency required to be accomplished by statute or executive order. The term maintain as defined in 5 U.S.C. 552a(a)(3) includes “collect” and “disseminate.” At the time that information is collected by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, there is often insufficient time to determine whether the information is relevant and necessary to accomplish a purpose of the Federal Emergency Management Agency; in many cases information collected may not be immediately susceptible to a determination of whether the information is relevant and necessary, particularly in the early stages of an investigation, and in many cases, information which initially appears to be irrelevant or unnecessary may, upon further evaluation or upon continuation of the investigation, prove to have particular relevance to an enforcement program of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Further, not all violations of law discovered during a criminal investigation fall within the investigative jurisdiction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency; in order to promote effective law enforcement, it often becomes necessary and desirable to disseminate information pertaining to such violations to other law enforcement agencies which have jurisdiction over the offense to which the information relates. The Federal Emergency Management Agency should not be placed in a position of having to ignore information relating to violations of law not within its jurisdiction when that information comes to the attention of the Federal Emergency Management Agency through the conduct of a lawful FEMA investigation. The Federal Emergency Management Agency, therefore, believes that it is appropriate to exempt the above-listed system of records from the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(1).


(viii) 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(2) requires that an agency collect information to the greatest extent practicable directly from the subject individual when the information may result in adverse determinations about an individual’s rights, benefits, and privileges under Federal programs. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of this provision to the above-listed system of records would impair the ability of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to conduct investigations and to identify or detect violators of criminal or related laws for the following reasons:


(A) Most information collected about an individual under criminal investigations is obtained from third parties such as witnesses and informers, and it is usually not feasible to rely upon the subject of the investigation as a source for information regarding his/her criminal activities, (B) an attempt to obtain information from the subject of a criminal investigation will often alert that individual to the existence of an investigation, thereby affording the individual an opportunity to attempt to conceal his/her criminal activities so as to avoid apprehension, (C) in certain instances, the subject of a criminal investigation is not required to supply information to criminal investigators as a matter of legal duty, and (D) during criminal investigations it is often a matter of sound investigative procedures to obtain information from a variety of sources in order to verify information already obtained.


(ix) 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(3) requires that an agency inform each individual whom it asks to supply information, either on the form which the agency uses to collect the information or on a separate form which can be retained by the individual, with the following information: The authority which authorizes the solicitation of the information and whether disclosure of such information is mandatory or voluntary; the principal purposes for which the information is intended to be used; the routine uses which may be made of the information; and the effects on the individual of not providing all or part of the requested information. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that the above-listed system of records should be exempted from this provision in order to avoid adverse effects on its ability to identify or detect violators of criminal or related laws. In many cases, information is obtained by confidential sources, other informers or undercover law enforcement officers under circumstances where it is necessary that the true purpose of their actions be kept secret so as to avoid alerting the subject of the investigation or his/her associates that a criminal investigation is in process. Further, if it became known that the undercover officer was assisting in a criminal investigation, that officer’s life or physical safety could be endangered through reprisal, and, under such circumstances it may not be possible to continue to utilize that officer in the investigation. In many cases, individuals, for personal reasons, would feel inhibited in talking to a person representing a criminal law enforcement agency but would be willing to talk to a confidential source or undercover officer who they believe is not involved in law enforcement activities. In addition, providing a source of information with written evidence that he was a source, as required by this provision, could increase the likelihood that the source of information would be the subject of retaliatory action by the subject of the investigation. Further, application of this provision could result in an unwarranted invasion of the personal privacy of the subject of the criminal investigation, particularly where further investigation would result in a finding that the subject was not involved in any criminal activity.


(x) 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(5) requires that an agency maintain all records used by the agency in making any determination about any individual with such accuracy, relevance, timeliness and completeness as is reasonably necessary to assure fairness to the individual in the determination. Since 5 U.S.C. 552a(a)(3) defines “maintain” to include “collect” and “disseminate,” application of this provision to the above-listed system of records would hinder the initial collection of any information which could not, at the moment of collection, be determined to be accurate, relevant, timely and complete. Similarly, application of this provision would seriously restrict the necessary flow of information from the Federal Emergency Management Agency to other law enforcement agencies when a FEMA investigation revealed information pertaining to a violation of law which was under investigative jurisdiction of another agency. In collecting information during the course of a criminal investigation, it is not possible or feasible to determine accuracy, relevance, timeliness or completeness prior to collection of the information; in disseminating information to other law enforcement agencies it is often not possible to determine accuracy, relevance, timeliness or completeness prior to dissemination because the disseminating agency may not have the expertise with which to make such determinations. Further, information which may initially appear to be inaccurate, irrelevant, untimely or incomplete may, when gathered, grouped, and evaluated with other available information, become more pertinent as an investigation progresses. In addition, application of this provision could seriously impede criminal investigators and intelligence analysts in the exercise of their judgment in reporting on results obtained during criminal investigations. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that it is appropriate to exempt the above-listed system of records from the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(5).


(xi) 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(8) requires that an agency make reasonable effort to serve notice on an individual when any record on the individual is made available to any person under compulsory legal process when such process becomes a matter of public record. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that the above-listed system of records should be exempt from this provision in order to avoid revealing investigative techniques and procedures outlined in those records and in order to prevent revelation of the existence on an on-going investigation where there is a need to keep the existence of the investigation secret.


(xii) 5 U.S.C. 552a(g) provides civil remedies to an individual for an agency’s refusal to amend a record or to make a review of a request for amendment; for an agency’s refusal to grant access to a record; for an agency’s failure to maintain accurate, relevant, timely and complete records which are used to make a determination which is adverse to the individual; and for an agency’s failure to comply with any other provision of 5 U.S.C. 552a in such a way as to have an adverse effect on an individual. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that the above-listed system of records should be exempted from this provision to the extent that the civil remedies provided therein may relate to provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a from which the above-listed system of records is proposed to be exempt. Since the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a enumerated in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (xi) of this section are proposed to be inapplicable to the above-listed systems of records for the reasons stated therein, there should be no corresponding civil remedies for failure to comply with the requirements of those provisions to which the exemption is proposed to apply. Further, the Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of this provision to the above-listed system of records would adversely affect its ability to conduct criminal investigations by exposing to civil court action every stage of the criminal investigative process in which information is compiled or used in order to identify, detect, or otherwise investigate persons suspected or known to be engaged in criminal conduct.


(xiii) Individuals may not have access to another agency’s records, which are contained in files maintained by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, when that other agency’s regulations provide that such records are subject to general exemption under 5 U.S.C. 552a(j). If such exempt records are within a request for access, FEMA will advise the individual of their existence and of the name and address of the source agency. For any further information concerning the record and the exemption, the individual must contact that source agency.


[45 FR 64580, Sept. 30, 1980]


§ 6.87 Specific exemptions.

(a) Exempt under 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(1). The Administrator, Federal Emergency Management Agency has determined that certain systems of records may be exempt from the requirements of (c)(3) and (d) pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(1) to the extent that the system contains any information properly classified under Executive Order 12356 or any subsequent Executive order and which are required to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy. To the extent that this occurs, such records in the following systems would be exempt:



Claims (litigation) (FEMA/GC-1) – Limited Access

FEMA Enforcement (Compliance) (FEMA/GC-2) – Limited Access

General Investigative Files (FEMA/IG-1) – Limited Access

Security Management Information System (FEMA/SEC-1) – Limited Access

(b) Exempt under 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(2) from the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552a (c)(3), (d), (e)(1), (e)(4) (G), (H), and (I), and (f). The Federal Emergency Management Agency will not deny individuals access to information which has been used to deny them a right, privilege, or benefit to which they would otherwise be entitled.


(1) Exempt systems. The following systems of records, which contain information of the type described in 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(2), shall be exempt from the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(2) listed in paragraph (b) of this section.



Claims (litigation) (FEMA/GC-1) – Limited Access

FEMA Enforcement (Compliance) (FEMA/GC-2) – Limited Access

General Investigative Files (FEMA/IG-1) – Limited Access

Equal Employment Opportunity Complaints of Discrimination Files (FEMA/PER-2) – Limited Access

(2) Reasons for exemptions. (i) 5 U.S.C. 552a (e)(4)(G) and (f)(1) enable individuals to be notified whether a system of records contains records pertaining to them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of these provisions to the above-listed systems of records would impair the ability of FEMA to successfully complete investigations and inquiries of suspected violators of civil and criminal laws and regulations under its jurisdiction. In many cases investigations and inquiries into violations of civil and criminal laws and regulations involve complex and continuing patterns of behavior. Individuals, if informed, that they have been identified as suspected violators of civil or criminal laws and regulations, would have an opportunity to take measures to prevent detection of illegal action so as to avoid prosecution or the imposition of civil sanctions. They would also be able to learn the nature and location of the investigation or inquiry, the type of surveillance being utilized, and they would be able to transmit this knowledge to co-conspirators. Finally, violators might be given the opportunity to destroy evidence needed to prove the violation under investigation or inquiry.


(ii) 5 U.S.C. 552a (d)(1), (e)(4)(H) and (f)(2), (3) and (5) enable individuals to gain access to records pertaining to them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of these provisions to the above-listed systems of records would impair its ability to complete or continue civil or criminal investigations and inquiries and to detect violators of civil or criminal laws. Permitting access to records contained in the above-listed systems of records would provide violators with significant information concerning the nature of the civil or criminal investigation or inquiry. Knowledge of the facts developed during an investigation or inquiry would enable violators of criminal and civil laws and regulations to learn the extent to which the investigation or inquiry has progressed, and this could provide them with an opportunity to destroy evidence that would form the basis for prosecution or the imposition of civil sanctions. In addition, knowledge gained through access to investigatory material could alert a violator to the need to temporarily postpone commission of the violation or to change the intended point where the violation is to be committed so as to avoid detection or apprehension. Further, access to investigatory material would disclose investigative techniques and procedures which, if known, could enable violators to structure their future operations in such a way as to avoid detection or apprehension, thereby neutralizing investigators’ established and effective investigative tools and procedures. In addition, investigatory material may contain the identity of a confidential source of information or other informer who would not want his/her identity to be disclosed for reasons of personal privacy or for fear of reprisal at the hands of the individual about whom he/she supplied information. In some cases mere disclosure of the information provided by an informer would reveal the identity of the informer either through the process of elimination or by virtue of the nature of the information supplied. If informers cannot be assured that their identities (as sources for information) will remain confidential, they would be very reluctant in the future to provide information pertaining to violations of criminal and civil laws and regulations, and this would seriously compromise the ability of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to carry out its mission. Further, application of 5 U.S.C. 552a (d)(1), (e)(4)(H) and (f)(2), (3) and (5) to the above-listed systems of records would make available attorney’s work product and other documents which contain evaluations, recommendations, and discussions of on-going civil and criminal legal proceedings; the availability of such documents could have a chilling effect on the free flow of information and ideas within the Federal Emergency Management Agency which is vital to the agency’s predecisional deliberative process, could seriously prejudice the agency’s or the Government’s position in a civil or criminal litigation, and could result in the disclosure of investigatory material which should not be disclosed for the reasons stated above. It is the belief of the Federal Emergency Management Agency that, in both civil actions and criminal prosecutions, due process will assure that individuals have a reasonable opportunity to learn of the existence of, and to challenge, investigatory records and related materials which are to be used in legal proceedings.


(iii) 5 U.S.C. 552a (d)(2), (3) and (4), (e)(4)(H) and (f)(4) which are dependent upon access having been granted to records pursuant to the provisions cited in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, enable individuals to contest (seek amendment to) the content of records contained in a system of records and require an agency to note an amended record and to provide a copy of an individual’s statement (of disagreement with the agency’s refusal to amend a record) to persons or other agencies to whom the record has been disclosed. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that the reasons set forth in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) of this section are equally applicable to this paragraph, and, accordingly, those reasons are hereby incorporated herein by reference.


(iv) 5 U.S.C. 552a(c)(3) requires that an agency make accountings of disclosures of records available to individuals named in the records at their request; such accountings must state the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of a record and the name and address of the recipient. The Federal Emergency Management Agency believes that application of this provision to the above-listed systems of records would impair the ability of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other law enforcement agencies to conduct investigations and inquiries into civil and criminal violations under their respective jurisdictions. Making accountings available to violators would alert those individuals to the fact that the Federal Emergency Management Agency or another law enforcement authority is conducting an investigation or inquiry into their activities, and such accountings could reveal the geographic location of the investigation or inquiry, the nature and purpose of the investigation or inquiry and the nature of the information disclosed, and the date on which that investigation or inquiry was active. Violators possessing such knowledge would thereby be able to take appropriate measures to avoid detection or apprehension by altering their operations, transferring their activities to other locations or destroying or concealing evidence which would form the basis for prosecution or the imposition of civil sanctions.


(v) 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(1) requires that an agency maintain in its records only such information about an individual as is relevant and necessary to accomplish a purpose of the agency required to be accomplished by statute or executive order. The term maintain as defined in 5 U.S.C. 552a(a)(3) includes “collect” and “disseminate.” At the time that information is collected by the Federal Emergency Management Agency there is often insufficient time to determine whether the information is relevant and necessary to accomplish a purpose of the Federal Emergency Management Agency; in many cases information collected may not be immediately susceptible to a determination of whether the information is relevant and necessary, particularly in the early stages of investigation or inquiry, and in many cases information which initially appears to be irrelevant or unnecessary may, upon further evaluation or upon continuation of the investigation or inquiry, prove to have particular relevance to an enforcement program of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Further, not all violations of law uncovered during a Federal Emergency Management Agency inquiry fall within the civil or criminal jurisdiction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency; in order to promote effective law enforcement, it often becomes necessary and desirable to disseminate information pertaining to such violations to other law enforcement agencies which have jurisdiction over the offense to which the information relates. The Federal Emergency Management Agency should not be placed in a position of having to ignore information relating to violations of law not within its jurisdiction when that information comes to the attention of the Federal Emergency Management Agency through the conduct of a lawful FEMAs civil or criminal investigation or inquiry. The Federal Emergency Management Agency therefore believes that it is appropriate to exempt the above-listed systems of records from the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(1).


(c) Exempt under 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(5). The Administrator, Federal Emergency Management Agency has determined that certain systems of records are exempt from the requirements of (c)(3) and (d) of 5 U.S.C. 552a.


(1) Exempt systems. The following systems of records, which contain information of the type described in 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(5), shall be exempted from the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 552a listed in paragraph (c) of this section.



Claims (litigation) (FEMA/GC-1) – Limited Access

FEMA Enforcement (Compliance) (FEMA/GC-2) – Limited Access

General Investigative Files (FEMA/IG-2) – Limited Access

Security Management Information Systems (FEMA/SEC-1) – Limited Access

(2) Reasons for exemptions. All information about individuals in these records that meet the criteria stated in 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(5) is exempt from the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552a (c)(3) and (d). These provisions of the Privacy Act relate to making accountings of disclosure available to the subject and access to and amendment of records. These exemptions are claimed because the system of records entitled, FEMA/SEC-1, Security Management Information System, contains investigatory material compiled solely for the purpose of determining suitability, eligibility, or qualifications for access to classified information or classified Federal contracts, but only to the extent that the disclosure would reveal the identity of a source who furnished information to the Government under an express promise or, prior to September 27, 1975, under an implied promise that the identity of the source would be held in confidence. During the litigation process and investigations, it is possible that certain records from the system of records entitled, FEMA/SEC-1, Security Management System may be necessary and relevant to the litigation or investigation and included in these systems of records. To the extent that this occurs, the Administrator, FEMA, has determined that the records would also be exempted from subsections (c)(3) and (d) pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(5) to protect such records. A determination will be made at the time of the request for a record concerning whether specific information would reveal the identity of a source. This exemption is required in order to protect the confidentiality of the sources of information compiled for the purpose of determining access to classified information. This confidentiality helps maintain the Government’s continued access to information from persons who would otherwise refuse to give it.


[45 FR 64580, Sept. 30, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 54816, Dec. 6, 1982; 52 FR 5114, Feb. 19, 1987]


PART 7 – NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS (FEMA REG. 5)


Source:30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980.

Subpart A – Nondiscrimination in FEMA-Assisted Programs – General


Authority:FEMA Reg. 5 issued under sec. 602, 78 Stat. 252; 42 U.S.C. 2000 d-1; 42 U.S.C. 1855-1885g; 50 U.S.C. 404.


Source:30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990.

§ 7.1 Purpose.

The purpose of this regulation is to effectuate the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (hereafter referred to as the “Act”) to the end that no person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


§ 7.2 Definitions.

As used in this regulation:


(a) The term responsible agency official with respect to any program receiving Federal financial assistance means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency or other official of the agency who by law or by delegation has the principal responsibility within the agency for the administration of the law extending such assistance.


(b) The term United States means the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, the Canal Zone, and the territories and possessions of the United States, and the term State means any one of the foregoing.


(c) The term Federal financial assistance includes (1) grants and loans of Federal funds, (2) the grant or donation of Federal property and interests in property, (3) the detail of Federal personnel, (4) the sale and lease of, and the permission to use (on other than a casual or transient basis), Federal property or any interest in such property without consideration or at a nominal consideration, or at a consideration which is reduced for the purpose of assisting the recipient, or in recognition of the public interest to be served by such sale or lease to the recipient, and (5) any Federal agreement, arrangement, or other contract which has as one of its purposes the provision of assistance.


(d) The terms program or activity and program mean all of the operations of any entity described in paragraphs (d)(1) through (4) of this section, any part of which is extended Federal financial assistance:


(1)(i) A department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or of a local government; or


(ii) The entity of such State or local government that distributes such assistance and each such department or agency (and each other State or local government entity) to which the assistance is extended, in the case of assistance to a State or local government;


(2)(i) A college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or


(ii) A local educational agency (as defined in 20 U.S.C. 7801), system of vocational education, or other school system;


(3)(i) An entire corporation, partnership, or other private organization, or an entire sole proprietorship –


(A) If assistance is extended to such corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship as a whole; or


(B) Which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation; or


(ii) The entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial assistance is extended, in the case of any other corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship; or


(4) Any other entity which is established by two or more of the entities described in paragraph (d)(1), (2), or (3) of this section.


(e) The term facility includes all or any portion of structure, equipment, or other real or personal property or interests therein, and the provision of facilities includes the construction, expansion, renovation, remodeling, alteration or acquisition of facilities.


(f) The term recipient means any State, political subdivision of any State, or instrumentality of any State or political subdivision, any public or private agency, institution, or organization, or other entity, or any individual, in any State, to whom Federal financial assistance is extended, directly or through another recipient, including any successor, assign, or transferee thereof, but such term does not include any ultimate beneficiary.


(g) The term primary recipient means any recipient which is authorized or required to extend Federal financial assistance to another recipient.


(h) The term applicant means one who submits an application, request, or plan required to be approved by a responsible agency official, or by a primary recipient, as a condition to eligibility for Federal financial assistance, and the term application means such an application, request, or plan.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.3 Application of this regulation.

No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this regulation applies.


[68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.4 Further application of this regulation.

This regulation applies to any program for which Federal financial assistance is authorized under a law administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It applies to money paid, property transferred, or other Federal financial assistance extended after the effective date of the regulation pursuant to an application approved prior to such effective date. This regulation does not apply to (a) any Federal financial assistance by way of insurance or guaranty contracts, (b) money paid, property transferred, or other assistance extended before the effective date of this regulation, (c) any assistance to any individual who is the ultimate beneficiary, or (d) any employment practice, under such program, of any employer, employment agency, or labor organization.


(Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, E.O. 12127 and E.O. 12148)

[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 44543, Sept. 29, 1983; 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.5 Specific discriminatory actions prohibited.

(a) A recipient to which this regulation applies may not, directly or through contractual or other arrangements, on ground of race, color, or national origin:


(1) Deny any individual any service, financial aid, or other benefit provided under the program;


(2) Provide any service, financial aid, or other benefit to an individual which is different, or is provided in a different manner, from that provided to others under the program;


(3) Subject an individual to segregation or separate treatment in any matter related to his receipt of any service, financial aid, or other benefit under the program;


(4) Restrict an individual in any way in the enjoyment of any advantage or privilege enjoyed by others receiving any service, financial aid, or other benefit under the program;


(5) Treat an individual differently from others in determining whether he satisfies any admission, enrollment, quota, eligibility, membership or other requirement or condition which individuals must meet in order to be provided any service, financial aid, or other benefit provided under the program;


(6) Deny an individual an opportunity to participate in the program through the provision of services or otherwise or afford him an opportunity to do so which is different from that afforded others under the program.


(b) A recipient, in determining the types of services, financial aid, or other benefits, or facilities which will be provided under any such program, or the class of individuals to whom, or the situations in which, such services, financial aid, other benefits, or facilities will be provided under any such program, or the class of individuals to be afforded an opportunity to participate in any such program, may not, directly or through contractual or other arrangements, utilize criteria or methods of administration which have the effect of subjecting individuals to discrimination because of their race, color, or national origin, or have the effect of defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respect individuals of a particular race, color, or national origin.


(c) As used in this section the services, financial aid, or other benefits provided under a program receiving Federal financial assistance shall be deemed to include any service, financial aid, or other benefit provided in or through a facility provided with the aid of Federal financial assistance.


(d) The enumeration of specific forms of prohibited discrimination in this section does not limit the generality of the prohibition in section 4.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.6 Life, health, and safety.

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 5, a recipient of Federal financial assistance shall not be deemed to have failed to comply with section 3, if immediate provision of a service or other benefit to an individual is necessary to prevent his death or serious impairment of his health or safety.


§ 7.7 Assurances required.

Every application for Federal financial assistance to which this regulation applies, and every application for Federal financial assistance to provide a facility shall, as a condition to its approval and the extension of any Federal financial assistance pursuant to the application, contain or be accompanied by an assurance that the program will be conducted or the facility operated in compliance with all requirements imposed by or pursuant to this regulation. In the case of an application for Federal financial assistance to provide real property or structures thereon, the assurance shall obligate the recipient, or, in the case of a subsequent transfer, the transferee, for the period during which the real property or structures are used for a purpose for which the Federal financial assistance is extended or for another purpose involving the provision of similar services or benefits. In the case of personal property the assurance shall obligate the recipient for the period during which he retains ownership or possession of the property. In all other cases the assurance shall obligate the recipient for the period during which Federal financial assistance is extended pursuant to the application. The responsible agency official shall specify the form of the foregoing assurances and the extent to which like assurances will be required of subgrantee, contractors and subcontractors, transferees, successors in interest, and other participants. Any such assurance shall include provisions which give the United States a right to seek its judicial enforcement.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.8 Elementary and secondary schools.

The requirements of section 7 with respect to any elementary or secondary school or school system shall be deemed to be satisfied if such school or school system (a) is subject to a final order of a court of the United States for the desegregation of such school or school system, and provides an assurance that it will comply with such order, including any future modification of such order, or (b) submits a plan for the desegregation of such school or school system which the United States Commissioner of Education determines is adequate to accomplish the purpose of the Act and this regulation, and provides reasonable assurance that it will carry out such plans; in any case of continuing Federal financial assistance the responsible agency official may reserve the right to redetermine, after such period as may be specified by him, the adequacy of the plan to accomplish the purposes of the Act and this regulation. In any case to which a final order of a court of the United States for the desegregation of such school or school system is entered after submission of such a plan, such plan shall be revised to conform to such final order, including any future modification of such order.


§ 7.9 Assurances from institutions.

(a) In the case of any application for Federal financial assistance to an institution of higher education, the assurance required by section 7 shall extend to admission practices and to all other practices relating to the treatment of students.


(b) The assurances required with respect to an institution of higher education, hospital, or any other institution, insofar as the assurance relates to the institution’s practices with respect to admission or other treatment of individuals as students, patients, or clients of the institutions or to the opportunity to participate in the provision of services or other benefits to such individuals, shall be applicable to the entire institution.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.10 Compliance information.

(a) Cooperation and assistance. The responsible official in the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall to the fullest extent practicable seek the cooperation of recipients in obtaining compliance with this regulation and shall provide assistance and guidance to recipients to help them comply voluntarily with this regulation.


(b) Compliance reports. Each recipient shall keep such records and submit to the responsible agency official or his designee timely, complete, and accurate compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as the responsible agency official or his designee may determine to be necessary to enable him to ascertain whether the recipient has complied or is complying with this regulation. In the case in which a primary recipient extends Federal financial assistance to any other recipient, such other recipient shall also submit such compliance reports to the primary recipient as may be necessary to enable the primary recipient to carry out its obligations under this regulation.


(c) Access to sources of information. Each recipient shall permit access by the responsible agency official or his designee during normal business hours to such of its books, records, accounts, and other sources of information, and its facilities as may be pertinent to ascertain compliance with this regulation. Where any information required of a recipient is in the exclusive possession of any other agency, institution or person and this agency, institution or person shall fail or refuse to furnish this information, the recipient shall so certify in its report and shall set forth what efforts it has made to obtain the information.


(d) Information to beneficiaries and participants. Each recipient shall make available to participants, beneficiaries, and other interested persons such information regarding the provisions of this regulation and its applicability to the program for which the recipient receives Federal financial assistance, and make such information available to them in such manner, as the responsible agency official finds necessary to apprise such persons of the protection against discrimination assured them by the Act and this regulation.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.11 Conduct of investigations.

(a) Periodic compliance reviews. The responsible agency official or his designee shall from time to time review the practices of recipients to determine whether they are complying with this regulation.


(b) Complaints. Any person who believes himself or any specific class of individuals to be subjected to discrimination prohibited by this regulation may by himself or by a representative file a written complaint with the National Headquarters or any Regional Office of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. A complaint must be filed not later than 180 days from the date of the alleged discrimination, unless the time for filing is extended by the responsible agency official or his designee.


(c) Investigations. The responsible agency official or his designee will make a prompt investigation whenever a compliance review, report, complaint, or any other information indicates a possible failure to comply with this regulation. The investigation should include, where appropriate, a review of the pertinent practices and policies of the recipient, the circumstances under which the possible noncompliance with this regulation occurred, and other factors relevant to a determination as to whether the recipient has failed to comply with this regulation.


(d) Resolution of matters. (1) If an investigation pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section indicates a failure to comply with this regulation, the responsible agency official or his designee will so inform the recipient and the matter will be resolved by informal means whenever possible. If it has been determined that the matter cannot be resolved by informal means, action will be taken as provided for in section 12.


(2) If an investigation does not warrant action pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section the responsible agency official or his designee will so inform the recipient and the complainant, if any, in writing.


(e) Intimidatory or retaliatory acts prohibited. No recipient or other person shall intimidate, threaten, coerce, or discriminate against any individual for the purpose of interfering with any right or privilege secured by section 601 of the Act or this regulation, or because he has made a complaint, testified, assisted, or participated in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing under this regulation. The identity of complainants shall be kept confidential except to the extent necessary to carry out the purposes of this regulation, including the conduct of any investigation, hearing, or judicial proceeding arising thereunder.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 64 FR 38309, July 16, 1999]


§ 7.12 Procedure for effecting compliance.

(a) General. If there appears to be a failure or threatened failure to comply with this regulation, and if the noncompliance or threatened noncompliance cannot be corrected by informal means, compliance with this regulation may be effected by the suspension or termination of or refusal to grant or to continue Federal financial assistance or by any other means authorized by law. Such other means may include, but are not limited to, (1) a reference to the Department of Justice with a recommendation that appropriate proceedings be brought to enforce any rights of the United States under any law of the United States (including other titles of the Act), or any assurance or other contractual undertaking, and (2) any applicable proceeding under state or local law.


(b) Noncompliance with section 7. If an applicant fails or refuses to furnish an assurance required under section 7 or otherwise fails or refuses to comply with a requirement imposed by or pursuant to that section Federal financial assistance may be refused in accordance with the procedures of paragraph (c) of this section. The agency shall not be required to provide assistance in such a case during the pendency of the administrative proceedings under such paragraph except that the agency shall continue assistance during the pendency of such proceedings where such assistance is due and payable pursuant to an application thereof approved prior to the effective date of this regulation.


(c) Termination of or refusal to grant or to continue Federal financial assistance. No order suspending, terminating or refusing to grant or continue Federal financial assistance shall become effective until (1) the responsible agency official has advised the applicant or recipient of his failure to comply and has determined that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means, (2) there has been an express finding on the record, after opportunity for hearing, of a failure by the applicant or recipient to comply with a requirement imposed by or pursuant to this regulation, (3) the action has been approved by the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency pursuant to section 14, and (4) the expiration of 30 days after the Administrator has filed with the committee of the House and the committee of the Senate having legislative jurisdiction over the program involved, a full written report of the circumstances and the grounds for such action. Any action to suspend or terminate or to refuse to grant or to continue Federal financial assistance shall be limited to the particular political entity, or part thereof, or other applicant or recipient as to whom such a finding has been made and shall be limited in its effect to the particular program, or part thereof, in which such noncompliance has been so found.


(d) Other means authorized by law. No action to effect compliance by any other means authorized by law shall be taken until (1) the responsible agency official has determined that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means, (2) the action has been approved by the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, (3) the recipient or other person has been notified of its failure to comply and of the action to be taken to effect compliance, and (4) the expiration of at least 10 days from the mailing of such notice to the recipient or other person. During this period of at least 10 days additional efforts shall be made to persuade the recipient or other person to comply with the regulation and to take such corrective action as may be appropriate.


§ 7.13 Hearings.

(a) Opportunity for hearing. Whenever an opportunity for a hearing is required by section 12(c), reasonable notice shall be given by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to the affected applicant or recipient. This notice shall advise the applicant or recipient of the action proposed to be taken, the specific provision under which the proposed action against it is to be taken, and the matters of fact or law asserted as the basis for this action, and either (1) fix a date not less than 20 days after the date of such notice within which the applicant or recipient may request of the responsible agency official that the matter be scheduled for hearing or (2) advise the applicant or recipient that the matter in question has been set down for hearing at a stated place and time. The time and place so fixed shall be reasonable and shall be subject to change for cause. The complainant, if any, shall be advised of the time and place of the hearing. An applicant or recipient may waive a hearing and submit written information and argument for the record. The failure of an applicant or recipient to request a hearing under this subsection or to appear at a hearing for which a date has been set shall be deemed to be a waiver of the right to a hearing under section 602 of the Act and section 12(c) of this regulation and consent to the making of a decision on the basis of such information as is available.


(b) Time and place of hearing. Hearings shall be held at the National Headquarters of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in Washington, DC, at a time fixed by the responsible agency official unless he determines that the convenience of the applicant or recipient or of the agency requires that another place be selected. Hearings shall be held before the responsible agency official or, at his discretion, before a hearing examiner designated in accordance with section 11 of the Administrative Procedure Act.


(c) Right to counsel. In all proceedings under this section, the applicant or recipient and the agency shall have the right to be represented by counsel.


(d) Procedures, evidence, and record. (1) The hearing, decision, and any administrative review thereof shall be conducted in conformity with sections 5-8 of the Administrative Procedure Act, and in accordance with such rules of procedure as are proper (and not inconsistent with this section) relating to the conduct of the hearing, giving of notices subsequent to those provided for in paragraph (a) of this section, taking of testimony, exhibits, arguments and briefs, requests for findings, and other related matters. Both the agency and the applicant or recipient shall be entitled to introduce all relevant evidence on the issues as stated in the notice for hearing or as determined by the officer conducting the hearing at the outset of or during the hearing.


(2) Technical rules of evidence shall not apply to hearings conducted pursuant to this regulation, but rules or principles designed to assure production of the most credible evidence available and to subject testimony to test by cross-examination shall be applied where reasonably necessary by the officer conducting the hearing. The hearing officer may exclude irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious evidence. All documents and other evidence offered or taken for the record shall be open to examination by the parties and opportunity shall be given to refute facts and arguments advanced on either side of the issues. A transcript shall be made of the oral evidence except to the extent the substance thereof is stipulated for the record. All decisions shall be based upon the hearing record and written findings shall be made.


(e) Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which the same or related facts are asserted to constitute noncompliance with this regulation with respect to two or more Federal statutes, authorities, or other means by which Federal financial assistance is extended and to which this regulation applies, or noncompliance with this regulation and the regulations of one or more other Federal departments or agencies issued under title VI of the Act, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency may, by agreement with such other departments or agencies where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings, and for the application to such hearings of rules of procedures not inconsistent with this regulation. Final decisions in such cases, insofar as this regulation is concerned, shall be made in accordance with section 14.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.14 Decisions and notices.

(a) Decision by person other than the responsible agency official. If the hearing is held by a hearing examiner such hearing examiner shall either make an initial decision, if so authorized, or certify the entire record including his recommended findings and proposed decision to the responsible agency official for a final decision, and a copy of such initial decision or certification shall be mailed to the applicant or recipient. Where the initial decision is made by the hearing examiner the applicant or recipient may within 30 days of the mailing of such notice of initial decision file with the responsible agency official his exceptions to the initial decision, with his reasons therefor. In the absence of exceptions, the responsible agency official may on his own motion within 45 days after the initial decision serve on the applicant or recipient a notice that he will review the decision. Upon the filing of such exceptions or of such notice of review the responsible agency official shall review the initial decision and issue his own decision thereon including the reasons therefor. In the absence of either exceptions or a notice of review the initial decision shall constitute the final decision of the responsible agency official.


(b) Decisions on record or review by the responsible agency official. Whenever a record is certified to the responsible agency official for decision or he reviews the decision of a hearing examiner pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, or whenever he conducts the hearing, the applicant or recipient shall be given reasonable opportunity to file with him briefs or other written statements of its contentions, and a copy of his final decision shall be given in writing to the applicant or recipient and to the complainant, if any.


(c) Decisions on record where a hearing is waived. Whenever a hearing is waived pursuant to section 13(a) a decision shall be made by the responsible agency official on the record and a copy of such decision shall be given in writing to the applicant or recipient, and to the complainant, if any.


(d) Rulings required. Each decision of a hearing officer or responsible agency official shall set forth his ruling on each finding, conclusion, or exception presented, and shall identify the requirement or requirements imposed by or pursuant to this regulation with which it is found that the applicant or recipient has failed to comply.


(e) Approval by Administrator. Any final decision of a responsible agency official (other than the Administrator of the agency) which provides for the suspension or termination of, or the refusal to grant or continue Federal financial assistance, or the imposition of any other sanction available under this regulation or the Act, shall promptly be transmitted to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency who may approve such decision, may vacate it, or remit or mitigate any sanction imposed.


(f) Content of orders. The final decision may provide for suspension or termination of, or refusal to grant or continue Federal financial assistance, in whole or in part, to which this regulation applies, and may contain such terms, conditions, and other provisions as are consistent with and will effectuate the purposes of the Act and this regulation, including provisions designed to assure that no Federal financial assistance to which this regulation applies will thereafter be extended to the applicant or recipient determined by such decision to be in default in its performance of an assurance given by it pursuant to this regulation, or to have otherwise failed to comply with this regulation, unless and until it corrects its noncompliance and satisfies the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency that it will fully comply with this regulation.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.15 Judicial review.

Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the Act is subject to judicial review as provided in section 603 of the Act.


§ 7.16 Effect on other regulations; forms and instructions.

(a) Effect on other regulations. All regulations, orders, or like directions heretofore issued by any officer of the Federal Emergency Management Agency which impose requirements designed to prohibit any discrimination against individuals on the ground of race, color, or national origin under any program to which this regulation applies, and which authorize the suspension or termination of or refusal to grant or to continue Federal financial assistance to any applicant for or recipient of such assistance for failure to comply with such requirements, are hereby superseded to the extent that such discrimination is prohibited by this regulation, except that nothing in this regulation shall be deemed to relieve any person of any obligation assumed or imposed under any such superseded regulation, order, instruction, or like direction prior to the effective date of this regulation. Nothing in this regulation, however, shall be deemed to supersede Executive Orders 10925 and 11114 (including future amendments thereof) and regulations issued thereunder, or any other regulations or instructions, insofar as such regulations or instructions prohibit discrimination on the ground of race, color, or national origin in any program or situation to which this regulation is inapplicable, or prohibit discrimination on any other ground.


(b) Forms and instructions. Each responsible agency official shall issue and promptly make available to interested persons forms and detailed instructions and procedures for effectuating this regulation as applied to programs to which this regulation applies and for which he is responsible.


(c) Supervision and coordination. The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency may from time to time assign to officials of other departments or agencies of the Government with the consent of such departments or agencies, responsibilities in connection with the effectuation of the purposes of title VI of the Act and this regulation (other than responsibility for final decision as provided in section 14), including the achievement of effective coordination and maximum uniformity within the agency and within the Executive Branch of the Government in the application of title VI and this regulation to similar programs and in similar situations.


[30 FR 321, Jan. 9, 1965. Redesignated at 45 FR 44575, July 1, 1980, and further redesignated at 55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990. 68 FR 51379, Aug. 26, 2003]


Subparts B-D [Reserved]

Subpart E – Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance From FEMA


Authority:Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.); 45 CFR part 90.


Source:55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

General

§ 7.910 What is the purpose of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975?

The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (the “Act”), as amended, is designed to prohibit discrimination on the basis of age in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance. The Act also permits federally-assisted programs or activities, and recipients of Federal funds, to continue to use certain age distinctions and factors other than age which meet the requirements of the Act and this regulation.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.911 What is the purpose of FEMA’s age discrimination regulation?

The purpose of this regulation is to set out FEMA’s policies and procedures under the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 and the general governmentwide regulations, 45 CFR part 90. The Act and the general regulations prohibit discrimination on the basis of age in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance. The Act and the general regulations permit federally-assisted programs or activities, and recipients of Federal funds, to continue to use age distinctions and factors other than age which meet the requirements of the Act and its implementing regulations.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.912 To what programs or activities does this regulation apply?

(a) The Act and this regulation apply to each FEMA recipient and to each program or activity operated by the recipient which receives Federal financial assistance provided by FEMA.


(b) The Act and this regulation do not apply to:


(1) An age distinction contained in that part of a Federal, State or local statute or ordinance adopted by an elected, general purpose legislative body which:


(i) Provides any benefits or assistance to persons based on age; or


(ii) Establishes criteria for participation in age-related terms; or


(iii) Describes intended beneficiaries or target groups in age-related terms.


(2) Any employment practice of any employer, employment agency, labor organization, or any labor-management joint apprenticeship training program, except for any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance for public service employment under the Job Training Partnership Act (29 U.S.C. 150, et seq.)


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.913 Definition of terms used in this regulation.

As used in this regulation, the term Act means the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 as amended (title III of Pub. L. 94-135).


Action means any act, activity, policy, rule, standard, or method of administration; or the use of any policy, rule, standard or method of administration.


Administrator means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Age means how old a person is, or the number of years from the date of a person’s birth.


Age distinction means any action using age or an age-related term.


Age-related term means a word or words which necessarily imply a particular age or range of ages (for example, children, older persons, but not student).


Agency means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Federal financial assistance means any grant, entitlement, loan, cooperative agreement, contract (other than a procurement contract or a contract of insurance or guaranty), or any other arrangement by which the agency provides or otherwise makes available assistance in the form of:


(a) Funds; or


(b) Services or Federal personnel; or


(c) Real and personal property or any interest in or use of property, including:


(1) Transfers or leases of property for less than fair market value or for reduced consideration; and


(2) Proceeds from a subsequent transfer or lease of property if the Federal share of its fair market value is not returned to the Federal Government.


Normal operation means the operation of a program or activity without significant changes that would impair its ability to meet its objective.


Program or activity means all of the operations of any entity described in paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition, any part of which is extended Federal financial assistance:


(1)(i) A department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or of a local government; or


(ii) The entity of such State or local government that distributes such assistance and each such department or agency (and each other State or local government entity) to which the assistance is extended, in the case of assistance to a State or local government;


(2)(i) A college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or


(ii) A local educational agency (as defined in 20 U.S.C. 7801), system of vocational education, or other school system;


(3)(i) An entire corporation, partnership, or other private organization, or an entire sole proprietorship –


(A) If assistance is extended to such corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship as a whole; or


(B) Which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation; or


(ii) The entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial assistance is extended, in the case of any other corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship; or


(4) Any other entity which is established by two or more of the entities described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of this definition.


Recipient means any State or its political subdivision, any instrumentality of a State or its political subdivision, institution, organization, or other entity, or any person to which Federal financial assistance is extended, directly or through another recipient. Recipient includes any successor, assignee, or transferee, but excludes the ultimate beneficiary of the assistance.


Statutory objective means any purpose of a program or activity expressly stated in any Federal statute, State statute or local statute or ordinance adopted by an elected, general purpose legislative body.


Subrecipient means any of the entities in the definition of “recipient” to which a recipient extends or passes on Federal financial assistance. A subrecipient is generally regarded as a recipient of Federal financial assistance and has all the duties of a recipient in these regulations.


United States includes the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island, the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and all other territories and possessions of the United States. The term “State” also includes any one of the foregoing.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003; 74 FR 15335, Apr. 3, 2009]


Standards for Determining Age Discrimination

§ 7.920 Rules against discrimination.

The rules stated in this section are limited by the exceptions contained in §§ 7.921 and 7.922 of these regulations.


(a) General rule: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of age, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under, any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.


(b) Specific rules: A recipient may not, in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, directly or through contractual licensing, or other arrangements, use age distinctions or take any other actions which have the effect, on the basis of age, of:


(1) Excluding individuals from, denying them the benefits of, subjecting them to discrimination under, a program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance; or


(2) Denying or limiting individuals in their opportunity to participate in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. The specific forms of age discrimination listed in paragraph (b) of this section do not necessarily constitute a complete list.


§ 7.921 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity.

A recipient is permitted to take an action, otherwise prohibited by § 7.920, if the action reasonably takes into account age as a factor necessary to the normal operation of the achievement of any statutory objective of a program or activity. An action reasonably takes into account age as a factor necessary to the normal operation or the achievement of any statutory objective of a program or activity, if:


(a) Age is used as a measure or approximation of one or more other characteristics; and


(b) The other characteristic(s) must be measured or approximated in order for the normal operation of the program or activity to continue, or to achieve any statutory objective of the program or activity; and


(c) The other characteristic(s) can be reasonably measured or approximated by the use of age; and


(d) The other characteristic(s) are impractical to measure directly on an individual basis.


§ 7.922 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age.

A recipient is permitted to take an action otherwise prohibited by § 7.920 which is based on a factor other than age, even though that action may have a disproportionate effect on persons of different ages only if the factor bears a direct and substantial relationship to the normal operation of the program or activity or to the achievement of a statutory objective.


§ 7.923 Burden of proof for exceptions.

The burden of proving that an age distinction or other action falls within the exceptions outlined in §§ 7.921 and 7.922 is on the recipient of Federal financial assistance.


§ 7.924 Affirmative action by recipient.

Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in the limited participation in the recipient’s program or activity on the basis of age.


§ 7.925 Special benefits for children and the elderly.

If a recipient operating a program or activity provides special benefits to the elderly or to children, such use of age distinctions shall be presumed to be necessary to the normal operation of the program or activity, notwithstanding the provisions of § 7.921.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.926 Age distinctions contained in FEMA regulations.

Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by FEMA shall be presumed to be necessary to the achievement of a statutory objective of the program or activity to which the rule or regulation applies, notwithstanding the provisions of § 7.921.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


Duties of FEMA Recipients

§ 7.930 General responsibilities.

Each FEMA recipient has primary responsibility to ensure that its programs or activities are in compliance with the Act and this regulation, and shall take steps to eliminate violations of the Act. A recipient also has responsibility to maintain records, provide information, and to afford FEMA access to its records to the extent FEMA finds necessary to determine whether the recipient is in compliance with the Act and this regulation.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.931 Notice to subrecipients and beneficiaries.

(a) Where a recipient passes on Federal financial assistance from FEMA to subrecipients, the recipient shall provide the subrecipients written notice of their obligations under the Act and this regulation.


(b) Each recipient shall make necessary information about the Act and this regulation available to its beneficiaries in order to inform them about the protection against discrimination provided by the Act and this regulation.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.932 Assurance of compliance and recipient assessment of age distinctions.

(a) Each recipient of Federal financial assistance from FEMA shall sign a written assurance as specified by FEMA that it will comply with Act and this regulation.


(b) Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (1) As part of the compliance review under § 7.940 or complaint investigation under § 7.943, FEMA may require a recipient employing the equivalent of fifteen or more employees to complete written evaluation, in a manner specified by the responsible Agency official, of any age distinction imposed in its program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance from FEMA to assess the recipient’s compliance with the Act.


(2) Whenever an assessment indicates a violation of the Act and the FEMA regulations, the recipient shall take corrective action.


§ 7.933 Information requirement.

Each recipient shall:


(a) Keep records in a form acceptable to FEMA and containing information which FEMA determines are necessary to ascertain whether the recipient is complying with the Act and this regulation.


(b) Provide to FEMA, upon request, information and reports which FEMA determines are necessary to ascertain whether the recipient is complying with the Act and this regulation.


(c) Permit FEMA reasonable access to the books, records, accounts, and other recipient facilities and sources of information to the extent FEMA determines is necessary to ascertain whether the recipient is complying with the Act and this regulation.


Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures

§ 7.940 Compliance reviews.

(a) FEMA may conduct compliance reviews and preaward reviews or use other similar procedures that will permit it to investigate and correct violations of the Act and this regulation. FEMA may conduct these reviews even in the absence of a complaint against a recipient. The reviews may be as comprehensive as necessary to determine whether a violation of the Act and this regulation has occurred.


(b) If a compliance review or preaward review indicates a violation of the Act or this regulation, FEMA will attempt to achieve voluntary compliance with the Act. If voluntary compliance cannot be achieved, FEMA will arrange for enforcement as described in § 7.945.


§ 7.941 Complaints.

(a) Any person, individually or as a member of a class or on behalf of others, may file a complaint with FEMA, alleging discrimination prohibited by the Act or these regulations occurring after the date of final adoption of this rule. A complainant shall file a complaint within 180 days from the date the complainant first had knowledge of the alleged act of discrimination. However, for good cause showing, FEMA may extend this time limit.


(b) FEMA will consider the date a complaint is filed to be the date upon which the complaint is sufficient to be processed. A complaint is deemed “sufficient” when it contains particulars (e.g., names, addresses, and telephone numbers of parties involved; date(s) of alleged discrimination; kind(s) of alleged discrimination) upon which to begin an investigation.


(c) FEMA will attempt to facilitate the filing of complaints wherever possible, including taking the following measures:


(1) Accepting as a sufficient complaint any written statement which identifies the parties involved and the date the complainant first had knowledge of the alleged violation, describes generally the action or practice complained of, and is signed by the complainant.


(2) Freely permitting a complainant to add information to the complaint to meet the requirements of a sufficient complaint.


(3) Notifying the complainant and the recipient of their rights and obligations under the complaint procedure, including the right to have a representative at all stages of the complaint procedure.


(4) Notifying the complainant and the recipient (or their representatives) of their right to contact FEMA for information and assistance regarding the complaint resolution process.


(d) FEMA will return to the complainant any complaint outside the jurisdiction of this regulation, and will state the reason(s) why it is outside the jurisdiction of this regulation.


§ 7.942 Mediation.

(a) FEMA will promptly refer to a mediation agency designated by the Administrator all sufficient complaints that:


(1) Fall within the jurisdiction of the Act and this regulation, unless the age distinction complained of is clearly within an exception; and,


(2) Contain all information necessary for further processing.


(b) Both the complainant and the recipient shall participate in the mediation process to the extent necessary to reach an agreement or for the mediator to make an informed judgment that an agreement is not possible.


(c) If the complainant and the recipient reach an agreement, the mediator shall prepare a written statement of the agreement and have the complainant and the recipient sign it. The mediator shall send a copy of the agreement to FEMA. FEMA will take no further action on the complaint unless the complainant or the recipient fails to comply with the agreement.


(d) The mediator shall protect the confidentiality of all information obtained in the course of the mediation process. No mediator shall testify in any adjudicative proceeding, produce any document, or otherwise disclose any information obtained in the course of the mediation process without prior approval of the head of the mediation agency.


(e) The mediation will proceed for a maximum of 60 days after a complaint is filed with FEMA. Mediation ends if:


(1) Sixty days elapse from the time the complaint is filed; or


(2) Prior to the end of that 60 day period, an agreement is reached; or


(3) Prior to the end of that 60 day period, the mediator determines that an agreement cannot be reached. This 60 day period may be extended by the mediator, with the concurrence of FEMA, for not more than 30 days if the mediator determines agreement will likely be reached during such extended period.


(f) The mediator shall return unresolved complaints to FEMA.


§ 7.943 Investigation.

(a) Informal investigation. (1) FEMA will investigate complaints that are unresolved after mediation or are reopened because of a violation of a mediation agreement.


(2) As part of the initial investigation, FEMA will use informal fact finding methods, including joint or separate discussion with the complainant and recipient, to establish the facts and, if possible, settle the complaint on terms that are mutually agreeable to the parties. FEMA may seek the assistance of any involved state agency.


(3) FEMA will put any agreement in writing and have it signed by the parties and an authorized official at FEMA.


(4) The settlement shall not affect the operation of any other enforcement effort of FEMA, including compliance reviews and investigation of other complaints which may involve the recipient.


(5) The settlement is not a finding of discrimination against a recipient.


(b) Formal investigation. If FEMA cannot resolve the complaint through informal investigation, it will begin to develop formal findings through further investigation of the complaint. If the investigation indicates a violation of this regulation, FEMA will attempt to obtain voluntary compliance, it will begin enforcement as described in § 7.945.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.944 Prohibition against intimidation or retaliation.

A recipient may not engage in acts of intimidation or retaliation against any person who:


(a) Attempts to assert a right protected by the Act or this regulation; or


(b) Cooperates in any mediation, investigation, hearing, or other part of FEMA’s investigation, conciliation and enforcement process.


§ 7.945 Compliance procedure.

(a) FEMA may enforce the Act and this regulation through:


(1) Termination of a recipient’s Federal financial assistance from FEMA under the program or activity involved where the recipient has violated the Act or this regulation. The determination of the recipient’s violation may be made only after a recipient has had an opportunity for a hearing on the record before an administrative law judge.


(2) Any other means authorized by law including but not limited to:


(i) Referral to the Department of Justice for proceedings to enforce any rights of the United States or obligations of the recipient created by the Act or this regulation.


(ii) Use of any requirement of or referral to any Federal, State or local government agency that will have the effect of correcting a violation of the Act or this regulation.


(b) FEMA will limit any termination under § 7.945(a)(1) to the particular recipient and particular program or activity or part of such program or activity FEMA finds in violation of this regulation. FEMA will not base any part of a termination on a finding with respect to any program or activity of the recipient which does not receive Federal financial assistance from FEMA.


(c) FEMA will take no action under paragraph (a) until:


(1) The Administrator has advised the recipient of its failure to comply with the Act and this regulation and has determined that voluntary compliance cannot be obtained.


(2) Thirty days have elapsed after the Administrator has sent a written report of the circumstances and grounds of the action to the committees of the Congress having legislative jurisdiction over the program or activity involved. The Administrator will file a report whenever any action is taken under paragraph (a).


(d) FEMA also may defer granting new Federal financial assistance from FEMA to a recipient when a hearing under § 7.945(a)(1) is initiated.


(1) New Federal financial assistance from FEMA includes all assistance for which FEMA requires an application or approval, including renewal or continuation of existing activities, or authorization of new activities, during the deferral period. New Federal financial assistance from FEMA does not include increases in funding as a result of changed computation of formula awards or assistance approved prior to the beginning of a hearing under § 7.945(a)(1).


(2) FEMA will not begin a deferral until the recipient has received a notice of an opportunity for a hearing under § 7.945(a)(1). FEMA will not continue a deferral for more than 60 days unless a hearing has begun within that time or the time for beginning the hearing has been extended by mutual consent of the recipient for more than 30 days after the close of the hearing, unless the hearing results in a finding against the recipient.


(3) FEMA will limit any deferral to the particular recipient and particular program or activity or part of such program or activity FEMA finds in violation of this regulation. FEMA will not base any part of a deferral on a finding with respect to any program or activity of the recipient which does not and would not, in connection with new funds, receive Federal financial assistance from FEMA.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.946 Hearings, decisions, post-termination proceedings.

Certain FEMA procedural provisions applicable to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 apply to FEMA enforcement of this regulation. They are found at 44 CFR 7.10 through 7.16.


§ 7.947 Remedial action by recipient.

Where FEMA finds a recipient has discriminated on the basis of age, the recipient shall take any remedial action that FEMA may require to overcome the effects of the discrimination. If another recipient exercises control over the recipient that had discriminated, FEMA may require both recipients to take remedial action.


§ 7.948 Alternate funds disbursal procedure.

(a) When FEMA withholds funds from recipient under this regulation, the Administrator may, if allowable under the statute governing the assistance, disburse the withheld funds directly to an alternate recipient: Any public or nonprofit private organization or agency, or State or political subdivision of the State.


(b) The Administrator will require any alternate recipient to demonstrate:


(1) The ability to comply with this regulation; and


(2) The ability to achieve the goals of the Federal statute authorizing the Federal financial assistance.


[55 FR 23078, June 6, 1990, as amended at 68 FR 51380, Aug. 26, 2003]


§ 7.949 Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

(a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act. Administrative remedies are exhausted if:


(1) 180 days have elapsed since the complainant filed the complaint and FEMA had made no finding with regard to the complaint; or


(2) FEMA issues any finding in favor of the recipient.


(b) If FEMA fails to make a finding within 180 days or issues a finding in favor of the recipient, FEMA shall:


(1) Promptly advise the complainant in writing of this fact; and


(2) Advise the complainant of his or her right to bring a civil action for injunctive relief; and


(3) Inform the complainant:


(i) That the complainant may bring a civil action only in a United States District Court for the district in which the recipient is located or transacts business;


(ii) That a complainant prevailing in a civil action has the right to be awarded the costs of the action, including reasonable attorney’s fees, but that the complainant must demand these costs in the complaint at the time it is filed.


(iii) That before commencing the action, the complainant shall give 30 days notice by registered mail to the Administrator, the Attorney General of the United States, and the recipient;


(iv) That the notice must state: The alleged violation of the Act; the relief requested; the court in which the complainant is bringing the action; and whether or not attorney’s fees are demanded in the event the complainant prevails; and


(v) That the complainant may not bring an action if the same alleged violation of the Act by the same recipient is the subject of a pending action in any court (Federal or State) of the United States.


PART 8 [RESERVED]

PART 9 – FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS


Authority:E.O. 11988 of May 24, 1977. 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117; E.O. 11990 of May 24 1977, 3 CFR, 1977 Comp. p. 121; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 43 FR 41943, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127 of March 31, 1979, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376; E.O. 12148 of July 20, 1979, 44 FR 43239, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 412, as amended.; E.O. 12127; E.O. 12148; 42 U.S.C. 5201.


Source:45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, unless otherwise noted.

§ 9.1 Purpose of part.

This regulation sets forth the policy, procedure and responsibilities to implement and enforce Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands.


§ 9.2 Policy.

(a) FEMA shall take no action unless and until the requirements of this regulation are complied with.


(b) It is the policy of the Agency to provide leadership in floodplain management and the protection of wetlands. Further, the Agency shall integrate the goals of the Orders to the greatest possible degree into its procedures for implementing NEPA. The Agency shall take action to:


(1) Avoid long- and short-term adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and the destruction and modification of wetlands;


(2) Avoid direct and indirect support of floodplain development and new construction in wetlands wherever there is a practicable alternative;


(3) Reduce the risk of flood loss;


(4) Promote the use of nonstructural flood protection methods to reduce the risk of flood loss;


(5) Minimize the impact of floods on human health, safety and welfare;


(6) Minimize the destruction, loss or degradation of wetlands;


(7) Restore and preserve the natural and beneficial values served by floodplains;


(8) Preserve and enhance the natural values of wetlands;


(9) Involve the public throughout the floodplain management and wetlands protection decision-making process;


(10) Adhere to the objectives of the Unified National Program for Floodplain Management; and


(11) Improve and coordinate the Agency’s plans, programs, functions and resources so that the Nation may attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation or risk to health and safety.


§ 9.3 Authority.

The authority for these regulations is (a) Executive Order 11988, May 24, 1977, which replaced Executive Order 11296, August 10, 1966, (b) Executive Order 11990, May 24, 1977, (c) Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978 (43 FR 41943); and (d) Executive Order 12127, April 1, 1979 (44 FR 1936). E.O. 11988 was issued in furtherance of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended (Pub. L. 90-488); the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (Pub. L. 93-234); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (Pub. L. 91-190). Section 2(d) of Executive Order 11988 requires issuance of new or amended regulations and procedures to satisfy its substantive and procedural provisions. E.O. 11990 was issued in furtherance of NEPA, and at section 6 required issuance of new or amended regulations and procedures to satisfy its substantive and procedural provisions.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 44543, Sept. 29, 1983]


§ 9.4 Definitions.

The following definitions shall apply throughout this regulation.


Action means any action or activity including: (a) Acquiring, managing and disposing of Federal lands and facilities; (b) providing federally undertaken, financed or assisted construction and improvements; and (c) conducting Federal activities and programs affecting land use, including, but not limited to, water and related land resources, planning, regulating and licensing activities.


Actions Affecting or Affected by Floodplains or Wetlands means actions which have the potential to result in the long- or short-term impacts associated with (a) the occupancy or modification of floodplains, and the direct or indirect support of floodplain development, or (b) the destruction and modification of wetlands and the direct or indirect support of new construction in wetlands.


Administrator means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Agency means the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).


Agency Assistance means grants for projects or planning activities, loans, and all other forms of financial or technical assistance provided by the Agency.


Base Flood means the flood which has a one percent chance of being equalled or exceeded in any given year (also known as a 100-year flood). This term is used in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to indicate the minimum level of flooding to be used by a community in its floodplain management regulations.


Base Floodplain means the 100-year floodplain (one percent chance floodplain).


Coastal High Hazard Area means the areas subject to high velocity waters including but not limited to hurricane wave wash or tsunamis. On a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), this appears as zone V1-30, VE or V.


Critical Action means an action for which even a slight chance of flooding is too great. The minimum floodplain of concern for critical actions is the 500-year floodplain, i.e., critical action floodplain. Critical actions include, but are not limited to, those which create or extend the useful life of structures or facilities:


(a) Such as those which produce, use or store highly volatile, flammable, explosive, toxic or water-reactive materials;


(b) Such as hospitals and nursing homes, and housing for the elderly, which are likely to contain occupants who may not be sufficiently mobile to avoid the loss of life or injury during flood and storm events;


(c) Such as emergency operation centers, or data storage centers which contain records or services that may become lost or inoperative during flood and storm events; and


(d) Such as generating plants, and other principal points of utility lines.


Direct Impacts means changes in floodplain or wetland values and functions and changes in the risk to lives and property caused or induced by an action or related activity. Impacts are caused whenever these natural values and functions are affected as a direct result of an action. An action which would result in the discharge of polluted storm waters into a floodplain or wetland, for example, would directly affect their natural values and functions. Construction-related activities, such as dredging and filling operations within the floodplain or a wetland would be another example of impacts caused by an action.


Emergency Actions means emergency work essential to save lives and protect property and public health and safety performed under sections 305 and 306 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5145 and 5146). See 44 CFR part 205, subpart E.


Enhance means to increase, heighten, or improve the natural and beneficial values associated with wetlands.


Facility means any man-made or man-placed item other than a structure.


FEMA means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


FIA means the Federal Insurance Administration.


Five Hundred Year Floodplain (the 500-year floodplain or 0.2 percent change floodplain) means that area, including the base floodplain, which is subject to inundation from a flood having a 0.2 percent chance of being equalled or exceeded in any given year.


Flood or flooding means a general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow of inland and/or tidal waters, and/or the unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.


Flood Fringe means that portion of the floodplain outside of the floodway (often referred to as “floodway fringe”).


Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) means an official map of a community, issued by the Administrator, where the boundaries of the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and related erosion areas having special hazards have been designated as Zone A, M, or E.


Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) means an official map of a community on which the Administrator has delineated both the special hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community. FIRMs are also available digitally, and are called Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRM).


Flood Insurance Study (FIS) means an examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations or an examination, evaluation and determination of mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards.


Floodplain means the lowland and relatively flat areas adjoining inland and coastal waters including, at a minimum, that area subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. Wherever in this regulation the term “floodplain” is used, if a critical action is involved, “floodplain” shall mean the area subject to inundation from a flood having a 0.2 percent chance of occurring in any given year (500-year floodplain). “Floodplain” does not include areas subject only to mudflow until FIA adopts maps identifying “M” Zones.


Floodproofing means the modification of individual structures and facilities, their sites, and their contents to protect against structural failure, to keep water out, or to reduce effects of water entry.


Floodway means that portion of the floodplain which is effective in carrying flow, within which this carrying capacity must be preserved and where the flood hazard is generally highest, i.e., where water depths and velocities are the greatest. It is that area which provides for the discharge of the base flood so the cumulative increase in water surface elevation is no more than one foot.


Functionally Dependent Use means a use which cannot perform its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water, (e.g., bridges, and piers).


Indirect Impacts means an indirect result of an action whenever the action induces or makes possible related activities which effect the natural values and functions of floodplains or wetlands or the risk to lives and property. Such impacts occur whenever these values and functions are potentially affected, either in the short- or long-term, as a result of undertaking an action.


Minimize means to reduce to the smallest amount or degree possible.


Mitigation means all steps necessary to minimize the potentially adverse effects of the proposed action, and to restore and preserve the natural and beneficial floodplain values and to preserve and enhance natural values of wetlands.


Mitigation Directorate means the Mitigation Directorate of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Natural Values of Floodplains and Wetlands means the qualities of or functions served by floodplains and wetlands which include but are not limited to: (a) Water resource values (natural moderation of floods, water quality maintenance, groundwater recharge); (b) living resource values (fish, wildlife, plant resources and habitats); (c) cultural resource values (open space, natural beauty, scientific study, outdoor education, archeological and historic sites, recreation); and (d) cultivated resource values (agriculture, aquaculture, forestry).


New Construction means the construction of a new structure (including the placement of a mobile home) or facility or the replacement of a structure or facility which has been totally destroyed.


New Construction in Wetlands includes draining, dredging, channelizing, filling, diking, impounding, and related activities and any structures or facilities begun or authorized after the effective dates of the Orders, May 24, 1977.


Orders means Executive Orders 11988, Floodplain Management, and 11990, Protection of Wetlands.


Practicable means capable of being done within existing constraints. The test of what is practicable depends upon the situation and includes consideration of all pertinent factors, such as environment, cost and technology.


Preserve means to prevent alterations to natural conditions and to maintain the values and functions which operate the floodplains or wetlands in their natural states.


Regional Administrator means the Regional Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency for the Region in which FEMA is acting, or the Disaster Recovery Manager when one is designated.


Regulatory Floodway means the area regulated by federal, State or local requirements to provide for the discharge of the base flood so the cumulative increase in water surface elevation is no more than a designated amount (not to exceed one foot as set by the National Flood Insurance Program).


Restore means to reestablish a setting or environment in which the natural functions of the floodplain can again operate.


Structures means walled or roofed buildings, including mobile homes and gas or liquid storage tanks.


Substantial Improvement means any repair, reconstruction or other improvement of a structure or facility, which has been damaged in excess of, or the cost of which equals or exceeds, 50% of the market value of the structure or replacement cost of the facility (including all “public facilities” as defined in the Disaster Relief Act of 1974) (a) before the repair or improvement is started, or (b) if the structure or facility has been damaged and is proposed to be restored, before the damage occurred. If a facility is an essential link in a larger system, the percentage of damage will be based on the relative cost of repairing the damaged facility to the replacement cost of the portion of the system which is operationally dependent on the facility. The term “substantial improvement” does not include any alteration of a structure or facility listed on the National Register of Historic Places or a State Inventory of Historic Places.


Support means to encourage, allow, serve or otherwise facilitate floodplain or wetland development. Direct support results from actions within a floodplain or wetland, and indirect support results from actions outside of floodplains or wetlands.


Wetlands means those areas which are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water with a frequency sufficient to support, or that under normal hydrologic conditions does or would support, a prevalence of vegetation or aquatic life typically adapted for life in saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions. Examples of wetlands include, but are not limited to, swamps, fresh and salt water marshes, estuaries, bogs, beaches, wet meadows, sloughs, potholes, mud flats, river overflows and other similar areas. This definition includes those wetlands areas separated from their natural supply of water as a result of activities such as the construction of structural flood protection methods or solid-fill road beds and activities such as mineral extraction and navigation improvements. This definition is intended to be consistent with the definition utilized by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the publication entitled Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (Cowardin, et al., 1977).


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 13149, Mar. 29, 1982; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985; 74 FR 15335, Apr. 3, 2009]


§ 9.5 Scope.

(a) Applicability. (1) These regulations apply to all Agency actions which have the potential to affect floodplains or wetlands or their occupants, or which are subject to potential harm by location in floodplains or wetlands.


(2) The basic test of the potential of an action to affect floodplains or wetlands is the action’s potential (both by itself and when viewed cumulatively with other proposed actions) to result in the long- or short-term adverse impacts associated with:


(i) The occupancy or modification of floodplains, and the direct and indirect support of floodplain development; or


(ii) The destruction or modification of wetlands and the direct or indirect support of new construction in wetlands.


(3) This regulation applies to actions that were, on the effective date of the Orders (May 24, 1977), ongoing, in the planning and/or development stages, or undergoing implementation, and are incomplete as of the effective date of these regulations. The regulation also applies to proposed (new) actions. The Agency shall:


(i) Determine the applicable provisions of the Orders by analyzing whether the action in question has progressed beyond critical stages in the floodplain management and wetlands protection decision-making process, as set out below in § 9.6. This determination need only be made at the time that followup actions are being taken to complete or implement the action in question; and


(ii) Apply the provisions of the Orders and of this regulation to all such actions to the fullest extent practicable.


(b) Limited exemption of ongoing actions involving wetlands located outside the floodplains. (1) Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, contains a limited exemption not found in Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management. Therefore, this exemption applies only to actions affecting wetlands which are located outside the floodplains, and which have no potential to result in harm to or within floodplains or to support floodplain development.


(2) The following proposed actions that impact wetlands located outside of floodplains are exempt from this regulation:


(i) Agency-assisted or permitted projects which were under construction before May 24, 1977; and


(ii) Projects for which the Agency has proposed a draft of a final environmental impact statement (EIS) which adequately analyzes the action and which was filed before October 1, 1977. Proposed actions that impact wetlands outside of floodplains are not exempt if the EIS:


(A) Only generally covers the proposed action;


(B) Is devoted largely to related activities; or


(C) Treats the project area or program without an adequate and specific analysis of the floodplain and wetland implications of the proposed action.


(c) Decision-making involving certain categories of actions. The provisions set forth in this regulation are not applicable to the actions enumerated below except that the Regional Administrators shall comply with the spirit of the Order to the extent practicable. For any action which is excluded from the actions enumerated below, the full 8-step process applies (see § 9.6) (except as indicated at paragraphs (d), (f) and (g) of this section regarding other categories of partial or total exclusions). The provisions of these regulations do not apply to the following (all references are to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93-288, as amended, except as noted):


(1) Assistance provided for emergency work essential to save lives and protect property and public health and safety performed pursuant to sections 305 and 306;


(2) Emergency Support Teams (section 304);


(3) Unemployment Assistance (section 407);


(4) Emergency Communications (section 415);


(5) Emergency Public Transportation (section 416);


(6) Fire Management Assistance (Section 420);


(7) Community Disaster Loans (section 414), except to the extent that the proceeds of the loan will be used for repair of facilities or structures or for construction of additional facilities or structures;


(8) The following Individual and Family Grant Program (section 408) actions:


(i) Housing needs or expenses, except for restoring, repairing or building private bridges, purchase of mobile homes and provision of structures as minimum protective measures;


(ii) Personal property needs or expenses;


(iii) Transportation expenses;


(iv) Medical/dental expenses;


(v) Funeral expenses;


(vi) Limited home repairs;


(vii) Flood insurance premium;


(viii) Cost estimates;


(ix) Food expenses; and


(x) Temporary rental accommodations.


(9) Mortgage and rental assistance under section 404(b);


(10) Use of existing resources in the temporary housing assistance program [section 404(a)], except that Step 1 (§ 9.7) shall be carried out;


(11) Minimal home repairs [section 404(c)];


(12) Debris removal (section 403), except those grants involving non-emergency disposal of debris within a floodplain or wetland;


(13) Repairs or replacements under section 402, of less than $5,000 to damaged structures or facilities.


(14) Placement of families in existing resources and Temporary Relocation Assistance provided to those families so placed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, Public Law 96-510.


(d) For each action enumerated below, the Regional Administrator shall apply steps 1, 2, 4, 5 and 8 of the decision-making process (§§ 9.7, 9.8, 9.10 and 9.11, see § 9.6). Steps 3 and 6 (§ 9.9) shall be carried out except that alternative sites outside the floodplain or wetland need not be considered. After assessing impacts of the proposed action on the floodplain or wetlands and of the site on the proposed action, alternative actions to the proposed action, if any, and the “no action” alternative shall be considered. The Regional Administrator may also require certain other portions of the decision-making process to be carried out for individual actions as is deemed necessary. For any action which is excluded from the actions listed below. (except as indicated in paragraphs (c), (f) and (g) of this section regarding other categories of partial or total exclusion), the full 8-step process applies (see § 9.6). The references are to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, Public Law 93-288, as amended.


(1) Actions performed under the Individual and Family Grant Program (section 408) for restoring or repairing a private bridge, except where two or more individuals or families are authorized to pool their grants for this purpose.


(2) Small project grants (section 419), except to the extent that Federal funding involved is used for construction of new facilities or structures.


(3) Replacement of building contents, materials and equipment. (sections 402 and 419).


(4) Repairs under section 402 to damaged facilities or structures, except any such action for which one or more of the following is applicable:


(i) FEMA estimated cost of repairs is more than 50% of the estimated reconstruction cost of the entire facility or structure, or is more than $100,000, or


(ii) The action is located in a floodway or coastal high hazard area, or


(iii) The facility or structure is one which has previously sustained structural damage from flooding due to a major disaster or emergency or on which a flood insurance claim has been paid, or


(iv) The action is a critical action.


(e) Other categories of actions. Based upon the completion of the 8-step decision-making process (§ 9.6), the Director may find that a specific category of actions either offers no potential for carrying out the purposes of the Orders and shall be treated as those actions listed in § 9.5(c), or has no practicable alternative sites and shall be treated as those actions listed in § 9.5(d), or has no practicable alternative actions or sites and shall be treated as those actions listed in § 9.5(g). This finding will be made in consultation with the Federal Insurance Administration and the Council on Environmental Quality as provided in section 2(d) of E.O. 11988. Public notice of each of these determinations shall include publication in the Federal Register and a 30-day comment period.


(f) The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). (1) Most of what is done by FIA or the Mitigation Directorate, in administering the National Flood Insurance Program is performed on a program-wide basis. For all regulations, procedures or other issuances making or amending program policy, FIA or the Mitigation Directorate, shall apply the 8-step decision-making process to that program-wide action. The action to which the 8-step process must be applied is the establishment of programmatic standards or criteria, not the application of programmatic standards or criteria to specific situations. Thus, for example, FIA or the Mitigation Directorate, would apply the 8-step process to a programmatic determination of categories of structures to be insured, but not to whether to insure each individual structure. The two prime examples of where FIA or the Mitigation Directorate, does take site specific actions which would require individual application of the 8-step process are property acquisition under section 1362 of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, and the issuance of an exception to a community under 44 CFR 60.6(b). (See also § 9.9(e)(6) and § 9.11(e).)


(2) The provisions set forth in this regulation are not applicable to the actions enumerated below except that the Federal Insurance Administrator or the Assistant Administrator for Mitigation, as appropriate shall comply with the spirit of the Orders to the extent practicable:


(i) The issuance of individual flood insurance policies and policy interpretations;


(ii) The adjustment of claims made under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy;


(iii) The hiring of independent contractors to assist in the implementation of the National Flood Insurance Program;


(iv) The issuance of individual flood insurance maps, Map Information Facility map determinations, and map amendments; and


(v) The conferring of eligibility for emergency or regular program (NFIP) benefits upon communities.


(g) For the action listed below, the Regional Administrator shall apply steps 1, 4, 5 and 8 of the decision-making process (§§ 9.7, 9.10 and 9.11). For any action which is excluded from the actions listed below, (except as indicated in paragraphs (c), (d) and (f) of this section regarding other categories of partial or total exclusion), the full 8-step process applies (See § 9.6). The Regional Administrator may also require certain other portions of the decision-making process to be carried out for individual actions as is deemed necessary. The references are to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, Public Law 93-288. The above requirements apply to repairs, under section 402, between $5,000 and $25,000 to damaged structures of facilities except for:


(1) Actions in a floodway or coastal high hazard area; or


(2) New or substantially improved structures or facilities; or


(3) Facilities or structures which have previously sustained structural damage from flooding due to a major disaster or emergency.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 13149, Mar. 29, 1982; 49 FR 35583, Sept. 10, 1984; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985; 51 FR 39531, Oct. 29, 1986; 66 FR 57347, Nov. 14, 2001]


§ 9.6 Decision-making process.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to set out the floodplain management and wetlands protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While the decision-making process was initially designed to address the floodplain Order’s requirements, the process will also satisfy the wetlands Order’s provisions due to the close similarity of the two directives. The numbering of Steps 1 through 8 does not firmly require that the steps be followed sequentially. As information is gathered throughout the decision-making process and as additional information is needed, reevaluation of lower numbered steps may be necessary.


(b) Except as otherwise provided in § 9.5 (c), (d), (f), and (g) regarding categories of partial or total exclusion when proposing an action, the Agency shall apply the 8-step decision-making process. FEMA shall:


Step 1. Determine whether the proposed action is located in a wetland and/or the 100-year floodplain (500-year floodplain for critical actions); and whether it has the potential to affect or be affected by a floodplain or wetland (see § 9.7);


Step 2. Notify the public at the earliest possible time of the intent to carry out an action in a floodplain or wetland, and involve the affected and interested public in the decision-making process (see § 9.8);


Step 3. Identify and evaluate practicable alternatives to locating the proposed action in a floodplain or wetland (including alternative sites, actions and the “no action” option) (see § 9.9). If a practicable alternative exists outside the floodplain or wetland FEMA must locate the action at the alternative site.


Step 4. Identify the potential direct and indirect impacts associated with the occupancy or modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from the proposed action (see § 9.10);


Step 5. Minimize the potential adverse impacts and support to or within floodplains and wetlands to be identified under Step 4, restore and preserve the natural and beneficial values served by floodplains, and preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial values served by wetlands (see § 9.11);


Step 6. Reevaluate the proposed action to determine first, if it is still practicable in light of its exposure to flood hazards, the extent to which it will aggravate the hazards to others, and its potential to disrupt floodplain and wetland values and second, if alternatives preliminarily rejected at Step 3 are practicable in light of the information gained in Steps 4 and 5. FEMA shall not act in a floodplain or wetland unless it is the only practicable location (see § 9.9);


Step 7. Prepare and provide the public with a finding and public explanation of any final decision that the floodplain or wetland is the only practicable alternative (see § 9.12); and


Step 8. Review the implementation and post-implementation phases of the proposed action to ensure that the requirements stated in § 9.11 are fully implemented. Oversight responsibility shall be integrated into existing processes.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 49 FR 35583, Sept. 10, 1984; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985]


§ 9.7 Determination of proposed action’s location.

(a) The purpose of this section is to establish Agency procedures for determining whether any action as proposed is located in or affects (1) the base floodplain (the Agency shall substitute the 500-year floodplain for the base floodplain where the action being proposed involves a critical action), or (2) a wetland.


(b) Information needed. The Agency shall obtain enough information so that it can fulfill the requirements of the Orders to (1) avoid floodplain and wetland locations unless they are the only practicable alternatives; and (2) minimize harm to and within floodplains and wetlands. In all cases, FEMA shall determine whether the proposed action is located in a floodplain or wetland. In the absence of a finding to the contrary, FEMA may assume that a proposed action involving a facility or structure that has been flooded is in the floodplain. Information about the 100-year and 500-year floods and location of floodways and coastal high hazard areas may also be needed to comply with these regulations, especially § 9.11. The following additional flooding characteristics shall be identified by the Regional Administrator as appropriate:


(i) Velocity of floodwater;


(ii) Rate of rise of floodwater;


(iii) Duration of flooding;


(iv) Available warning and evacuation time and routes;


(v) Special problems:


(A) Levees;


(B) Erosion;


(C) Subsidence;


(D) Sink holes;


(E) Ice jams;


(F) Debris load;


(G) Pollutants;


(H) Wave heights;


(I) Groundwater flooding;


(J) Mudflow.


(c) Floodplain determination. (1) In the search for flood hazard information, FEMA shall follow the sequence below:


(i) The Regional Administrator shall consult the FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) the Flood Boundary Floodway Map (FBFM) and the Flood Insurance Study (FIS).


(ii) If a detailed map (FIRM or FBFM) is not available, the Regional Administrator shall consult an FEMA Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) . If data on flood elevations, floodways, or coastal high hazard areas are needed, or if the map does not delineate the flood hazard boundaries in the vicinity of the proposed site, the Regional Administrator shall seek the necessary detailed information and assistance from the sources listed below.



Sources of Maps and Technical Information

Department of Agriculture: Soil Conservation Service

Department of the Army: Corps of Engineers

Department of Commerce: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Federal Insurance Administration

FEMA Regional Offices/Natural and Technological Hazards Division

Department of the Interior:

Geological Survey

Bureau of Land Management

Bureau of Reclamation

Tennessee Valley Authority

Delaware River Basin Commission

Susquehanna River Basin Commission

States

(iii) If the sources listed do not have or know of the information necessary to comply with the Orders’ requirements, the Regional Administrator shall seek the services of a Federal or other engineer experienced in this type of work.


(2) If a decision involves an area or location within extensive Federal or state holdings or a headwater area, and an FIS, FIRM, FBFM, or FHBM is not available, the Regional Administrator shall seek information from the land administering agency before information and/or assistance is sought from the sources listed in this section. If none of these sources has information or can provide assistance, the services of an experienced Federal or other engineer shall be sought as described above.


(d) Wetland determination. The following sequence shall be followed by the Agency in making the wetland determination.


(1) The Agency shall consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for information concerning the location, scale and type of wetlands within the area which could be affected by the proposed action.


(2) If the FWS does not have adequate information upon which to base the determination, the Agency shall consult wetland inventories maintained by the Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, various states, communities and others.


(3) If state or other sources do not have adequate information upon which to base the determination, the Agency shall carry out an on-site analysis performed by a representative of the FWS or other qualified individual for wetlands characteristics based on the performance definition of what constitutes a wetland.


(4) If an action is in a wetland but not in a floodplain, and the action is new construction, the provisions of this regulation shall apply. Even if the action is not in a wetland, the Regional Administrator shall determine if the action has the potential to result in indirect impacts on wetlands. If so, all adverse impacts shall be minimized. For actions which are in a wetland and the floodplain, completion of the decision-making process is required. (See § 9.6.) In such a case the wetland will be considered as one of the natural and beneficial values of floodplain.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 13149, Mar. 29, 1982; 49 FR 33879, Aug. 27, 1984; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985; 51 FR 34605, Sept. 30, 1986]


§ 9.8 Public notice requirements.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to establish the initial notice procedures to be followed when proposing any action in or affecting floodplains or wetlands.


(b) General. The Agency shall provide adequate information to enable the public to have impact on the decision outcome for all actions having potential to affect, adversely, or be affected by floodplains or wetlands that it proposes. To achieve this objective, the Agency shall:


(1) Provide the public with adequate information and opportunity for review and comment at the earliest possible time and throughout the decision-making process; and upon completion of this process, provide the public with an accounting of its final decisions (see § 9.12); and


(2) Rely on its environmental assessment processes, to the extent possible, as vehicles for public notice, involvement and explanation.


(c) Early public notice. The Agency shall provide opportunity for public involvement in the decision-making process through the provision of public notice upon determining that the proposed action can be expected to affect or be affected by floodplains or wetlands. Whenever possible, notice shall precede major project site identification and analysis in order to preclude the foreclosure of options consistent with the Orders.


(1) For an action for which an environmental impact statement is being prepared, the Notice of Intent to File an EIS is adequate to constitute the early public notice, if it includes the information required under paragraph (c)(5) of this section.


(2) For each action having national significance for which notice is being provided, the Agency shall use the Federal Register as the minimum means for notice, and shall provide notice by mail to national organizations reasonably expected to be interested in the action. The additional notices listed in paragraph (c)(4) of this section shall be used in accordance with the determination made under paragraph (c)(3) of this section.


(3) The Agency shall base its determination of appropriate notices, adequate comment periods, and whether to issue cumulative notices (paragraphs (c)(4), (6) and (7) of this section) on factors which include, but are not limited to:


(i) Scale of the action;


(ii) Potential for controversy;


(iii) Degree of public need;


(iv) Number of affected agencies and individuals; and


(v) Its anticipated potential impact.


(4) For each action having primarily local importance for which notice is being provided, notice shall be made in accordance with the criteria under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, and shall entail as appropriate:


(i) [Reserved]


(ii) Notice to Indian tribes when effects may occur on reservations.


(iii) Information required in the affected State’s public notice procedures for comparable actions.


(iv) Publication in local newspapers (in papers of general circulation rather than legal papers).


(v) Notice through other local media.


(vi) Notice to potentially interested community organizations.


(vii) Publication in newsletters that may be expected to reach potentially interested persons.


(viii) Direct mailing to owners and occupants of nearby or affected property.


(ix) Posting of notice on and off site in the area where the action is to be located.


(x) Holding a public hearing.


(5) The notice shall include:


(i) A description of the action, its purpose and a statement of the intent to carry out an action affecting or affected by a floodplain or wetland;


(ii) Based on the factors in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, a map of the area or other indentification of the floodplain and/or wetland areas which is of adequate scale and detail so that the location is discernible; instead of publication of such map, FEMA may state that such map is available for public inspection, including the location at which such map may be inspected and a telephone number to call for information;


(iii) Based on the factors in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, a description of the type, extent and degree of hazard involved and the floodplain or wetland values present; and


(iv) Identification of the responsible official or organization for implementing the proposed action, and from whom further information can be obtained.


(6) The Agency shall provide for an adequate comment period.


(7) In a post-disaster situation in particular, the requirement for early public notice may be met in a cumulative manner based on the factors set out in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. Several actions may be addressed in one notice or series of notices. For some actions involving limited public interest a single notice in a local newspaper or letter to interested parties may suffice.


(d) Continuing public notice. The Agency shall keep the public informed of the progress of the decision-making process through additional public notices at key points in the process. The preliminary information provided under paragraph (c)(5) of this section shall be augmented by the findings of the adverse effects of the proposed actions and steps necessary to mitigate them. This responsibility shall be performed for actions requiring the preparation of an EIS, and all other actions having the potential for major adverse impacts, or the potential for harm to the health and safety of the general public.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 29318, June 24, 1983]


§ 9.9 Analysis and reevaluation of practicable alternatives.

(a) Purpose. (1) The purpose of this section is to expand upon the directives set out in § 9.6, of this part, in order to clarify and emphasize the Orders’ key requirements to avoid floodplains and wetlands unless there is no practicable alternative.


(2) Step 3 is a preliminary determination as to whether the floodplain is the only practicable location for the action. It is a preliminary determination because it comes early in the decision-making process when the Agency has a limited amount of information. If it is clear that there is a practicable alternative, or the floodplain or wetland is itself not a practicable location, FEMA shall then act on that basis. Provided that the location outside the floodplain or wetland does not indirectly impact floodplains or wetlands or support development therein (see § 9.10), the remaining analysis set out by this regulation is not required. If such location does indirectly impact floodplains or wetlands or support development therein, the remaining analysis set out by this regulation is required. If the preliminary determination is to act in the floodplain, FEMA shall gather the additional information required under Steps 4 and 5 and then reevaluate all the data to determine if the floodplain or wetland is the only practicable alternative.


(b) Analysis of practicable alternatives. The Agency shall identify and evaluate practicable alternatives to carrying out a proposed action in floodplains or wetlands, including:


(1) Alternative sites outside the floodplain or wetland;


(2) Alternative actions which serve essentially the same purpose as the proposed action, but which have less potential to affect or be affected by the floodplain or wetlands; and


(3) No action. The floodplain and wetland site itself must be a practicable location in light of the factors set out in this section.


(c) The Agency shall analyze the following factors in determining the practicability of the alternatives set out in paragraph (b) of this section:


(1) Natural environment (topography, habitat, hazards, etc.);


(2) Social concerns (aesthetics, historical and cultural values, land patterns, etc.);


(3) Economic aspects (costs of space, construction, services, and relocation); and


(4) Legal constraints (deeds, leases, etc.).


(d) Action following the analysis of practicable alternatives. (1) The Agency shall not locate the proposed action in the floodplain or in a wetland if a practicable alternative exists outside the floodplain or wetland.


(2) For critical actions, the Agency shall not locate the proposed action in the 500-year floodplain if a practicable alternative exists outside the 500-year floodplain.


(3) Even if no practicable alternative exists outside the floodplain or wetland, in order to carry out the action the floodplain or wetland must itself be a practicable location in light of the review required in this section.


(e) Reevaluation of alternatives. Upon determination of the impact of the proposed action to or within the floodplain or wetland and of what measures are necessary to comply with the requirement to minimize harm to and within floodplains and wetlands (§ 9.11), FEMA shall:


(1) Determine whether:


(i) The action is still practicable at a floodplain or wetland site in light of the exposure to flood risk and the ensuing disruption of natural values;


(ii) The floodplain or wetland site is the only practicable alternative;


(iii) There is a potential for limiting the action to increase the practicability of previously rejected non-floodplain or wetland sites and alternative actions; and


(iv) Minimization of harm to or within the floodplain can be achieved using all practicable means.


(2) Take no action in a floodplain unless the importance of the floodplain site clearly outweighs the requirement of E.O. 11988 to:


(i) Avoid direct or indirect support of floodplain development;


(ii) Reduce the risk of flood loss;


(iii) Minimize the impact of floods on human safety, health and welfare; and


(iv) Restore and preserve floodplain values.


(3) Take no action in a wetland unless the importance of the wetland site clearly outweighs the requirements of E.O. 11990 to:


(i) Avoid the destruction or modification of the wetlands;


(ii) Avoid direct or indirect support of new construction in wetlands;


(iii) Minimize the destruction, loss or degradation of wetlands; and


(iv) Preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial values of wetlands.


(4) In carrying out this balancing process, give the factors in paragraphs (e)(2) and (3) of this section, the great weight intended by the Orders.


(5) Choose the “no action” alternative where there are no practicable alternative actions or sites and where the floodplain or wetland is not itself a practicable alternative. In making the assessment of whether a floodplain or wetland location is itself a practicable alternative, the practicability of the floodplain or wetland location shall be balanced against the practicability of not carrying out the action at all. That is, even if there is no practicable alternative outside of the floodplain or wetland, the floodplain or wetland itself must be a practicable location in order for the action to be carried out there. To be a practicable location, the importance of carrying out the action must clearly outweigh the requirements of the Orders listed in paragraphs (e)(2) and (e)(3) of this section. Unless the importance of carrying out the action clearly outweighs those requirements, the “no action” alternative shall be selected.


(6) In any case in which the Regional Director has selected the “no action” option, FIA may not provide a new or renewed contract of flood insurance for that structure.



Effective Date Note:At 45 FR 79070, Nov. 28, 1980, § 9.9(e)(6) was temporarily suspended until further notice.

§ 9.10 Identify impacts of proposed actions.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to ensure that the effects of proposed Agency actions are identified.


(b) The Agency shall identify the potential direct and indirect adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and wetlands and the potential direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetland development that could result from the proposed action. Such identification of impacts shall be to the extent necessary to comply with the requirements of the Orders to avoid floodplain and wetland locations unless they are the only practicable alternatives and to minimize harm to and within floodplains and wetlands.


(c) This identification shall consider whether the proposed action will result in an increase in the useful life of any structure or facility in question, maintain the investment at risk and exposure of lives to the flood hazard or forego an opportunity to restore the natural and beneficial values served by floodplains or wetlands. Regional Offices of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service may be contacted to aid in the identification and evaluation of potential impacts of the proposed action on natural and beneficial floodplain and wetland values.


(d) In the review of a proposed or alternative action, the Regional Administrator shall specifically consider and evaluate: impacts associated with modification of wetlands and floodplains regardless of its location; additional impacts which may occur when certain types of actions may support subsequent action which have additional impacts of their own; adverse impacts of the proposed actions on lives and property and on natural and beneficial floodplain and wetland values; and the three categories of factors listed below:


(1) Flood hazard-related factors. These include for example, the factors listed in § 9.7(b)(2);


(2) Natural values-related factors. These include, for example, the following: Water resource values (natural moderation of floods, water quality maintenance, and ground water recharge); living resource values (fish and wildlife and biological productivity); cultural resource values (archeological and historic sites, and open space recreation and green belts); and agricultural, aquacultural and forestry resource values.


(3) Factors relevant to a proposed action’s effects on the survival and quality of wetlands. These include, for example, the following: Public health, safety, and welfare, including water supply, quality, recharge and discharge; pollution; flood and storm hazards; and sediment and erosion; maintenance of natural systems, including conservation and long term productivity of existing flora and fauna, species and habitat diversity and stability, hydrologic utility, fish, wildlife, timber, and food and fiber resources; and other uses of wetlands in the public interest, including recreational, scientific, and cultural uses.


§ 9.11 Mitigation.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to expand upon the directives set out in § 9.6 of this part, and to set out the mitigative actions required if the preliminary determination is made to carry out an action that affects or is in a floodplain or wetland.


(b) General provisions. (1) The Agency shall design or modify its actions so as to minimize harm to or within the floodplain;


(2) The Agency shall minimize the destruction, loss or degradation of wetlands;


(3) The Agency shall restore and preserve natural and beneficial floodplain values; and


(4) The Agency shall preserve and enhance natural and beneficial wetland values.


(c) Minimization provisions. The Agency shall minimize:


(1) Potential harm to lives and the investment at risk from the base flood, or, in the case of critical actions, from the 500-year flood;


(2) Potential adverse impacts the action may have on others; and


(3) Potential adverse impact the action may have on floodplain and wetland values.


(d) Minimization Standards. In its implementation of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, the Agency shall apply at a minimum, the following standards to its actions to comply with the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c), of this section, (except as provided in § 9.5 (c), (d), and (g) regarding categories of partial or total exclusion). Any Agency action to which the following specific requirements do not apply, shall nevertheless be subject to the full 8-step process (§ 9.6) including the general requirement to minimize harm to and within floodplains:


(1) There shall be no new construction or substantial improvement in a floodway, and no new construction in a coastal high hazard area, except for:


(i) A functionally dependent use; or


(ii) A structure or facility which facilitates an open space use.


(2) For a structure which is a functionally dependent use, or which facilitates an open space use, the following applies. There shall be no construction of a new or substantially improved structure in a coastal high hazard area unless it is elevated on adequately anchored pilings or columns, and securely anchored to such piles or columns so that the lowest portion of the structural members of the lowest floor (excluding the pilings or columns) is elevated to or above the base flood level (the 500-year flood level for critical actions) (including wave height). The structure shall be anchored so as to withstand velocity waters and hurricane wave wash. The Regional Administrator shall be responsible for determining the base flood level, including the wave height, in all cases. Where there is a FIRM in effect, it shall be the basis of the Regional Administrator’s determination. If the FIRM does not reflect wave heights, or if there is no FIRM in effect, the Regional Administrator is responsible for delineating the base flood level, including wave heights.


(3) Elevation of structures. (i) There shall be no new construction or substantial improvement of structures unless the lowest floor of the structures (including basement) is at or above the level of the base flood.


(ii) There shall be no new construction or substantial improvement of structures involving a critical action unless the lowest floor of the structure (including the basement) is at or above the level of the 500-year flood.


(iii) If the subject structure is nonresidential, FEMA may, instead of elevating the structure to the 100-year or 500-year level, as appropriate, approve the design of the structure and its attendant utility and sanitary facilities so that below the flood level the structure is water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy.


(iv) The provisions of paragraphs (d)(3)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section do not apply to the extent that the Federal Insurance Administration has granted an exception under 44 CFR § 60.6(b) (formerly 24 CFR 1910.6(b)), or the community has granted a variance which the Regional Administrator determines is consistent with 44 CFR 60.6(a) (formerly 24 CFR 1910.6(a)). In a community which does not have a FIRM in effect, FEMA may approve a variance from the standards of paragraphs (d)(3)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section, after compliance with the standards of 44 CFR 60.6(a).


(4) There shall be no encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements of structures or facilities, or other development within a designated regulatory floodway that would result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge. Until a regulatory floodway is designated, no new construction, substantial improvements, or other development (including fill) shall be permitted within the base floodplain unless it is demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one foot at any point within the community.


(5) Even if an action is a functionally dependent use or facilitates open space uses (under paragraph (d) (1) or (2) of this section) and does not increase flood heights (under paragraph (d)(4) of this section), such action may only be taken in a floodway or coastal high hazard area if:


(i) Such site is the only practicable alternative; and


(ii) Harm to and within the floodplain is minimized.


(6) In addition to standards (d)(1) through (d)(5) of this section, no action may be taken if it is inconsistent with the criteria of the National Flood Insurance Program (44 CFR part 59 et seq.) or any more restrictive Federal, State or local floodplain management standards.


(7) New construction and substantial improvement of structures shall be elevated on open works (walls, columns, piers, piles, etc.) rather than on fill, in all cases in coastal high hazard areas and elsewhere, where practicable.


(8) To minimize the effect of floods on human health, safety and welfare, the Agency shall:


(i) Where appropriate, integrate all of its proposed actions in floodplains into existing flood warning and preparedness plans and ensure that available flood warning time is reflected;


(ii) Facilitate adequate access and egress to and from the site of the proposed action; and


(iii) Give special consideration to the unique hazard potential in flash flood, rapid-rise or tsunami areas.


(9) In the replacement of building contents, materials and equipment, the Regional Administrator shall require as appropriate, disaster proofing of the building and/or elimination of such future losses by relocation of those building contents, materials and equipment outside or above the base floodplain or the 500-year floodplain for critical actions.


(e) In the implementation of the National Flood Insurance Program. (1) The Federal Insurance Administration shall make identification of all coastal high hazard areas a priority;


(2) Beginning October 1, 1981, the Federal Insurance Administration of FEMA may only provide flood insurance for new construction or substantial improvements in a coastal high hazard area if:


(i) Wave heights have been designated for the site of the structure either by the Administrator of FEMA based upon data generated by FEMA or by another source, satisfactory to the Administrator; and


(ii) The structure is rated by FEMA-FIA based on a system which reflects the capacity to withstand the effects of the 100-year frequency flood including, but not limited to, the following factors:


(A) Wave heights;


(B) The ability of the structure to withstand the force of waves.


(3)(i) FEMA shall accept and take fully into account information submitted by a property owner indicating that the rate for a particular structure is too high based on the ability of the structure to withstand the force of waves. In order to obtain a rate adjustment, a property owner must submit to FEMA specific information regarding the structure and its immediate environment. Such information must be certified by a registered professional architect or engineer who has demonstrable experience and competence in the fields of foundation, soils, and structural engineering. Such information should include:


(A) Elevation of the structure (bottom of lowest floor beam) in relation to the Base Flood Elevation including wave height;


(B) Distance of the structure from the shoreline;


(C) Dune protection and other environmental factors;


(D) Description of the building support system; and


(E) Other relevant building details.


Adequate completion of the “V-Zone Risk Factor Rating Form” is sufficient for FEMA to determine whether a rate adjustment is appropriate. The form is available from and applications for rate adjustments should be submitted to:


National Flood Insurance Program

Attention: V-Zone Underwriting Specialist

9901-A George Palmer Highway

Lanham, MD 20706

Pending a determination on a rate adjustment, insurance will be issued at the class rate. If the rate adjustment is granted, a refund of the appropriate portion of the premium will be made. Unless a property owner is seeking an adjustment of the rate prescribed by FEMA-FIA, this information need not be submitted.

(ii) FIA shall notify communities with coastal high hazard areas and federally related lenders in such communities, of the provisions of this paragraph. Notice to the lenders may be accomplished by the Federal instrumentalities to which the lenders are related.


(4) In any case in which the Regional Director has been, pursuant to § 9.11(d)(1), precluded from providing assistance for a new or substantially improved structure in a floodway, FIA may not provide a new or renewed policy of flood insurance for that structure.


(f) Restore and preserve. (1) For any action taken by the Agency which affects the floodplain or wetland and which has resulted in, or will result in, harm to the floodplain or wetland, the Agency shall act to restore and preserve the natural and beneficial values served by floodplains and wetlands.


(2) Where floodplain or wetland values have been degraded by the proposed action, the Agency shall identify, evaluate and implement measures to restore the values.


(3) If an action will result in harm to or within the floodplain or wetland, the Agency shall design or modify the action to preserve as much of the natural and beneficial floodplain and wetland values as is possible.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 51752, Oct. 22, 1981; 48 FR 44543, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 33879, Aug. 27, 1984; 49 FR 35584, Sept. 10, 1984; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985]


Effective Date Note:At 45 FR 79070, Nov. 28, 1980, § 9.11(e)(4) was temporarily suspended until further notice.

§ 9.12 Final public notice.

If the Agency decides to take an action in or affecting a floodplain or wetland, it shall provide the public with a statement of its final decision and shall explain the relevant factors considered by the Agency in making this determination.


(a) In addition, those sent notices under § 9.8 shall also be provided the final notice.


(b) For actions for which an environmental impact statement is being prepared, the FEIS is adequate to constitute final notice in all cases except where:


(1) Significant modifications are made in the FEIS after its initial publication;


(2) Significant modifications are made in the development plan for the proposed action; or


(3) Significant new information becomes available in the interim between issuance of the FEIS and implementation of the proposed action.


If any of these situations develop, the Agency shall prepare a separate final notice that contains the contents of paragraph (e) of this section and shall make it available to those who received the FEIS. A minimum of 15 days shall, without good cause shown, be allowed for comment on the final notice.

(c) For actions for which an environmental assessment was prepared, the Notice of No Significant Impact is adequate to constitute final public notice, if it includes the information required under paragraph (e) of this section.


(d) For all other actions, the finding shall be made in a document separate from those described in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section. Based on an assessment of the following factors, the requirement for final notice may be met in a cumulative manner:


(1) Scale of the action;


(2) Potential for controversy;


(3) Degree of public need;


(4) Number of affected agencies and individuals;


(5) Its anticipated potential impact; and


(6) Similarity of the actions, i.e., to the extent that they are susceptible of common descriptions and assessments.


When a damaged structure or facility is already being repaired by the State or local government at the time of the Damage Survey Report, the requirements of Steps 2 and 7 (§§ 9.8 and 9.12) may be met by a single notice. Such notice shall contain all the information required by both sections.

(e) The final notice shall include the following:


(1) A statement of why the proposed action must be located in an area affecting or affected by a floodplain or a wetland;


(2) A description of all significant facts considered in making this determination;


(3) A list of the alternatives considered;


(4) A statement indicating whether the action conforms to applicable state and local floodplain protection standards;


(5) A statement indicating how the action affects or is affected by the floodplain and/or wetland, and how mitigation is to be achieved;


(6) Identification of the responsible official or organization for implementation and monitoring of the proposed action, and from whom further information can be obtained; and


(7) A map of the area or a statement that such map is available for public inspection, including the location at which such map may be inspected and a telephone number to call for information.


(f) After providing the final notice, the Agency shall, without good cause shown, wait at least 15 days before carrying out the action.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 29318, June 24, 1983]


§ 9.13 Particular types of temporary housing.

(a) The purpose of this section is to set forth the procedures whereby the Agency will provide certain specified types of temporary housing.


(b) Prior to providing the types of temporary housing enumerated in paragraph (c) of this section, the Agency shall comply with the provisions of this section. For all temporary housing not enumerated below, the full 8-step process (see § 9.6) applies.


(c) The following temporary housing actions are subject to the provisions of this section and not the full 8-step process:


(1) [Reserved]


(2) Placing a mobile home or readily fabricated dwelling on a private or commercial site, but not a group site.


(d) The actions set out in paragraph (c) of this section are subject to the following decision-making process:


(1) The temporary housing action shall be evaluated in accordance with the provisions of § 9.7 to determine if it is in or affects a floodplain or wetland.


(2) No mobile home or readily fabricated dwelling may be placed on a private or commercial site in a floodway or coastal high hazard area.


(3) An individual or family shall not be housed in a floodplain or wetland unless the Regional Administrator has complied with the provisions of § 9.9 to determine that such site is the only practicable alternative. The following factors shall be substituted for the factors in § 9.9 (c) and (e) (2) through (4):


(i) Speedy provision of temporary housing;


(ii) Potential flood risk to the temporary housing occupant;


(iii) Cost effectiveness;


(iv) Social and neighborhood patterns;


(v) Timely availability of other housing resources; and


(vi) Potential harm to the floodplain or wetland.


(4) An individual or family shall not be housed in a floodplain or wetland (except in existing resources) unless the Regional Administrator has complied with the provisions of § 9.11 to minimize harm to and within floodplains and wetlands. The following provisions shall be substituted for the provisions of § 9.11(d) for mobile homes:


(i) No mobile home or readily fabricated dwelling may be placed on a private or commercial site unless it is elevated to the fullest extent practicable up to the base flood level and adequately anchored.


(ii) No mobile home or readily fabricated dwelling may be placed if such placement is inconsistent with the criteria of the National Flood Insurance Program (44 CFR part 59 et seq.) or any more restrictive Federal, State or local floodplain management standard. Such standards may require elevation to the base flood level in the absence of a variance.


(iii) Mobile homes shall be elevated on open works (walls, columns, piers, piles, etc.) rather than on fill where practicable.


(iv) To minimize the effect of floods on human health, safety and welfare, the Agency shall:


(A) Where appropriate, integrate all of its proposed actions in placing mobile homes for temporary housing in floodplains into existing flood warning and preparedness plans and ensure that available flood warning time is reflected;


(B) Provide adequate access and egress to and from the proposed site of the mobile home; and


(C) Give special consideration to the unique hazard potential in flash flood and rapid-rise areas.


(5) FEMA shall comply with Step 2 Early Public Notice (§ 9.8(c)) and Step 7 Final Public Notice (§ 9.12). In providing these notices, the emergency nature of temporary housing shall be taken into account.


(e) FEMA shall not sell or otherwise dispose of mobile homes or other readily fabricated dwellings which would be located in floodways or coastal high hazard areas. FEMA shall not sell or otherwise dispose of mobile homes or other readily fabricated dwellings which would be located in floodplains or wetlands unless there is full compliance with the 8-step process. Given the vulnerability of mobile homes to flooding, a rejection of a non-floodplain location alternative and of the no-action alternative shall be based on (1) a compelling need of the family or individual to buy a mobile home for permanent housing, and (2) a compelling requirement to locate the unit in a floodplain. Further, FEMA shall not sell or otherwise dispose of mobile homes or other readily fabricated dwellings in a floodplain unless they are elevated at least to the level of the 100-year flood. The Regional Administrator shall notify the Assistant Administrator for Mitigation of each instance where a floodplain location has been found to be the only practicable alternative for a mobile home sale.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 47 FR 13149, Mar. 29, 1982; 49 FR 35584, Sept. 10, 1984; 50 FR 40006, Oct. 1, 1985]


§ 9.14 Disposal of Agency property.

(a) The purpose of this section is to set forth the procedures whereby the Agency shall dispose of property.


(b) Prior to its disposal by sale, lease or other means of disposal, property proposed to be disposed of by the Agency shall be reviewed according to the decision-making process set out in § 9.6 of this part, as follows:


(1) The property shall be evaluated in accordance with the provisions of § 9.7 to determine if it affects or is affected by a floodplain or wetland;


(2) The public shall be notified of the proposal and involved in the decision-making process in accordance with the provisions of § 9.8;


(3) Practicable alternatives to disposal shall be evaluated in accordance with the provisions of § 9.9. For disposals, this evaluation shall focus on alternative actions (conveyance for an alternative use that is more consistent with the floodplain management and wetland protection policies set out in § 9.2 than the one proposed, e.g., open space use for park or recreational purposes rather than high intensity uses), and on the “no action” option (retain the property);


(4) Identify the potential impacts and support associated with the disposal of the property in accordance with § 9.10;


(5) Identify the steps necessary to minimize, restore, preserve and enhance in accordance with § 9.11. For disposals, this analysis shall address all four of these components of mitigation where unimproved property is involved, but shall focus on minimization through floodproofing and restoration of natural values where improved property is involved;


(6) Reevaluate the proposal to dispose of the property in light of its exposure to the flood hazard and its natural values-related impacts, in accordance with § 9.9. This analysis shall focus on whether it is practicable in light of the findings from §§ 9.10 and 9.11 to dispose of the property, or whether it must be retained. If it is determined that it is practicable to dispose of the property, this analysis shall identify the practicable alternative that best achieves all of the components of the Orders’ mitigation responsibility;


(7) To the extent that it would decrease the flood hazard to lives and property, the Agency shall, wherever practicable, dispose of the properties according to the following priorities:


(i) Properties located outside the floodplain;


(ii) Properties located in the flood fringe; and


(iii) Properties located in a floodway, regulatory floodway or coastal high hazard area.


(8) The Agency shall prepare and provide the public with a finding and public explanation in accordance with § 9.12.


(9) The Agency shall ensure that the applicable mitigation requirements are fully implemented in accordance with § 9.11.


(c) At the time of disposal, for all disposed property, the Agency shall reference in the conveyance uses that are restricted under existing Federal, State and local floodplain management and wetland protection standards relating to flood hazards and floodplain and wetland values.


§ 9.15 Planning programs affecting land use.

The Agency shall take floodplain management into account when formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved unless it:


(a) Reflects consideration of flood hazards and floodplain management and wetlands protection; and


(b) Prescribes planning procedures to implement the policies and requirements of the Orders and this regulation.


§ 9.16 Guidance for applicants.

(a) The Agency shall encourage and provide adequate guidance to applicants for agency assistance to evaluate the effects of their plans and proposals in or affecting floodplains and wetlands.


(b) This shall be accomplished primarily through amendment of all Agency instructions to applicants, e.g., program handbooks, contracts, application and agreement forms, etc., and also through contact made by agency staff during the normal course of their activities, to fully inform prospective applicants of:


(1) The Agency’s policy on floodplain management and wetlands protection as set out in § 9.2;


(2) The decision-making process to be used by the Agency in making the determination of whether to provide the required assistance as set out in § 9.6;


(3) The nature of the Orders’ practicability analysis as set out in § 9.9;


(4) The nature of the Orders’ mitigation responsibilities as set out in § 9.11;


(5) The nature of the Orders’ public notice and involvement process as set out in §§ 9.8 and 9.12; and


(6) The supplemental requirements applicable to applications for the lease or other disposal of Agency owned properties set out in § 9.14.


(c) Guidance to applicants shall be provided where possible, prior to the time of application in order to minimize potential delays in process application due to failure of applicants to recognize and reflect the provisions of the Orders and this regulation.


§ 9.17 Instructions to applicants.

(a) Purpose. In accordance with Executive Orders 11988 and 11990, the Federal executive agencies must respond to a number of floodplain management and wetland protection responsibilities before carrying out any of their activities, including the provision of Federal financial and technical assistance. The purpose of this section is to put applicants for Agency assistance on notice concerning both the criteria that it is required to follow under the Orders, and applicants’ responsibilities under this regulation.


(b) Responsibilities of Applicants. Based upon the guidance provided by the Agency under § 9.16, that guidance included in the U.S. Water Resources Council’s Guidance for Implementing E.O. 11988, and based upon the provisions of the Orders and this regulation, applicants for Agency assistance shall recognize and reflect in their application:


(1) The Agency’s policy on floodplain management and wetlands protection as set out in § 9.2;


(2) The decision-making process to be used by the Agency in making the determination of whether to provide the requested assistance as set out in § 9.6;


(3) The nature of the Orders’ practicability analysis as set out in § 9.9;


(4) The nature of the Orders’ mitigation responsibilities as set out in § 9.11;


(5) The nature of the Orders’ public and involvement process as set out in §§ 9.8 and 9.12; and


(6) The supplemental requirements for application for the lease or other disposal of Agency-owned properties, as set out in § 9.13.


(c) Provision of supporting information. Applicants for Agency assistance may be called upon to provide supporting information relative to the various responsibilities set out in paragraph (b) of this section as a prerequisite to the approval of their applications.


(d) Approval of applications. Applications for Agency assistance shall be reviewed for the recognition and reflection of the provisions of this regulation in addition to the Agency’s existing approval criteria.


§ 9.18 Responsibilities.

(a) Regional Administrators’ responsibilities. Regional Administrators shall, for all actions falling within their respective jurisdictions:


(1) Implement the requirements of the Orders and this regulation. Anywhere in §§ 9.2, 9.6 through 9.13, and 9.15 where a direction is given to the Agency, it is the responsibility of the Regional Administrator.


(2) Consult with the Chief Counsel regarding any question of interpretation concerning this regulation or the Orders.


(b) The Heads of the Offices, Directorates and Administrations of FEMA shall:


(1) Implement the requirements of the Orders and this regulation. When a decision of a Regional Administrator relating to disaster assistance is appealed, the Assistant Administrator for Mitigation may make determinations under these regulations on behalf of the Agency.


(2) Prepare and submit to the Office of Chief Counsel reports to the Office of Management and Budget in accordance with section 2(b) of E.O. 11988 and section 3 of E.O. 11990. If a proposed action is to be located in a floodplain or wetland, any requests to the Office of Management and Budget for new authorizations or appropriations shall be accompanied by a report indicating whether the proposed action is in accord with the Orders and these regulations.


[45 FR 59526, Sept. 9, 1980, as amended at 49 FR 33879, Aug. 27, 1984; 74 FR 15336, Apr. 3, 2009]


Appendix A to Part 9 – Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988


PART 10 [RESERVED]

PART 11 – CLAIMS


Authority:31 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.


Source:45 FR 15930, Mar. 12, 1980, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – General

§ 11.1 General collection standards.

The general standards and procedures governing the collection, compromise, termination and referral to the Department of Justice of claims for money and property that are prescribed in the regulations issued jointly by the Government Accountability Office and the Department of Justice pursuant to the Federal Claims Collection Act of 1966 (4 CFR part 101 et seq.), apply to the administrative claim collection activities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).


§ 11.2 Delegations of authority.

Any and all claims that arise under subchapter III of chapter 83, chapter 87 and chapter 88 of title 5, the United States Code, the Retired Federal Employees Health Benefits Act (74 Stat. 849), the Panama Canal Construction Annuity Act (58 Stat. 257), and the Lighthouse Service Widow’s Annuity Act (64 Stat. 465) shall be referred to the Director of the Bureau of Retirement and Insurance, Office of Personnel Management, for handling. The Chief Counsel, FEMA shall act on all other claims against FEMA for money and property.


Subpart B – Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act

§ 11.10 Scope of regulation.

This regulation applies to claims asserted under the Federal Tort Claims Act against the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It does not include any contractor with FEMA.


§ 11.11 Administrative claim; when presented; appropriate FEMA office.

(a) For the purpose of this part, and the provisions of the Federal Tort Claims Act a claim is deemed to have been presented when FEMA receives, at a place designated in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, an executed “Claim for Damage or Injury,” Standard Form 95, or other written notification of an incident, accompanied by a claim for money damages in a sum certain for injury to or loss of property, for personal injury, or for death alleged to have occurred by reason of the incident. A claim which should have been presented to FEMA, but which was mistakenly addressed to or filed with another Federal agency, is deemed to be presented to FEMA as of the date that the claim is received by FEMA. If a claim is mistakenly addressed to or filed with FEMA, the claim shall forthwith be transferred to the appropriate Federal Agency, if ascertainable, or returned to the claimant.


(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a claimant shall mail or deliver his or her claim to the Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, 20472.


(c) When a claim is for $200 or less, does not involve a personal injury, and involves a FEMA regional employee, the claimant shall mail or deliver the claim to the Administrator of the FEMA Regional Office in which is employed the FEMA employee whose negligence or wrongful act or omission is alleged to have caused the loss or injury complained of. The addresses of the Regional Offices of FEMA are set out in part 2 of this chapter.


(d) A claim presented in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section may be amended by the claimant at any time prior to final FEMA action or prior to the exercise of the claimant’s option under 28 U.S.C. 2675(a). Amendments shall be submitted in writing and signed by the claimant or his or her duly authorized agent or legal representative. Upon the timely filing of an amendment to a pending claim, FEMA shall have six months in which to make a final disposition of the claim as amended and the claimant’s option under 28 U.S.C. 2675(a) shall not accrue until six months after the filing of an amendment.


[45 FR 15930, Mar. 12, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 6711, Feb. 15, 1983; 49 FR 33879, Aug. 27, 1984]


§ 11.12 Administrative claim; who may file.

(a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property interest which is the subject of the claim, his or her authorized agent, or legal representative.


(b) A claim for personal injury may be presented by the injured person or, his or her authorized agent or legal representative.


(c) A claim based on death may be presented by the executor or administrator of the decedent’s estate or by any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable State law.


(d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an insurer with the rights of a subrogee may be presented by the insurer or the insured individually, as their respective interests appear, or jointly. When an insurer presents a claim asserting the rights of a subrogee, he or she shall present with the claim appropriate evidence that he or she has the rights of a subrogee.


(e) A claim presented by an agent or legal representative shall be presented in the name of the claimant, be signed by the agent or legal representative, show the title of legal capacity of the person signing, and be accompanied by evidence of his or her authority to present a claim on behalf of the claimant as agent, executor, administrator, parent, guardian, or other representative.


§ 11.13 Investigations.

FEMA may investigate, or may request any other Federal agency to investigate, a claim filed under this part.


§ 11.14 Administrative claim; evidence and information to be submitted.

(a) Death. In support of a claim based on death the claimant may be required to submit the following evidence or information:


(1) An authenticated death certificate or other competent evidence showing cause of death, date of death, and age of the decedent.


(2) Decedent’s employment or occupation at time of death, including his or her monthly or yearly salary or earnings (if any), and the duration of his or her last employment or occupation.


(3) Full names, addresses, birth dates, kinship, and marital status of the decedent’s survivors, including identification of those survivors who were dependent for support on the decedent at the time of his or her death.


(4) Degree of support afforded by the decedent to each survivor dependent on him or her for support at the time of death.


(5) Decedent’s general physical and mental condition before death.


(6) Itemized bills or medical and burial expenses incurred by reason of the incident causing death, or itemized receipts of payment for such expenses.


(7) If damages for pain and suffering before death are claimed, a physician’s detailed statement specifying the injuries suffered, duration of pain and suffering, any drugs administered for pain, and the decedent’s physical condition in the interval between injury and death.


(8) Any other evidence or information which may have a bearing on either the responsibility of the United States for the death or the amount of damages claimed.


(b) Personal injury. In support of a claim for personal injury, including pain and suffering, the claimant may be required to submit the following evidence or information:


(1) A written report by his or her attending physician or dentist setting forth the nature and extent of the injury, nature and extent of treatment, any degree of temporary or permanent disability, the prognosis, period of hospitalization, and any diminished earning capacity. In addition, the claimant may be required to submit to a physical or mental examination by a physician employed by FEMA or another Federal agency. FEMA shall make available to the claimant a copy of the report of the examining physician on written request by the claimant, if he or she has, on request, furnished the report referred to in the first sentence of this subparagraph and has made or agrees to make available to FEMA any other physician’s reports previously or thereafter made of the physical or mental condition which is the subject matter of the claim.


(2) Itemized bills for medical, dental, and hospital expenses incurred, or itemized receipts of payment of such expenses.


(3) If the prognosis reveals the necessity for future treatment, a statement of expected expenses for such treatment.


(4) If a claim is made for loss of time from employment, a written statement from the employer showing actual time lost from employment, whether he or she is a full- or part-time employee, and wages or salary actually lost.


(5) If a claim is made for loss of income and the claimant is self-employed, documentary evidence showing the amount of earnings actually lost.


(6) Any other evidence or information which may have a bearing on either the responsibility of the United States for the personal injury or the damages claimed.


(c) Property damage. In support of a claim for injury to or loss of property, real or personal, the claimant may be required to submit the following evidence or information:


(1) Proof of ownership of the property interest which is the subject of the claim.


(2) A detailed statement of the amount claimed with respect to each item of property.


(3) An itemized receipt of payment for necessary repairs or itemized written estimates of the cost of such repairs.


(4) A statement listing date of purchase, purchase price, and salvage value, where repair is not economical.


(5) Any other evidence or information which may have a bearing on either the responsibility of the United States for the injury to or loss of property or the damages claimed.


§ 11.15 Authority to adjust, determine, compromise and settle.

(a) The Chief Counsel of FEMA, or a designee of the Chief Counsel, is delegated authority to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise, and settle claims under the provisions of section 2672 of title 28, United States Code, and this part.


(b) Notwithstanding the delegation of authority in paragraph (a) of this section, a Regional Administrator is delegated authority to be exercised in his or her discretion, to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise, and settle under the provisions of section 2672 of title 28, United States Code, and this part, any claim for $200 or less which is based on alleged negligence or wrongful act or omission of an employee of the appropriate Region, except when:


(1) There are personal injuries to either Government personnel or individuals not employed by the Government; or


(2) All damage to Government property or to property being used by FEMA, or both, is more than $200, or all damage to non-Government property being used by individuals not employed by the Government is more than $200.


[45 FR 15930, Mar. 12, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 6711, Feb. 15, 1983]


§ 11.16 Limitations on authority.

(a) An award, compromise, or settlement of a claim under this part in excess of $25,000 may be effected only with the advance written approval of the Attorney General or his or her designee. For the purpose of this paragraph, a principal claim and any derivative or subrogated claim shall be treated as a single claim.


(b) An administrative claim may be adjusted, determined, compromised, or settled under this part only after consultation with the Department of Justice, when, in the opinion of the Chief Counsel of FEMA or his or her designee:


(1) A new precedent or a new point of law is involved; or


(2) A question of policy is or may be involved; or


(3) The United States is or may be entitled to indemnity or contribution from a third party and FEMA is unable to adjust the third party claim; or


(4) The compromise of a particular claim, as a practical matter, will or may control the disposition of a related claim in which the amount to be paid may exceed $25,000.


(c) An administrative claim may be adjusted, determined, compromised or settled under this part only after consultation with the Department of Justice when FEMA is informed or is otherwise aware that the United States or an employee, agent or cost-type contractor of the United States is involved in litigation based on a claim arising out of the same incident or transaction.


§ 11.17 Referral to Department of Justice.

When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel or his or her designee.


§ 11.18 Final denial of claim.

(a) Final denial of an administrative claim under this part shall be in writing and sent to the claimant, his or her attorney, or legal representative by certified or registered mail. The notification of final denial may include a statement of the reasons for the denial and shall include a statement that, if the claimant is dissatisfied with the FEMA action, he or she may file suit in an appropriate U.S. District Court not later than 6 months after the date of mailing of the notification.


(b) Prior to the commencement of suit and prior to the expiration of the 6-month period provided in 28 U.S.C. 2401(b), a claimant, his or her duly authorized agent, or legal representative, may file a written request with FEMA for reconsideration of a final denial of a claim under paragraph (a) of this section. Upon the timely filing of a request for reconsideration the FEMA shall have 6 months from the date of filing in which to make a final FEMA disposition of the claim and the claimant’s option under 28 U.S.C. 2675(a) shall not accrue until 6 months after the filing of a request for reconsideration. Final FEMA action on a request for reconsideration shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section.


§ 11.19 Action on approved claim.

(a) Payment of a claim approved under this part is contingent on claimant’s execution of (1) a “Claim for Damage or Injury,” Standard Form 95, or a claims settlement agreement, and (2) a “Voucher for Payment,” Standard Form 1145, as appropriate. When a claimant is represented by an attorney, the voucher for payment shall designate both the claimant and his or her attorney as payees, and the check shall be delivered to the attorney, whose address shall appear on the voucher.


(b) Acceptance by the claimant, his or her agent, or legal representative, of an award, compromise, or settlement made under section 2672 or 2677 of title 28, United States Code, is final and conclusive on the claimant, his or her agent or legal representative, and any other person on whose behalf or for whose benefit the claim has been presented, and constitutes a complete release of any claim against the United States and against any employee of the Government whose act or omission gave rise to the claim, by reason of the same subject matter.


Subpart C [Reserved]

Subpart D – Personnel Claims Regulations


Authority:31 U.S.C. 3721.


Source:50 FR 8112, Feb. 28, 1985, unless otherwise noted.

§ 11.70 Scope and purpose.

(a) The Administrator, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is authorized by 31 U.S.C. 3721 to settle and pay (including replacement in kind) claims of officers and employees of FEMA, amounting to not more than $25,000 for damage to or loss of personal property incident to their service. Property may be replaced in-kind at the option of the Government. Claims are payable only for such types, quantities, or amounts of tangible personal property (including money) as the approving authority shall determine to be reasonable, useful, or proper under the circumstances existing at the time and place of the loss. In determining what is reasonable, useful, or proper, the approving authority will consider the type and quantity of property involved, circumstances attending acquisition and use of the property, and whether possession or use by the claimant at the time of damage or loss was incident to service.


(b) The Government does not underwrite all personal property losses that a claimant may sustain and it does not underwrite individual tastes. While the Government does not attempt to limit possession of property by an individual, payment for damage or loss is made only to the extent that the possession of the property is determined to be reasonable, useful, or proper. If individuals possess excessive quantities of items, or expensive items, they should have such property privately insured. Failure of the claimant to comply with these procedures may reduce or preclude payment of the claim under this subpart.


§ 11.71 Claimants.

(a) A claim pursuant to this subpart may only be made by: (1) An employee of FEMA; (2) a former employee of FEMA whose claim arises out of an incident occurring before his/her separation from FEMA; (3) survivors of a person named in paragraph (a) (1) or (2) of this section, in the following order of precedence: (i) Spouse; (ii) children; (iii) father or mother, or both or (iv) brothers or sisters, or both; (4) the authorized agent or legal representative of a person named in paragraphs (a) (1), (2), and (3) of this section.


(b) A claim may not be presented by or for the benefit of a subrogee, assignee, conditional vendor, or other third party.


§ 11.72 Time limitations.

(a) A claim under this part may be allowed only if it is in writing, specifies a sum certain and is received in the Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC 20472: (1) Within 2 years after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of this section because it accrues in time of war or in time of armed conflict in which any armed force of the United States is engaged or if such a war or armed conflict intervenes within 2 years after the claim accrues, when the claimant shows good cause, the claim may be filed within 2 years after the cause ceases to exist but not more than 2 years after termination of the war or armed conflict.


(b) For purposes of this subpart, a claim accrues at the time of the accident or incident causing the loss or damage, or at such time as the loss or damage should have been discovered by the claimant by the exercise of due diligence.


§ 11.73 Allowable claims.

(a) A claim may be allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, his/her agent, the members of his/her family, or his/her private employee (the standard to be applied is that of reasonable care under the circumstances); and (2) the possession of the property lost or damaged and the quantity possessed is determined to have been reasonable, useful, or proper under the circumstances; and (3) the claim is substantiated by proper and convincing evidence.


(b) Claims which are otherwise allowable under this subpart shall not be disallowed solely because the property was not in the possession of the claimant at the time of the damage or loss, or solely because the claimant was not the legal owner of the property for which the claim is made. For example, borrowed property may be the subject of a claim.


(c) Subject to the conditions in paragraph (a) of this section, and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss of, personal property incident to service with FEMA may be considered and allowed. The following are examples of the principal types of claims which may be allowed, unless excluded by § 11.74.


(1) Property loss or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire, flood, hurricane, other natural disaster, theft, or other unusual occurrence, while such property is located at:


(i) Quarters within the 50 states or the District of Columbia that were assigned to the claimant or otherwise provided in-kind by the United States; or


(ii) Any warehouse, office, working area, or other place (except quarters) authorized for the reception or storage of property.


(2) Transportation or travel losses. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property incident to transportation or storage pursuant to orders, or in connection with travel under orders, including property in the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government, or the claimant.


(3) Motor vehicles. Claims may be allowed for automobiles and other motor vehicles damaged or lost by overseas shipments provided by the Government. “Shipments provided by the Government” means via Government vessels, charter of commercial vessels, or by Government bills of lading on commercial vessels, and includes storage, unloading, and offloading incident thereto. Other claims for damage to or loss of automobiles and other major vehicles may be allowed when use of the vehicles on a nonreimbursable basis was required by the claimant’s supervisor, but these claims shall be limited to a maximum of $1,000.00.


(4) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of mobile homes and their content under the provisions of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Claims for structural damage to mobile homes resulting from such structural damage must contain conclusive evidence that the damage was not caused by structural deficiency of the mobile home and that it was not overloaded. Claims for damage to or loss of tires mounted on mobile homes may be allowed only in cases of collision, theft, or vandalism.


(5) Money. Claims for money in an amount that is determined to be reasonable for the claimant to possess at the time of the loss are payable:


(i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with apparent authority to receive them for safekeeping, deposit, transmittal, or other authorized disposition, but were neither applied as directed by the owner nor returned;


(ii) When lost incident to a marine or aircraft disaster;


(iii) When lost by fire, flood, hurricane, or other natural disaster;


(iv) When stolen from the quarters of the claimant where it is conclusively shown that the money was in a locked container and that the quarters themselves were locked. Exceptions to the foregoing “double lock” rule are permitted when the adjudicating authority determines that the theft loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, their agent, or their employee. The adjudicating authority should use the test of whether the claimant did their best under the circumstances to protect the property; or


(v) When taken by force from the claimant’s person.


(6) Clothing. Claims may be allowed for clothing and accessories customarily worn on the person which are damaged or lost:


(i) During the performance of official duties in an unusual or extraordinary-risk situation;


(ii) In cases involving emergency action required by natural disaster such as fire, flood, hurricane, or by enemy or other belligerent action;


(iii) In cases involving faulty equipment or defective furniture maintained by the Government and used by the claimant required by the job situation; or


(iv) When using a motor vehicle.


(7) Property used for benefit of the Government. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of property (except motor vehicles, see §§ 11.73(c)(3) and 11.74(b)(13)) used for the benefit of the Government at the request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity.


(8) Enemy action or public service. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of property as a direct consequence of:


(i) Enemy action or threat thereof, or combat, guerrilla, brigandage, or other belligerent activity, or unjust confiscation by a foreign power or its nation:


(ii) Action by the claimant to quiet a civil disturbance or to alleviate a public disaster; or


(iii) Efforts by the claimant to save human life or Government property.


(9) Marine or aircraft disaster. Claims may be allowed for personal property damaged or lost as a result of marine or aircraft disaster or accident.


(10) Government property. Claims may be allowed for property owned by the United States only when the claimant is financially responsible to an agency of the Government other than FEMA.


(11) Borrowed property. Claims may be allowed for borrowed property that has been damaged or lost.


(12)(i) A claim against the Government may be made for not more than $40,000 by an officer or employee of the agency for damage to, or loss of, personal property in a foreign country that was incurred incident to service, and –


(A) The officer, or employee was evacuated from the country on a recommendation or order of the Secretary of State or other competent authority that was made in responding to an incident of political unrest or hostile act by people in that country; and the damage or loss resulted from the evacuation, incident, or hostile act; or


(B) The damage or loss resulted from a hostile act directed against the Government or its officers, or employees.


(ii) On paying the claim under this section, the Government is subrogated for the amount of the payment to a right or claim that the claimant may have against the foreign country for the damage or loss for which the Government made the payment.


(iii) Amounts may be obligated or expended for claims under this section only to the extent provided in advance in appropriation laws.


§ 11.74 Claims not allowed.

(a) A claim is not allowable if:


(1) The damage or loss was caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, claimant’s agent, claimant’s employee, or a member of claimant’s family;


(2) The damage or loss occurred in quarters occupied by the claimant within the 50 states and the District of Columbia that were not assigned to the claimant or otherwise provided in-kind by the United States;


(3) Possession of the property lost or damaged was not incident to service or not reasonable or proper under the circumstances.


(b) In addition to claims falling within the categories of paragraph (a) of this section, the following are examples of claims which are not payable:


(1) Claims not incident to service. Claims which arose during the conduct of personal business are not payable.


(2) Subrogation claims. Claims based upon payment or other consideration to a proper claimant are not payable.


(3) Assigned claims. Claims based upon assignment of a claim by a proper claimant are not payable.


(4) Conditional vendor claims. Claims asserted by or on behalf of a conditional vendor are not payable.


(5) Claims by improper claimants. Claims by persons not designated in § 11.71 are not payable.


(6) Articles of extraordinary value. Claims are not payable for valuable or expensive articles, such as cameras, watches, jewelry, furs, or other articles of extraordinary value, when shipped with household goods or as unaccompanied baggage (shipment includes storage). This prohibition does not apply to articles in the personal custody of the claimant or articles properly checked, provided that reasonable protection or security measures have been taken, by the claimant.


(7) Articles acquired for other persons. Claims are not payable for articles intended directly or indirectly for persons other than the claimant or members of the claimants’ immediate household. This prohibition includes articles acquired at the request of others and articles for sale.


(8) Property used for business. Claims are not payable for property normally used for business or profit.


(9) Unserviceable property. Claims are not payable for wornout or unserviceable property.


(10) Violation of law or directive. Claims are not payable for property acquired, possessed, or transported in violation of law, regulation, or other directive. This does not apply to limitation imposed on the weight of shipments of household goods.


(11) Intangible property. Claims are not payable for intangible property such as bank books, checks, promissory notes, stock certificates, bonds, bills of lading, warehouse receipts, baggage checks, insurance policies, money orders, and traveler’s checks.


(12) Government property. Claims are not payable for property owned by the United States unless the claimant is financially responsible for the property to an agency of the Government other than FEMA.


(13) Motor vehicles. Claims for motor vehicles, except as provided for by § 11.73(c)(3), will ordinarily not be paid. However, in exceptional cases, meritorious claims for damage to or loss of motor vehicles, limited to a maximum of $1,000.00, may be recommended to the Office of Chief Counsel for consideration and approval for payment.


(14) Enemy property. Claims are not payable for enemy property, including war trophies.


(15) Losses recoverable from carrier, insurer or contractor. Claims are not payable for losses, or any portion thereof, which have been recovered or are recoverable from a carrier, insurer or under contract except as permitted under § 11.75.


(16) Fees for estimates. Claims are not normally payable for fees paid to obtain estimates of repair in conjunction with submitting a claim under this subpart. However, where, in the opinion of the adjudicating authority, the claimant could not obtain an estimate without paying a fee, such a claim may be considered in an amount reasonable in relation to the value for the cost of repairs of the articles involved, provided that the evidence furnished clearly indicates that the amount of the fee paid will not be deducted from the cost of repairs if the work is accomplished by the estimator.


(17) Items fraudulently claimed. Claims are not payable for items fraudulently claimed. When investigation discloses that a claimant, claimant’s agent, claimant’s employee, or member of claimant’s family has intentionally misrepresented an item claimed as to cost, condition, costs to repair, etc., the item will be disallowed in its entirety even though some actual damage has been sustained. However, if the remainder of the claim is proper, it may be paid. This does not preclude appropriate disciplinary action if warranted.


(18) Minimum amount. Loss or damage amounting to less than $10.


§ 11.75 Claims involving carriers and insurers.

In the event the property which is the subject of a claim was lost or damaged while in the possession of a carrier or was insured, the following procedures will apply:


(a) Whenever property is damaged, lost, or destroyed while being shipped pursuant to authorized travel orders, the owner must file a written claim for reimbursement with the last commercial carrier known or believed to have handled the goods, or the carrier known to be in possession of the property when the damage or loss occurred, according to the terms of its bill of lading or contract, before submitting a claim against the Government under this subpart.


(1) If more than one bill of lading or contract was issued, a separate demand should be made against the last carrier on each such document.


(2) The demand should be made within the time limit provided in the policy and prior to the filing of a claim against the Government.


(3) If it is apparent that the damage or loss is attributable to packing, storage, or unpacking while in the custody of the Government, no demand need be made against the carrier.


(b) Whenever property which is damaged, lost, or destroyed incident to the claimant’s service is insured in whole or in part, the claimant must make demand in writing against the insurer for reimbursement under terms and conditions of the insurance coverage, prior to the filing of the concurrent claim against the Government.


(c) Failure to make a demand on a carrier or insurer or to make all reasonable efforts to protect and prosecute rights available against a carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable from the carrier or insurer, had the claim been timely or diligently prosecuted. However, no deduction will be made where the circumstances of the claimant’s service preclude reasonable filing of such a claim or diligent prosecution, or the evidence indicates a demand was impracticable or would have been unavailing.


(d) Following the submission of the claim against the carrier or insurer, the claimant may immediately submit a claim against the Government in accordance with the provisions of this subpart, without waiting until either final approval or denial of the claim is made by the carrier or insurer.


(1) Upon submission of a claim to the Government, the claimant must certify in the claim that no recovery (or the amount of recovery) has been gained from a carrier or insurer, and enclose all correspondence pertinent thereto.


(2) If the carrier or insurer has not taken final action on the claim against them, by the time the claimant submits a claim to the Government, the claimant will immediately notify them to address all correspondence in regard to the claim to him/her, in care of the Chief Counsel of FEMA.


(3) The claimant shall timely advise the Chief Counsel in writing, of any action which is taken by the carrier or insurer on the claim. On request, the claimant also will furnish such evidence as may be required to enable the United States to enforce the claim.


(e) When a claim is paid by FEMA, the claimant will assign to the United States, to the extent of any payment on the claim accepted by claimant, all rights, title, and interest in any claim against the carrier, insurer, or other party arising out of the incident on which the claim against the Government is based. After payment of the claim by the Government, the claimant will, upon receipt of any payment from a carrier or insurer, pay the proceeds to the United States to the extent of the payment received by the claimant from the United States.


(f) When a claimant recovers for the loss from the carrier or insurer before the claim against the Government under this subpart is settled, the amount or recovery shall be applied to the claim as follows:


(1) When the amount recovered from a carrier, insurer, or other third party is greater than or equal to the claimant’s total loss as determined under this subpart, no compensation is allowable under this subpart.


(2) When the amount recovered is less than such total loss, the allowable amount is determined by deducting the recovery from the amount of such total loss;


(3) For the purpose of this paragraph (f) the claimant’s total loss is to be determined without regard to the $25,000 maximum set forth above. However, if the resulting amount, after making this deduction, exceeds $25,000, the claimant will be allowed only $25,000.


§ 11.76 Claims procedures.

(a) Filing a claim. Applicants shall file claims in writing with the Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC 20472. Each written claim shall contain, as a minimum:


(1) Name, address, and place of employment of the claimant;


(2) Place and date of the damage or loss:


(3) A brief statement of the facts and circumstances surrounding the damage or loss;


(4) Cost, date, and place of acquisition of each price of property damaged or lost;


(5) Two itemized repair estimates, or value estimates, whichever is applicable;


(6) Copies of police reports, if applicable;


(7) A statement from the claimant’s supervisor that the loss was incident to service;


(8) A statement that the property was or was not insured;


(9) With respect to claims involving thefts or losses in quarters or other places where the property was reasonably kept, a statement as to what security precautions were taken to protect the property involved;


(10) With respect to claims involving property being used for the benefit of the Government, a statement by the claimant’s supervisor that the claimant was required to provide such property or that the claimant’s providing it was in the interest of the Government; and


(11) Other evidence as may be required.


(b) Single claim. A single claim shall be presented for all lost or damaged property resulting from the same incident. If this procedure causes a hardship, the claimant may present an initial claim with notice that it is a partial claim, an explanation of the circumstances causing the hardship, and an estimate of the balance of the claim and the date it will be submitted. Payment may be made on a partial claim if the adjudicating authority determines that a genuine hardship exists.


(c) Loss in quarters. Claims for property loss in quarters or other authorized places should be accompanied by a statement indicating:


(1) Geographical location;


(2) Whether the quarters were assigned or provided in-kind by the Government;


(3) Whether the quarters are regularly occupied by the claimant;


(4) Names of the authority, if any, who designated the place of storage of the property if other than quarters;


(5) Measures taken to protect the property; and


(6) Whether the claimant is a local inhabitant.


(d) Loss by theft or robbery. Claims for property loss by theft or robbery should be accompanied by a statement indicating:


(1) Geographical location;


(2) Facts and circumstances surrounding the loss, including evidence of the crime such as breaking and entering, capture of the thief or robber, or recovery of part of the stolen goods; and


(3) Evidence that the claimant exercised due care in protecting the property prior to the loss, including information as to the degree of care normally exercised in the locale of the loss due to any unusual risks involved.


(e) Transportation losses. Claims for transportation losses should be accompanied by the following:


(1) Copies of orders authorizing the travel, transportation, or shipment or a certificate explaining the absence of orders and stating their substance;


(2) Statement in cases where property was turned over to a shipping officer, supply officer, or contract packer indicating:


(i) Name (or designation) and address of the shipping officer, supply officer, or contract packer indicating;


(ii) Date the property was turned over;


(iii) Inventoried condition when the property was turned over;


(iv) When and where the property was packed and by whom;


(v) Date of shipment;


(vi) Copies of all bills of lading, inventories, and other applicable shipping documents;


(vii) Date and place of delivery to the claimant;


(viii) Date the property was unpacked by the carrier, claimant, or Government;


(ix) Statement of disinterested witnesses as to the condition of the property when received and delivered, or as to handling or storage;


(x) Whether the negligence of any Government employee acting within the scope of his/her employment caused the damage or loss;


(xi) Whether the last common carrier or local carrier was given a clear receipt, except for concealed damages;


(xii) Total gross, tare, and new weight of shipment;


(xiii) Insurance certificate or policy if losses are privately insured;


(xiv) Copy of the demand on carrier or insured, or both, when required, and the reply, if any;


(xv) Action taken by the claimant to locate missing baggage or household effects, including related correspondence.


(f) Marine or aircraft disaster. Claims for property losses due to marine or aircraft disaster should be accompanied by a copy of orders or other evidence to establish the claimant’s right to be, or to have property on board.


(g) Enemy action, public disaster, or public service. Claims for property losses due to enemy action, public disaster, or public service should be accompanied by:


(1) Copies of orders or other evidence establishing the claimant’s required presence in the area involved; and


(2) A detailed statement of facts and circumstances showing an applicable case enumerated in § 11.73(c)(8).


(h) Money. Claims for loss of money deposited for safekeeping, transmittal, or other authorized disposition should be accompanied by:


(1) Name, grade, and address of the person or persons who received money and any others involved;


(2) Name and designation of the authority who authorized such person or persons to accept personal funds and the disposition required; and


(3) Receipts and written sworn statements explaining the failure to account for funds or return them to the claimant.


(i) Motor vehicles or mobile homes in transit. Claims for damage to motor vehicles or mobile homes in transit should be accompanied by a copy of orders or other available evidence to establish the claimant’s lawful right to have the property shipped and evidence to establish damage in transit.


§ 11.77 Settlement of claims.

(a) The Chief Counsel, FEMA, is authorized to settle (consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, and dispose of, whether by full or partial allowance or disallowance) any claim under this subpart.


(b) The Chief Counsel may formulate such procedures and make such redelegations as may be required to fulfill the objectives of this subpart.


(c) The Chief Counsel shall conduct or request the Office of Inspector General to conduct such investigation as may be appropriate in order to determine the validity of a claim.


(d) The Chief Counsel shall notify a claimant in writing of action taken on their claim, and if partial or full disallowance is made, the reasons therefor.


(e) In the event a claim submitted against a carrier under § 11.75 has not been settled, before settlement of the claim against the Government pursuant to this subpart, the Chief Counsel shall notify such carrier or insurer to pay the proceeds of the claim to FEMA to the extent FEMA has paid such to claimant in settlement.


(f) The settlement of a claim under this subpart, whether by full or partial allowance or disallowance, is final and conclusive.


§ 11.78 Computation of amount of award.

(a) The amount allowed for damage to or loss of any items of property may not exceed the cost of the item (either the price paid in cash or property, or the value at the time of acquisition if not acquired by purchase or exchange), and there will be no allowance for replacement cost or for appreciation in the value of the property. Subject to these limitations, the amount allowable is either:


(1) The depreciated value, immediately prior to the loss or damage, of property lost or damaged beyond economical repair, less any salvage value; or


(2) The reasonable cost or repairs, when property is economically repairable, provided that the cost of repairs does not exceed the amount allowable under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.


(b) Depreciation in value is determined by considering the type of article involved, its costs, its conditions when damaged or lost, and the time elapsed between the date of acquisition and the date of damage or loss.


(c) Replacement of lost or damaged property may be made in-kind whenever appropriate.


§ 11.79 Attorney’s fees.

No more than 10 per centum of the amount paid in settlement of each individual claim submitted and settled under this subpart shall be paid or delivered to or received by any agent or attorney on account of services rendered in connection with that claim. A person violating this section shall be fined not more than $1,000.


[45 FR 15930, Mar. 12, 1980, as amended at 74 FR 15337, Apr. 3, 2009]


PARTS 12-14 [RESERVED]

PART 15 – CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER


Authority:Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 43 FR 41943, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127 of Mar. 31, 1979, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376; E.O. 12148, 44 FR 13239, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 412; Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974, 15 U.S.C. 2201 et seq.; delegation of authority from the Administrator of General Services, dated July 18, 1979; Pub. L. 80-566, approved June 1, 1948, 40 U.S.C. 318-318d; and the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, 40 U.S.C. 271 et seq.


Source:64 FR 31137, June 10, 1999, unless otherwise noted.

§ 15.1 Applicability.

The rules and regulations in this part apply to all persons entering, while on, or leaving all the property known as the Mt. Weather Emergency Operations Center (Mt. Weather) located at 19844 Blue Ridge Mountain Road, Bluemont, Virginia 20135, and all the property known as the National Emergency Training Center (NETC), located on 16825 South Seton Avenue in Emmitsburg, Maryland, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) owns, operates and controls.


§ 15.2 Definitions.

Terms used in part 15 have these meanings:


Administrator means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Assistant Administrator means the Assistant Administrator, United States Fire Administration, FEMA.


FEMA means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Mt. Weather means the Mt. Weather Emergency Operations Center, Bluemont, Virginia.


Mt. Weather Executive Director means the Executive Director of the Mt. Weather Emergency Operations Center.


NETC means the National Emergency Training Center, Emmitsburg, MD.


We means the Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA.


[64 FR 31137, June 10, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 15338, Apr. 3, 2009]


§ 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather.

Mt. Weather contains classified material and areas that we must protect in the interest of national security. The facility is a restricted area. We deny access to Mt. Weather to the general public and limit access to those persons having official business related to the missions and operations of Mt. Weather. The Administrator or the Mt. Weather Executive Director must approve all persons and vehicles entering Mt. Weather. All persons must register with the Mt. Weather Police/Security Force and must receive a Mt. Weather identification badge and vehicle parking decal or permit to enter or remain on the premises. No person will enter or remain on Mt. Weather premises unless he or she has received permission from the Administrator or the Mt. Weather Executive Director and has complied with these procedures.


§ 15.4 Inspection.

(a) In general. All vehicles, packages, handbags, briefcases, and other containers being brought into, while on or being removed from Mt. Weather or the NETC are subject to inspection by the Police/Security Force and other authorized officials. A full search of a vehicle or person may accompany an arrest.


(b) Inspection at Mt. Weather. We authorize inspection at Mt. Weather to prevent the possession and use of items prohibited by these rules and regulations or by other applicable laws, to prevent theft of property and to prevent the wrongful obtaining of defense information under 18 U.S.C. 793. If individuals object to such inspections they must tell the officer on duty at the entrance gate before entering Mt. Weather. The Police/Security Force and other authorized officials must not authorize or allow individuals who refuse to permit an inspection of their vehicle or possessions to enter the premises of Mt. Weather.


§ 15.5 Preservation of property.

At both Mt. Weather and NETC we prohibit:


(a) The improper disposal of rubbish;


(b) Willful destruction of or damage to property;


(c) Theft of property;


(d) Creation of any hazard on the property to persons or things;


(e) Throwing articles of any kind from or at a building;


(f) Climbing upon a fence; or


(g) Climbing upon the roof or any part of a building.


§ 15.6 Compliance with signs and directions.

Persons at Mt. Weather and the NETC must comply at all times with official signs that prohibit, regulate, or direct, and with the directions of the Police/Security Force and other authorized officials.


§ 15.7 Disturbances.

At both Mt. Weather and NETC we prohibit any unwarranted loitering, disorderly conduct, or other conduct at Mt. Weather and NETC that:


(a) Creates loud or unusual noise or a nuisance;


(b) Unreasonably obstructs the usual use of classrooms, dormitory rooms, entrances, foyers, lobbies, corridors, offices, elevators, stairways, roadways or parking lots;


(c) Otherwise impedes or disrupts the performance of official duties by government employees or government contractors;


(d) Interferes with the delivery of educational or other programs; or


(e) Prevents persons from obtaining in a timely manner the administrative services provided at both facilities.


§ 15.8 Gambling.

We prohibit participating in games for money or other personal property, including the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery or pool, or the sale or purchase of numbers tickets at both facilities.


§ 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit:


(a) Operating a motor vehicle by any person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines as defined in Title 21 of the Annotated Code of Maryland, Transportation, sec. 21-902 or in Title 18.2, ch. 7, Art. 2 of the Code of Virginia, secs. 18.2-266 and 18.2-266.1, as applicable;


(b) Entering upon or while on either property being under the influence of or using or possessing any narcotic drug, marijuana, hallucinogen, barbiturate or amphetamine. This prohibition does not apply in cases where a licensed physician has prescribed the drug for the person;


(c) Entering upon either property or being on either property under the influence of alcoholic beverages;


(d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines onto the premises unless the Assistant Administrator, the Mt. Weather Executive Director, or the Administrator or designee for the NETC authorizes it in writing; and


(e) Use of alcoholic beverages on the property except:


(1) In the Balloon Shed Lounge at Mt. Weather and in other locations that the Administrator or the Mt. Weather Executive Director authorizes in writing; and


(2) In the NETC Recreation Association and other locations that the Assistant Administrator for the United States Fire Administration or the Administrator, or designee, authorizes in writing.


§ 15.10 Soliciting, vending, and debt collection.

(a) We prohibit soliciting alms and contributions, commercial or political soliciting and vending of all kinds, displaying or distributing commercial advertising, or collecting private debts unless the Assistant Administrator for the United States Fire Administration or the Mt. Weather Executive Director approve the activities in writing and in advance.


(b) The prohibitions of this section do not apply to:


(1) National or local drives for funds for welfare, health, or other purposes as authorized by 5 CFR part 950, Solicitation of Federal Civilian and Uniformed Service Personnel for Contributions to Private Voluntary Organizations. The Administrator, or the Senior Resident Manager, or the Assistant Administrator for the United States Fire Administration or designee, must approve all such national or local drives before they are conducted on either premises;


(2) Authorized concessions;


(3) Personal notices posted by employees on authorized bulletin boards; and


(4) Solicitation of labor organization membership or dues authorized by occupant agencies under the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, 5 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.


§ 15.11 Distribution of handbills.

We prohibit the distribution of materials such as pamphlets, handbills or flyers, and the displaying of placards or posting of materials on bulletin boards or elsewhere at Mt. Weather and the NETC unless the Administrator, the Mt. Weather Executive Director, or the Deputy Assistant Administrator for the United States Fire Administration or designee, approves such distribution or display, or when such distribution or display is conducted as part of authorized government activities.


§ 15.12 Photographs and other depictions.

(a) Photographs and other depictions at Mt. Weather. We prohibit taking photographs and making notes, sketches, or diagrams of buildings, grounds or other features of Mt. Weather, or the possession of a camera while at Mt. Weather except when the Administrator or Mt. Weather Executive Director approves in advance.


(b) Photographs and other depictions at the NETC. (1) Photographs may be taken inside classroom or office areas of the NETC only with the consent of the occupants. Except where security regulations apply or a Federal court order or rule prohibits it, photographs may be taken in entrances, lobbies, foyers, corridors, or auditoriums when used for public meetings.


(2) Subject to the foregoing prohibitions, photographs for advertising and commercial purposes may be taken only with written permission of the Director of Management Operations and Systems Support, United States Fire Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emmitsburg, MD 21727, (telephone) (301) 447-1223, (facsimile) (301) 447-1052, or other authorized official where photographs are to be taken.


§ 15.13 Dogs and other animals.

Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, must not be brought onto Mt. Weather grounds or into the buildings at NETC for other than official purposes.


§ 15.14 Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

(a) Drivers of all vehicles entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC must drive carefully and safely at all times and must obey the signals and directions of the Police/Security Force or other authorized officials and all posted traffic signs;


(b) Drivers must comply with NETC parking requirements and vehicle registration requirements;


(c) At both Mt. Weather and the NETC we prohibit:


(1) Blocking entrances, driveways, walks, loading platforms, or fire hydrants on the property; and


(2) Parking without authority, parking in unauthorized locations or in locations reserved for other persons, or parking contrary to the direction of posted signs.


(3) Where warning signs are posted vehicles parked in violation may be removed at the owners’ risk and expense.


(d) The Administrator, Mt. Weather Executive Director, or the Assistant Administrator for the United States Fire Administration or designee may issue and post specific supplemental traffic directives if needed. When issued and posted supplemental traffic directives will have the same force and effect as if they were in these rules. Proof that a parked motor vehicle violated these rules or directives may be taken as prima facie evidence that the registered owner was responsible for the violation.


§ 15.15 Weapons and explosives.

No person entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC will carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives or items intended to be used or that could reasonably be used to fabricate an explosive or incendiary device, either openly or concealed, except:


(a) For official purposes if the Administrator, Mt. Weather Executive Director, or the Assistant Administrator for the United States Fire Administration or designee approves; and


(b) In accordance with FEMA policy governing the possession of firearms.


§ 15.16 Penalties.

(a) Misconduct. (1) Whoever is found guilty of violating any of these rules and regulations is subject to a fine of not more than $50 or imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. (See 40 U.S.C. 318c.)


(2) We will process any misconduct at NETC according to FEMA/NETC policy or instructions.


(b) Parking violations. We may tow at the owner’s expense any vehicles parked in violation of State law, FEMA, Mt. Weather, or NETC instructions.


§ 15.17 Other laws.

Nothing in the rules and regulations in this part will be construed to abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather or NETC premises. The rules and regulations in this part supplement penal provisions of Title 18, United States Code, relating to Crimes and Criminal Procedure, which apply without regard to the place of the offense and to those penal provisions that apply in areas under the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7. They supersede provisions of State law, however, that Federal law makes criminal offenses under the Assimilated Crimes Act (18 U.S.C. 13) to the extent that State laws conflict with these regulations. State and local criminal laws apply as such only to the extent that the State reserved such authority to itself by the State consent or cession statute or that a Federal statute vests such authority in the State.


PART 16 – ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY


Authority:29 U.S.C. 794.


Source:53 FR 25885, July 8, 1988, unless otherwise noted.

§ 16.101 Purpose.

The purpose of this regulation is to effectuate section 119 of the Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental Disabilities Amendments of 1978, which amended section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to prohibit discrimination on the basis of handicap in programs or activities conducted by Executive agencies or the United States Postal Service.


§ 16.102 Application.

This regulation (§§ 16.101 through 16.170) applies to all programs or activities conducted by the agency, except for programs or activities conducted outside the United States that do not involve individuals with handicaps in the United States.


§ 16.103 Definitions.

For purposes of this regulation, the term –


Assistant Attorney General means the Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice.


Auxiliary aids means services or devices that enable persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills to have an equal opportunity to participate in, and enjoy the benefits of, programs or activities conducted by the agency. For example, auxiliary aids useful for persons with impaired vision include readers, Brailled materials, audio recordings, and other similar services and devices. Auxiliary aids useful for persons with impaired hearing include telephone handset amplifiers, telephones compatible with hearing aids, telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD’s), interpreters, notetakers, written materials, and other similar services and devices.


Complete complaint means a written statement that contains the complainant’s name and address and describes the agency’s alleged discriminatory action in sufficient detail to inform the agency of the nature and date of the alleged violation of section 504. It shall be signed by the complainant or by someone authorized to do so on his or her behalf. Complaints filed on behalf of classes or third parties shall describe or identify (by name, if possible) the alleged victims of discrimination.


Facility means all or any portion of buildings, structures, equipment, roads, walks, parking lots, rolling stock or other conveyances, or other real or personal property.


Historic preservation programs means programs conducted by the agency that have preservation of historic properties as a primary purpose.


Historic properties means those properties that are listed or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places or properties designated as historic under a statute of the appropriate State or local government body.


Individual with handicaps means any person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.


As used in this definition, the phrase:


(1) Physical or mental impairment includes –


(i) Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: Neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs; cardiovascular; reproductive; digestive; genitourinary; hemic and lymphatic; skin; and endocrine; or


(ii) Any mental or psychological disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities. The term physical or mental impairment includes, but is not limited to, such diseases and conditions as orthopedic, visual, speech, and hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, mental retardation, emotional illness, and drug addiction and alcoholism.


(2) Major life activities includes functions such as caring for one’s self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working.


(3) Has a record of such an impairment means has a history of, or has been misclassified as having, a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.


(4) Is regarded as having an impairment means –


(i) Has a physical or mental impairment that does not substantially limit major life activities but is treated by the agency as constituting such a limitation;


(ii) Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits major life activities only as a result of the attitudes of others toward such impairment; or


(iii) Has none of the impairments defined in paragraph (1) of this definition but is treated by the agency as having such an impairment.


Qualified individual with handicaps means –


(1) With respect to preschool, elementary, or secondary education services provided by the agency, an individual with handicaps who is a member of a class of persons otherwise entitled by statute, regulation, or agency policy to receive education services from the agency;


(2) With respect to any other agency program or activity under which a person is required to perform services or to achieve a level of accomplishment, an individual with handicaps who meets the essential eligibility requirements and who can achieve the purpose of the program or activity without modifications in the program or activity that the agency can demonstrate would result in a fundamental alteration in its nature;


(3) With respect to any other program or activity, an individual with handicaps who meets the essential eligibility requirements for participation in, or receipt of benefits from, that program or activity; and


(4) Qualified handicapped person as that term is defined for purposes of employment in 29 CFR 1613.702(f), which is made applicable to this regulation by § 16.140.


Section 504 means section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-112, 87 Stat. 394 (29 U.S.C. 794)), as amended by the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-516, 88 Stat. 1617); the Rehabilitation, Comprehensive Services, and Developmental Disabilities Amendments of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-602, 92 Stat. 2955); and the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-506, 100 Stat. 1810). As used in this regulation, section 504 applies only to programs or activities conducted by Executive agencies and not to federally assisted programs.


Substantial impairment means a significant loss of the integrity of finished materials, design quality, or special character resulting from a permanent alteration.


§§ 16.104-16.109 [Reserved]

§ 16.110 Self-evaluation.

(a) The agency shall, by September 6, 1989, evaluate its current policies and practices, and the effects thereof, that do not or may not meet the requirements of this regulation and, to the extent modification of any such policies and practices is required, the agency shall proceed to make the necessary modifications.


(b) The agency shall provide an opportunity to interested persons, including individuals with handicaps or organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written).


(c) The agency shall, for at least three years following completion of the self-evaluation, maintain on file and make available for public inspection:


(1) A description of areas examined and any problems identified; and


(2) A description of any modifications made.


§ 16.111 Notice.

The agency shall make available to employees, applicants, participants, beneficiaries, and other interested persons such information regarding the provisions of this regulation and its applicability to the programs or activities conducted by the agency, and make such information available to them in such manner as the head of the agency finds necessary to apprise such persons of the protections against discrimination assured them by section 504 and this regulation.


§§ 16.112-16.129 [Reserved]

§ 16.130 General prohibitions against discrimination.

(a) No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the agency.


(b)(1) The agency, in providing any aid, benefit, or service, may not, directly or through contractual, licensing, or other arrangements, on the basis of handicap –


(i) Deny a qualified individual with handicaps the opportunity to participate in or benefit from the aid, benefit, or service;


(ii) Afford a qualified individual with handicaps an opportunity to participate in or benefit from the aid, benefit, or service that is not equal to that afforded others;


(iii) Provide a qualified individual with handicaps with an aid, benefit, or service that is not as effective in affording equal opportunity to obtain the same result, to gain the same benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement as that provided to others;


(iv) Provide different or separate aid, benefits, or services to individuals with handicaps or to any class of individuals with handicaps than is provided to others unless such action is necessary to provide qualified individuals with handicaps with aid, benefits, or services that are as effective as those provided to others;


(v) Deny a qualified individual with handicaps the opportunity to participate as a member of planning or advisory boards;


(vi) Otherwise limit a qualified individual with handicaps in the enjoyment of any right, privilege, advantage, or opportunity enjoyed by others receiving the aid, benefit, or service.


(2) The agency may not deny a qualified individual with handicaps the opportunity to participate in programs or activities that are not separate or different, despite the existence of permissibly separate or different programs or activities.


(3) The agency may not, directly or through contractual or other arrangements, utilize criteria or methods of administration the purpose or effect of which would –


(i) Subject qualified individuals with handicaps to discrimination on the basis of handicap; or


(ii) Defeat or substantially impair accomplishment of the objectives of a program or activity with respect to individuals with handicaps.


(4) The agency may not, in determining the site or location of a facility, make selections the purpose or effect of which would –


(i) Exclude individuals with handicaps from, deny them the benefits of, or otherwise subject them to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the agency; or


(ii) Defeat or substantially impair the accomplishment of the objectives of a program or activity with respect to individuals with handicaps.


(5) The agency, in the selection of procurement contractors, may not use criteria that subject qualified individuals with handicaps to discrimination on the basis of handicap.


(6) The agency may not administer a licensing or certification program in a manner that subjects qualified individuals with handicaps to discrimination on the basis of handicap, nor may the agency establish requirements for the programs or activities of licensees or certified entities that subject qualified individuals with handicaps to discrimination on the basis of handicap. However, the programs or activities of entities that are licensed or certified by the agency are not, themselves, covered by this regulation.


(c) The exclusion of nonhandicapped persons from the benefits of a program limited by Federal statute or Executive order to individuals with handicaps or the exclusion of a specific class of individuals with handicaps from a program limited by Federal statute or Executive order to a different class of individuals with handicaps is not prohibited by this regulation.


(d) The agency shall administer programs and activities in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of qualified individuals with handicaps.


§§ 16.131-16.139 [Reserved]

§ 16.140 Employment.

No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subject to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities.


§§ 16.141-16.148 [Reserved]

§ 16.149 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

Except as otherwise provided in § 16.150, no qualified individual with handicaps shall, because the agency’s facilities are inaccessible to or unusable by individuals with handicaps, be denied the benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the agency.


§ 16.150 Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

(a) General. The agency shall operate each program or activity so that the program or activity, when viewed in its entirety, is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. This paragraph does not –


(1) Necessarily require the agency to make each of its existing facilities accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps;


(2) In the case of historic preservation programs, require the agency to take any action that would result in a substantial impairment of significant historic features of an historic property; or


(3) Require the agency to take any action that it can demonstrate would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of a program or activity or in undue financial and administrative burdens. In those circumstances where agency personnel believe that the proposed action would fundamentally alter the program or activity or would result in undue financial and administrative burdens, the agency has the burden of proving that compliance with § 16.150(a) would result in such alteration or burdens. The decision that compliance would result in such alteration or burdens must be made by the agency head or his or her designee after considering all agency resources available for use in the funding and operation of the conducted program or activity, and must be accompanied by a written statement of the reasons for reaching that conclusion. If an action would result in such an alteration or such burdens, the agency shall take any other action that would not result in such an alteration or such burdens but would nevertheless ensure that individuals with handicaps receive the benefits and services of the program or activity.


(b) Methods – (1) General. The agency may comply with the requirements of this section through such means as redesign of equipment, reassignment of services to accessible buildings, assignment of aides to beneficiaries, home visits, delivery of services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities and construction of new facilities, use of accessible rolling stock, or any other methods that result in making its programs or activities readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The agency is not required to make structural changes in existing facilities where other methods are effective in achieving compliance with this section. The agency, in making alterations to existing buildings, shall meet accessibility requirements to the extent compelled by the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4151 through 4157), and any regulations implementing it. In choosing among available methods for meeting the requirements of this section, the agency shall give priority to those methods that offer programs and activities to qualified individuals with handicaps in the most integrated setting appropriate.


(2) Historic preservation programs. In meeting the requirements of § 16.150(a) in historic preservation programs, the agency shall give priority to methods that provide physical access to individuals with handicaps. In cases where a physical alteration to an historic property is not required because of § 16.150(a) (2) or (3), alternative methods of achieving program accessibility include –


(i) Using audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an historic property that cannot otherwise be made accessible;


(ii) Assigning persons to guide individuals with handicaps into or through portions of historic properties that cannot otherwise be made accessible; or


(iii) Adopting other innovative methods.


(c) Time period for compliance. The agency shall comply with the obligations established under this section by November 7, 1988, except that where structural changes in facilities are undertaken, such changes shall be made by September 6, 1991, but in any event as expeditiously as possible.


(d) Transition plan. In the event that structural changes to facilities will be undertaken to achieve program accessibility, the agency shall develop, by March 6, 1989, a transition plan setting forth the steps necessary to complete such changes. The agency shall provide an opportunity to interested persons, including individuals with handicaps or organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to participate in the development of the transition plan by submitting comments (both oral and written). A copy of the transition plan shall be made available for public inspection. The plan shall, at a minimum –


(1) Identify physical obstacles in the agency’s facilities that limit the accessibility of its programs or activities to individuals with handicaps;


(2) Describe in detail the methods that will be used to make the facilities accessible;


(3) Specify the schedule for taking the steps necessary to achieve compliance with this section and, if the time period of the transition plan is longer than one year, identify steps that will be taken during each year of the transition period; and


(4) Indicate the official responsible for implementation of the plan.


§ 16.151 Program accessibility: New construction and alterations.

Each building or part of a building that is constructed or altered by, on behalf of, or for the use of the agency shall be designed, constructed, or altered so as to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps. The definitions, requirements, and standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), as established in 41 CFR 101-19.600 to 101-19.607, apply to buildings covered by this section.


§§ 16.152-16.159 [Reserved]

§ 16.160 Communications.

(a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities, and members of the public.


(1) The agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary to afford an individual with handicaps an equal opportunity to participate in, and enjoy the benefits of, a program or activity conducted by the agency.


(i) In determining what type of auxiliary aid is necessary, the agency shall give primary consideration to the requests of the individual with handicaps.


(ii) The agency need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use or study, or other devices of a personal nature.


(2) Where the agency communicates with applicants and beneficiaries by telephone, telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD’s) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used to communicate with persons with impaired hearing.


(b) The agency shall ensure that interested persons, including persons with impaired vision or hearing, can obtain information as to the existence and location of accessible services, activities, and facilities.


(c) The agency shall provide signage at a primary entrance to each of its inaccessible facilities, directing users to a location at which they can obtain information about accessible facilities. The international symbol for accessibility shall be used at each primary entrance of an accessible facility.


(d) This section does not require the agency to take any action that it can demonstrate would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of a program or activity or in undue financial and administrative burdens. In those circumstances where agency personnel believe that the proposed action would fundamentally alter the program or activity or would result in undue financial and administrative burdens, the agency has the burden of proving that compliance with § 16.160 would result in such alteration or burdens. The decision that compliance would result in such alteration or burdens must be made by the agency head or his or her designee after considering all agency resources available for use in the funding and operation of the conducted program or activity and must be accompanied by a written statement of the reasons for reaching that conclusion. If an action required to comply with this section would result in such an alteration or such burdens, the agency shall take any other action that would not result in such an alteration or such burdens but would nevertheless ensure that, to the maximum extent possible, individuals with handicaps receive the benefits and services of the program or activity.


§§ 16.161-16.169 [Reserved]

§ 16.170 Compliance procedures.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this section applies to all allegations of discrimination on the basis of handicap in programs and activities conducted by the agency.


(b) The agency shall process complaints alleging violations of section 504 with respect to employment according to the procedures established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613 pursuant to section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791).


(c) The Director of the Office of Equal Rights shall be responsible for coordinating implementation of this section. Complaints may be sent to Director of the Office of Equal Rights, Room 810, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW., Washington, DC 20472.


(d) The agency shall accept and investigate all complete complaints for which it has jurisdiction. All complete complaints must be filed within 180 days of the alleged act of discrimination. The agency may extend this time period for good cause.


(e) If the agency receives a complaint over which it does not have jurisdiction, it shall promptly notify the complainant and shall make reasonable efforts to refer the complaint to the appropriate Government entity.


(f) The agency shall notify the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board upon receipt of any complaint alleging that a building or facility that is subject to the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4151-4157), is not readily accessible to and usable by individuals with handicaps.


(g) Within 180 days of the receipt of a complete complaint for which it has jurisdiction, the agency shall notify the complainant of the results of the investigation in a letter containing –


(1) Findings of fact and conclusions of law;


(2) A description of a remedy for each violation found; and


(3) A notice of the right to appeal.


(h) Appeals of the findings of fact and conclusions of law or remedies must be filed by the complainant within 90 days of receipt from the agency of the letter required by paragraph (g) of this section. The agency may extend this time for good cause.


(i) Timely appeals shall be accepted and processed by the head of the agency.


(j) The head of the agency shall notify the complainant of the results of the appeal within 60 days of the receipt of the request. If the head of the agency determines that additional information is needed from the complainant, he or she shall have 60 days from the date of receipt of the additional information to make his or her determination on the appeal.


(k) The time limits cited in paragraphs (g) and (j) of this section may be extended with the permission of the Assistant Attorney General.


(l) The agency may delegate its authority for conducting complaint investigations to other Federal agencies, except that the authority for making the final determination may not be delegated to another agency.


§§ 16.171-16.999 [Reserved]

PART 17 [RESERVED]

PART 18 – NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING


Authority:Section 319, Public Law 101-121 (31 U.S.C. 1352); 5 U.S.C. 551, 552, 553; 5 U.S.C. 601, et seq.; E.O. 12291. Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, E.O. 12127, E.O. 12148, E.O. 12657, E.O. 12699.


Source:55 FR 6737, 6754, Feb. 26, 1990, unless otherwise noted.


Cross Reference:

See also Office of Management and Budget notice published at 54 FR 52306, December 20, 1989.

Subpart A – General

§ 18.100 Conditions on use of funds.

(a) No appropriated funds may be expended by the recipient of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement to pay any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with any of the following covered Federal actions: the awarding of any Federal contract, the making of any Federal grant, the making of any Federal loan, the entering into of any cooperative agreement, and the extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.


(b) Each person who requests or receives from an agency a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement shall file with that agency a certification, set forth in appendix A, that the person has not made, and will not make, any payment prohibited by paragraph (a) of this section.


(c) Each person who requests or receives from an agency a Federal contract, grant, loan, or a cooperative agreement shall file with that agency a disclosure form, set forth in appendix B, if such person has made or has agreed to make any payment using nonappropriated funds (to include profits from any covered Federal action), which would be prohibited under paragraph (a) of this section if paid for with appropriated funds.


(d) Each person who requests or receives from an agency a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan shall file with that agency a statement, set forth in appendix A, whether that person has made or has agreed to make any payment to influence or attempt to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with that loan insurance or guarantee.


(e) Each person who requests or receives from an agency a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan shall file with that agency a disclosure form, set forth in appendix B, if that person has made or has agreed to make any payment to influence or attempt to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with that loan insurance or guarantee.


§ 18.105 Definitions.

For purposes of this part:


(a) Agency, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 552(f), includes Federal executive departments and agencies as well as independent regulatory commissions and Government corporations, as defined in 31 U.S.C. 9101(1).


(b) Covered Federal action means any of the following Federal actions:


(1) The awarding of any Federal contract;


(2) The making of any Federal grant;


(3) The making of any Federal loan;


(4) The entering into of any cooperative agreement; and,


(5) The extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.


Covered Federal action does not include receiving from an agency a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan. Loan guarantees and loan insurance are addressed independently within this part.

(c) Federal contract means an acquisition contract awarded by an agency, including those subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), and any other acquisition contract for real or personal property or services not subject to the FAR.


(d) Federal cooperative agreement means a cooperative agreement entered into by an agency.


(e) Federal grant means an award of financial assistance in the form of money, or property in lieu of money, by the Federal Government or a direct appropriation made by law to any person. The term does not include technical assistance which provides services instead of money, or other assistance in the form of revenue sharing, loans, loan guarantees, loan insurance, interest subsidies, insurance, or direct United States cash assistance to an individual.


(f) Federal loan means a loan made by an agency. The term does not include loan guarantee or loan insurance.


(g) Indian tribe and tribal organization have the meaning provided in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450B). Alaskan Natives are included under the definitions of Indian tribes in that Act.


(h) Influencing or attempting to influence means making, with the intent to influence, any communication to or appearance before an officer or employee or any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with any covered Federal action.


(i) Loan guarantee and loan insurance means an agency’s guarantee or insurance of a loan made by a person.


(j) Local government means a unit of government in a State and, if chartered, established, or otherwise recognized by a State for the performance of a governmental duty, including a local public authority, a special district, an intrastate district, a council of governments, a sponsor group representative organization, and any other instrumentality of a local government.


(k) Officer or employee of an agency includes the following individuals who are employed by an agency:


(1) An individual who is appointed to a position in the Government under title 5, U.S. Code, including a position under a temporary appointment;


(2) A member of the uniformed services as defined in section 101(3), title 37, U.S. Code;


(3) A special Government employee as defined in section 202, title 18, U.S. Code; and,


(4) An individual who is a member of a Federal advisory committee, as defined by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, title 5, U.S. Code appendix 2.


(l) Person means an individual, corporation, company, association, authority, firm, partnership, society, State, and local government, regardless of whether such entity is operated for profit or not for profit. This term excludes an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or any other Indian organization with respect to expenditures specifically permitted by other Federal law.


(m) Reasonable compensation means, with respect to a regularly employed officer or employee of any person, compensation that is consistent with the normal compensation for such officer or employee for work that is not furnished to, not funded by, or not furnished in cooperation with the Federal Government.


(n) Reasonable payment means, with respect to professional and other technical services, a payment in an amount that is consistent with the amount normally paid for such services in the private sector.


(o) Recipient includes all contractors, subcontractors at any tier, and subgrantees at any tier of the recipient of funds received in connection with a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement. The term excludes an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or any other Indian organization with respect to expenditures specifically permitted by other Federal law.


(p) Regularly employed means, with respect to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, an officer or employee who is employed by such person for at least 130 working days within one year immediately preceding the date of the submission that initiates agency consideration of such person for receipt of such contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement, loan insurance commitment, or loan guarantee commitment. An officer or employee who is employed by such person for less than 130 working days within one year immediately preceding the date of the submission that initiates agency consideration of such person shall be considered to be regularly employed as soon as he or she is employed by such person for 130 working days.


(q) State means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a territory or possession of the United States, an agency or instrumentality of a State, and a multi-State, regional, or interstate entity having governmental duties and powers.


§ 18.110 Certification and disclosure.

(a) Each person shall file a certification, and a disclosure form, if required, with each submission that initiates agency consideration of such person for:


(1) Award of a Federal contract, grant, or cooperative agreement exceeding $100,000; or


(2) An award of a Federal loan or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan exceeding $150,000.


(b) Each person shall file a certification, and a disclosure form, if required, upon receipt by such person of:


(1) A Federal contract, grant, or cooperative agreement exceeding $100,000; or


(2) A Federal loan or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan exceeding $150,000, unless such person previously filed a certification, and a disclosure form, if required, under paragraph (a) of this section.


(c) Each person shall file a disclosure form at the end of each calendar quarter in which there occurs any event that requires disclosure or that materially affects the accuracy of the information contained in any disclosure form previously filed by such person under paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. An event that materially affects the accuracy of the information reported includes:


(1) A cumulative increase of $25,000 or more in the amount paid or expected to be paid for influencing or attempting to influence a covered Federal action; or


(2) A change in the person(s) or individual(s) influencing or attempting to influence a covered Federal action; or,


(3) A change in the officer(s), employee(s), or Member(s) contacted to influence or attempt to influence a covered Federal action.


(d) Any person who requests or receives from a person referred to in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section:


(1) A subcontract exceeding $100,000 at any tier under a Federal contract;


(2) A subgrant, contract, or subcontract exceeding $100,000 at any tier under a Federal grant;


(3) A contract or subcontract exceeding $100,000 at any tier under a Federal loan exceeding $150,000; or,


(4) A contract or subcontract exceeding $100,000 at any tier under a Federal cooperative agreement,


shall file a certification, and a disclosure form, if required, to the next tier above.

(e) All disclosure forms, but not certifications, shall be forwarded from tier to tier until received by the person referred to in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. That person shall forward all disclosure forms to the agency.


(f) Any certification or disclosure form filed under paragraph (e) of this section shall be treated as a material representation of fact upon which all receiving tiers shall rely. All liability arising from an erroneous representation shall be borne solely by the tier filing that representation and shall not be shared by any tier to which the erroneous representation is forwarded. Submitting an erroneous certification or disclosure constitutes a failure to file the required certification or disclosure, respectively. If a person fails to file a required certification or disclosure, the United States may pursue all available remedies, including those authorized by section 1352, title 31, U.S. Code.


(g) For awards and commitments in process prior to December 23, 1989, but not made before that date, certifications shall be required at award or commitment, covering activities occurring between December 23, 1989, and the date of award or commitment. However, for awards and commitments in process prior to the December 23, 1989 effective date of these provisions, but not made before December 23, 1989, disclosure forms shall not be required at time of award or commitment but shall be filed within 30 days.


(h) No reporting is required for an activity paid for with appropriated funds if that activity is allowable under either subpart B or C.


Subpart B – Activities by Own Employees

§ 18.200 Agency and legislative liaison.

(a) The prohibition on the use of appropriated funds, in § 18.100 (a), does not apply in the case of a payment of reasonable compensation made to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement if the payment is for agency and legislative liaison activities not directly related to a covered Federal action.


(b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, providing any information specifically requested by an agency or Congress is allowable at any time.


(c) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the following agency and legislative liaison activities are allowable at any time only where they are not related to a specific solicitation for any covered Federal action:


(1) Discussing with an agency (including individual demonstrations) the qualities and characteristics of the person’s products or services, conditions or terms of sale, and service capabilities; and,


(2) Technical discussions and other activities regarding the application or adaptation of the person’s products or services for an agency’s use.


(d) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the following agencies and legislative liaison activities are allowable only where they are prior to formal solicitation of any covered Federal action:


(1) Providing any information not specifically requested but necessary for an agency to make an informed decision about initiation of a covered Federal action;


(2) Technical discussions regarding the preparation of an unsolicited proposal prior to its official submission; and,


(3) Capability presentations by persons seeking awards from an agency pursuant to the provisions of the Small Business Act, as amended by Public Law 95-507 and other subsequent amendments.


(e) Only those activities expressly authorized by this section are allowable under this section.


§ 18.205 Professional and technical services.

(a) The prohibition on the use of appropriated funds, in § 18.100 (a), does not apply in the case of a payment of reasonable compensation made to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or an extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement if payment is for professional or technical services rendered directly in the preparation, submission, or negotiation of any bid, proposal, or application for that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or for meeting requirements imposed by or pursuant to law as a condition for receiving that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.


(b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, “professional and technical services” shall be limited to advice and analysis directly applying any professional or technical discipline. For example, drafting of a legal document accompanying a bid or proposal by a lawyer is allowable. Similarly, technical advice provided by an engineer on the performance or operational capability of a piece of equipment rendered directly in the negotiation of a contract is allowable. However, communications with the intent to influence made by a professional (such as a licensed lawyer) or a technical person (such as a licensed accountant) are not allowable under this section unless they provide advice and analysis directly applying their professional or technical expertise and unless the advice or analysis is rendered directly and solely in the preparation, submission or negotiation of a covered Federal action. Thus, for example, communications with the intent to influence made by a lawyer that do not provide legal advice or analysis directly and solely related to the legal aspects of his or her client’s proposal, but generally advocate one proposal over another are not allowable under this section because the lawyer is not providing professional legal services. Similarly, communications with the intent to influence made by an engineer providing an engineering analysis prior to the preparation or submission of a bid or proposal are not allowable under this section since the engineer is providing technical services but not directly in the preparation, submission or negotiation of a covered Federal action.


(c) Requirements imposed by or pursuant to law as a condition for receiving a covered Federal award include those required by law or regulation, or reasonably expected to be required by law or regulation, and any other requirements in the actual award documents.


(d) Only those services expressly authorized by this section are allowable under this section.


§ 18.210 Reporting.

No reporting is required with respect to payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly employed officers or employees of a person.


Subpart C – Activities by Other Than Own Employees

§ 18.300 Professional and technical services.

(a) The prohibition on the use of appropriated funds, in § 18.100 (a), does not apply in the case of any reasonable payment to a person, other than an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a covered Federal action, if the payment is for professional or technical services rendered directly in the preparation, submission, or negotiation of any bid, proposal, or application for that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or for meeting requirements imposed by or pursuant to law as a condition for receiving that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.


(b) The reporting requirements in § 18.110 (a) and (b) regarding filing a disclosure form by each person, if required, shall not apply with respect to professional or technical services rendered directly in the preparation, submission, or negotiation of any commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan.


(c) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, “professional and technical services” shall be limited to advice and analysis directly applying any professional or technical discipline. For example, drafting or a legal document accompanying a bid or proposal by a lawyer is allowable. Similarly, technical advice provided by an engineer on the performance or operational capability of a piece of equipment rendered directly in the negotiation of a contract is allowable. However, communications with the intent to influence made by a professional (such as a licensed lawyer) or a technical person (such as a licensed accountant) are not allowable under this section unless they provide advice and analysis directly applying their professional or technical expertise and unless the advice or analysis is rendered directly and solely in the preparation, submission or negotiation of a covered Federal action. Thus, for example, communications with the intent to influence made by a lawyer that do not provide legal advice or analysis directly and solely related to the legal aspects of his or her client’s proposal, but generally advocate one proposal over another are not allowable under this section because the lawyer is not providing professional legal services. Similarly, communications with the intent to influence made by an engineer providing an engineering analysis prior to the preparation or submission of a bid or proposal are not allowable under this section since the engineer is providing technical services but not directly in the preparation, submission or negotiation of a covered Federal action.


(d) Requirements imposed by or pursuant to law as a condition for receiving a covered Federal award include those required by law or regulation, or reasonably expected to be required by law or regulation, and any other requirements in the actual award documents.


(e) Persons other than officers or employees of a person requesting or receiving a covered Federal action include consultants and trade associations.


(f) Only those services expressly authorized by this section are allowable under this section.


Subpart D – Penalties and Enforcement

§ 18.400 Penalties.

(a) Any person who makes an expenditure prohibited herein shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such expenditure.


(b) Any person who fails to file or amend the disclosure form (see appendix B) to be filed or amended if required herein, shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure.


(c) A filing or amended filing on or after the date on which an administrative action for the imposition of a civil penalty is commenced does not prevent the imposition of such civil penalty for a failure occurring before that date. An administrative action is commenced with respect to a failure when an investigating official determines in writing to commence an investigation of an allegation of such failure.


(d) In determining whether to impose a civil penalty, and the amount of any such penalty, by reason of a violation by any person, the agency shall consider the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation, the effect on the ability of such person to continue in business, any prior violations by such person, the degree of culpability of such person, the ability of the person to pay the penalty, and such other matters as may be appropriate.


(e) First offenders under paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of $10,000, absent aggravating circumstances. Second and subsequent offenses by persons shall be subject to an appropriate civil penalty between $10,000 and $100,000, as determined by the agency head or his or her designee.


(f) An imposition of a civil penalty under this section does not prevent the United States from seeking any other remedy that may apply to the same conduct that is the basis for the imposition of such civil penalty.


§ 18.405 Penalty procedures.

Agencies shall impose and collect civil penalties pursuant to the provisions of the Program Fraud and Civil Remedies Act, 31 U.S.C. 3803 (except subsection (c)), 3804, 3805, 3806, 3807, 3808, and 3812, insofar as these provisions are not inconsistent with the requirements herein.


§ 18.410 Enforcement.

The head of each agency shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the provisions herein are vigorously implemented and enforced in that agency.


Subpart E – Exemptions

§ 18.500 Secretary of Defense.

(a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal action from the prohibition whenever the Secretary determines, in writing, that such an exemption is in the national interest. The Secretary shall transmit a copy of each such written exemption to Congress immediately after making such a determination.


(b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental regulations to implement paragraph (a) of this section.


Subpart F – Agency Reports

§ 18.600 Semi-annual compilation.

(a) The head of each agency shall collect and compile the disclosure reports (see appendix B) and, on May 31 and November 30 of each year, submit to the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives a report containing a compilation of the information contained in the disclosure reports received during the six-month period ending on March 31 or September 30, respectively, of that year.


(b) The report, including the compilation, shall be available for public inspection 30 days after receipt of the report by the Secretary and the Clerk.


(c) Information that involves intelligence matters shall be reported only to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives in accordance with procedures agreed to by such committees. Such information shall not be available for public inspection.


(d) Information that is classified under Executive Order 12356 or any successor order shall be reported only to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives or the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives (whichever such committees have jurisdiction of matters involving such information) and to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives in accordance with procedures agreed to by such committees. Such information shall not be available for public inspection.


(e) The first semi-annual compilation shall be submitted on May 31, 1990, and shall contain a compilation of the disclosure reports received from December 23, 1989 to March 31, 1990.


(f) Major agencies, designated by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), are required to provide machine-readable compilations to the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives no later than with the compilations due on May 31, 1991. OMB shall provide detailed specifications in a memorandum to these agencies.


(g) Non-major agencies are requested to provide machine-readable compilations to the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives.


(h) Agencies shall keep the originals of all disclosure reports in the official files of the agency.


§ 18.605 Inspector General report.

(a) The Inspector General, or other official as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, of each agency shall prepare and submit to Congress each year, commencing with submission of the President’s Budget in 1991, an evaluation of the compliance of that agency with, and the effectiveness of, the requirements herein. The evaluation may include any recommended changes that may be necessary to strengthen or improve the requirements.


(b) In the case of an agency that does not have an Inspector General, the agency official comparable to an Inspector General shall prepare and submit the annual report, or, if there is no such comparable official, the head of the agency shall prepare and submit the annual report.


(c) The annual report shall be submitted at the same time the agency submits its annual budget justifications to Congress.


(d) The annual report shall include the following: All alleged violations relating to the agency’s covered Federal actions during the year covered by the report, the actions taken by the head of the agency in the year covered by the report with respect to those alleged violations and alleged violations in previous years, and the amounts of civil penalties imposed by the agency in the year covered by the report.


Appendix A to Part 18 – Certification Regarding Lobbying

Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements

The undersigned certifies, to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, that:


(1) No Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid, by or on behalf of the undersigned, to any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of an agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with the awarding of any Federal contract, the making of any Federal grant, the making of any Federal loan, the entering into of any cooperative agreement, and the extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.


(2) If any funds other than Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid to any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with this Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, the undersigned shall complete and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions.


(3) The undersigned shall require that the language of this certification be included in the award documents for all subawards at all tiers (including subcontracts, subgrants, and contracts under grants, loans, and cooperative agreements) and that all subrecipients shall certify and disclose accordingly.


This certification is a material representation of fact upon which reliance was placed when this transaction was made or entered into. Submission of this certification is a prerequisite for making or entering into this transaction imposed by section 1352, title 31, U.S. Code. Any person who fails to file the required certification shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure.


Statement for Loan Guarantees and Loan Insurance

The undersigned states, to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, that:


If any funds have been paid or will be paid to any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with this commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, the undersigned shall complete and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions.


Submission of this statement is a prerequisite for making or entering into this transaction imposed by section 1352, title 31, U.S. Code. Any person who fails to file the required statement shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure.


Appendix B to Part 18 – Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying




PART 19 – NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE


Authority:20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682, 1683, 1685, 1686, 1687, 1688.


Source:65 FR 52865, 52892, Aug. 30, 2000, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A – Introduction

§ 19.100 Purpose and effective date.

The purpose of these Title IX regulations is to effectuate Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, as amended (except sections 904 and 906 of those Amendments) (20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682, 1683, 1685, 1686, 1687, 1688), which is designed to eliminate (with certain exceptions) discrimination on the basis of sex in any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, whether or not such program or activity is offered or sponsored by an educational institution as defined in these Title IX regulations. The effective date of these Title IX regulations shall be September 29, 2000.


§ 19.105 Definitions.

As used in these Title IX regulations, the term:


Administratively separate unit means a school, department, or college of an educational institution (other than a local educational agency) admission to which is independent of admission to any other component of such institution.


Admission means selection for part-time, full-time, special, associate, transfer, exchange, or any other enrollment, membership, or matriculation in or at an education program or activity operated by a recipient.


Applicant means one who submits an application, request, or plan required to be approved by an official of the Federal agency that awards Federal financial assistance, or by a recipient, as a condition to becoming a recipient.


Designated agency official means Director, Office of Equal Rights.


Educational institution means a local educational agency (LEA) as defined by 20 U.S.C. 8801(18), a preschool, a private elementary or secondary school, or an applicant or recipient that is an institution of graduate higher education, an institution of undergraduate higher education, an institution of professional education, or an institution of vocational education, as defined in this section.


Federal financial assistance means any of the following, when authorized or extended under a law administered by the Federal agency that awards such assistance:


(1) A grant or loan of Federal financial assistance, including funds made available for:


(i) The acquisition, construction, renovation, restoration, or repair of a building or facility or any portion thereof; and


(ii) Scholarships, loans, grants, wages, or other funds extended to any entity for payment to or on behalf of students admitted to that entity, or extended directly to such students for payment to that entity.


(2) A grant of Federal real or personal property or any interest therein, including surplus property, and the proceeds of the sale or transfer of such property, if the Federal share of the fair market value of the property is not, upon such sale or transfer, properly accounted for to the Federal Government.


(3) Provision of the services of Federal personnel.


(4) Sale or lease of Federal property or any interest therein at nominal consideration, or at consideration reduced for the purpose of assisting the recipient or in recognition of public interest to be served thereby, or permission to use Federal property or any interest therein without consideration.


(5) Any other contract, agreement, or arrangement that has as one of its purposes the provision of assistance to any education program or activity, except a contract of insurance or guaranty.


Institution of graduate higher education means an institution that:


(1) Offers academic study beyond the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree, whether or not leading to a certificate of any higher degree in the liberal arts and sciences;


(2) Awards any degree in a professional field beyond the first professional degree (regardless of whether the first professional degree in such field is awarded by an institution of undergraduate higher education or professional education); or


(3) Awards no degree and offers no further academic study, but operates ordinarily for the purpose of facilitating research by persons who have received the highest graduate degree in any field of study.


Institution of professional education means an institution (except any institution of undergraduate higher education) that offers a program of academic study that leads to a first professional degree in a field for which there is a national specialized accrediting agency recognized by the Secretary of Education.


Institution of undergraduate higher education means:


(1) An institution offering at least two but less than four years of college-level study beyond the high school level, leading to a diploma or an associate degree, or wholly or principally creditable toward a baccalaureate degree; or


(2) An institution offering academic study leading to a baccalaureate degree; or


(3) An agency or body that certifies credentials or offers degrees, but that may or may not offer academic study.


Institution of vocational education means a school or institution (except an institution of professional or graduate or undergraduate higher education) that has as its primary purpose preparation of students to pursue a technical, skilled, or semiskilled occupation or trade, or to pursue study in a technical field, whether or not the school or institution offers certificates, diplomas, or degrees and whether or not it offers full-time study.


Recipient means any State or political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of a State or political subdivision thereof, any public or private agency, institution, or organization, or other entity, or any person, to whom Federal financial assistance is extended directly or through another recipient and that operates an education program or activity that receives such assistance, including any subunit, successor, assignee, or transferee thereof.


Student means a person who has gained admission.


Title IX means Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Public Law 92-318, 86 Stat. 235, 373 (codified as amended at 20 U.S.C. 1681-1688) (except sections 904 and 906 thereof), as amended by section 3 of Public Law 93-568, 88 Stat. 1855, by section 412 of the Education Amendments of 1976, Public Law 94-482, 90 Stat. 2234, and by Section 3 of Public Law 100-259, 102 Stat. 28, 28-29 (20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682, 1683, 1685, 1686, 1687, 1688).


Title IX regulations means the provisions set forth at §§ 19.100 through 19.605.


Transition plan means a plan subject to the approval of the Secretary of Education pursuant to section 901(a)(2) of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. 1681(a)(2), under which an educational institution operates in making the transition from being an educational institution that admits only students of one sex to being one that admits students of both sexes without discrimination.


§ 19.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

(a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a recipient has discriminated against persons on the basis of sex in an education program or activity, such recipient shall take such remedial action as the designated agency official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination.


(b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in an education program or activity, a recipient may take affirmative action consistent with law to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in limited participation therein by persons of a particular sex. Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be interpreted to alter any affirmative action obligations that a recipient may have under Executive Order 11246, 3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp., p. 339; as amended by Executive Order 11375, 3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 684; as amended by Executive Order 11478, 3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 803; as amended by Executive Order 12086, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 230; as amended by Executive Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264.


(c) Self-evaluation. Each recipient education institution shall, within one year of September 29, 2000:


(1) Evaluate, in terms of the requirements of these Title IX regulations, its current policies and practices and the effects thereof concerning admission of students, treatment of students, and employment of both academic and non-academic personnel working in connection with the recipient’s education program or activity;


(2) Modify any of these policies and practices that do not or may not meet the requirements of these Title IX regulations; and


(3) Take appropriate remedial steps to eliminate the effects of any discrimination that resulted or may have resulted from adherence to these policies and practices.


(d) Availability of self-evaluation and related materials. Recipients shall maintain on file for at least three years following completion of the evaluation required under paragraph (c) of this section, and shall provide to the designated agency official upon request, a description of any modifications made pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section and of any remedial steps taken pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) of this section.


§ 19.115 Assurance required.

(a) General. Either at the application stage or the award stage, Federal agencies must ensure that applications for Federal financial assistance or awards of Federal financial assistance contain, be accompanied by, or be covered by a specifically identified assurance from the applicant or recipient, satisfactory to the designated agency official, that each education program or activity operated by the applicant or recipient and to which these Title IX regulations apply will be operated in compliance with these Title IX regulations. An assurance of compliance with these Title IX regulations shall not be satisfactory to the designated agency official if the applicant or recipient to whom such assurance applies fails to commit itself to take whatever remedial action is necessary in accordance with § 19.110(a) to eliminate existing discrimination on the basis of sex or to eliminate the effects of past discrimination whether occurring prior to or subsequent to the submission to the designated agency official of such assurance.


(b) Duration of obligation. (1) In the case of Federal financial assistance extended to provide real property or structures thereon, such assurance shall obligate the recipient or, in the case of a subsequent transfer, the transferee, for the period during which the real property or structures are used to provide an education program or activity.


(2) In the case of Federal financial assistance extended to provide personal property, such assurance shall obligate the recipient for the period during which it retains ownership or possession of the property.


(3) In all other cases such assurance shall obligate the recipient for the period during which Federal financial assistance is extended.


(c) Form. (1) The assurances required by paragraph (a) of this section, which may be included as part of a document that addresses other assurances or obligations, shall include that the applicant or recipient will comply with all applicable Federal statutes relating to nondiscrimination. These include but are not limited to: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1681-1683, 1685-1688).


(2) The designated agency official will specify the extent to which such assurances will be required of the applicant’s or recipient’s subgrantees, contractors, subcontractors, transferees, or successors in interest.


§ 19.120 Transfers of property.

If a recipient sells or otherwise transfers property financed in whole or in part with Federal financial assistance to a transferee that operates any education program or activity, and the Federal share of the fair market value of the property is not upon such sale or transfer properly accounted for to the Federal Government, both the transferor and the transferee shall be deemed to be recipients, subject to the provisions of §§ 19.205 through 19.235(a).


§ 19.125 Effect of other requirements.

(a) Effect of other Federal provisions. The obligations imposed by these Title IX regulations are independent of, and do not alter, obligations not to discriminate on the basis of sex imposed by Executive Order 11246, 3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp., p. 339; as amended by Executive Order 11375, 3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 684; as amended by Executive Order 11478, 3 CFR, 1966-1970 Comp., p. 803; as amended by Executive Order 12087, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 230; as amended by Executive Order 12107, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 264; sections 704 and 855 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 295m, 298b-2); Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (29 U.S.C. 206); and any other Act of Congress or Federal regulation.


(b) Effect of State or local law or other requirements. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated by any State or local law or other requirement that would render any applicant or student ineligible, or limit the eligibility of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, to practice any occupation or profession.


(c) Effect of rules or regulations of private organizations. The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated by any rule or regulation of any organization, club, athletic or other league, or association that would render any applicant or student ineligible to participate or limit the eligibility or participation of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, in any education program or activity operated by a recipient and that receives Federal financial assistance.


§ 19.130 Effect of employment opportunities.

The obligation to comply with these Title IX regulations is not obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be more limited for members of one sex than for members of the other sex.


§ 19.135 Designation of responsible employee and adoption of grievance procedures.

(a) Designation of responsible employee. Each recipient shall designate at least one employee to coordinate its efforts to comply with and carry out its responsibilities under these Title IX regulations, including any investigation of any complaint communicated to such recipient alleging its noncompliance with these Title IX regulations or alleging any actions that would be prohibited by these Title IX regulations. The recipient shall notify all its students and employees of the name, office address, and telephone number of the employee or employees appointed pursuant to this paragraph.


(b) Complaint procedure of recipient. A recipient shall adopt and publish grievance procedures providing for prompt and equitable resolution of student and employee complaints alleging any action that would be prohibited by these Title IX regulations.


§ 19.140 Dissemination of policy.

(a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing steps to notify applicants for admission and employment, students and parents of elementary and secondary school students, employees, sources of referral of applicants for admission and employment, and all unions or professional organizations holding collective bargaining or professional agreements with the recipient, that it does not discriminate on the basis of sex in the educational programs or activities that it operates, and that it is required by Title IX and these Title IX regulations not to discriminate in such a manner. Such notification shall contain such information, and be made in such manner, as the designated agency official finds necessary to apprise such persons of the protections against discrimination assured them by Title IX and these Title IX regulations, but shall state at least that the requirement not to discriminate in education programs or activities extends to employment therein, and to admission thereto unless §§ 19.300 through 19.310 do not apply to the recipient, and that inquiries concerning the application of Title IX and these Title IX regulations to such recipient may be referred to the employee designated pursuant to § 19.135, or to the designated agency official.


(2) Each recipient shall make the initial notification required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section within 90 days of September 29, 2000 or of the date these Title IX regulations first apply to such recipient, whichever comes later, which notification shall include publication in:


(i) Newspapers and magazines operated by such recipient or by student, alumnae, or alumni groups for or in connection with such recipient; and


(ii) Memoranda or other written communications distributed to every student and employee of such recipient.


(b) Publications. (1) Each recipient shall prominently include a statement of the policy described in paragraph (a) of this section in each announcement, bulletin, catalog, or application form that it makes available to any person of a type, described in paragraph (a) of this section, or which is otherwise used in connection with the recruitment of students or employees.


(2) A recipient shall not use or distribute a publication of the type described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section that suggests, by text or illustration, that such recipient treats applicants, students, or employees differently on the basis of sex except as such treatment is permitted by these Title IX regulations.


(c) Distribution. Each recipient shall distribute without discrimination on the basis of sex each publication described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and shall apprise each of its admission and employment recruitment representatives of the policy of nondiscrimination described in paragraph (a) of this section, and shall require such representatives to adhere to such policy.


Subpart B – Coverage

§ 19.200 Application.

Except as provided in §§ 19.205 through 19.235(a), these Title IX regulations apply to every recipient and to each education program or activity operated by such recipient that receives Federal financial assistance.


§ 19.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

(a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the religious tenets of such organization.


(b) Exemption claims. An educational institution or other entity that wishes to claim the exemption set forth in paragraph (a) of this section shall do so by submitting in writing to the designated agency official a statement by the highest-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the religious organization.


§ 19.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

These Title IX regulations do not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for a military service of the United States or for the merchant marine.


§ 19.215 Membership practices of certain organizations.

(a) Social fraternities and sororities. These Title IX regulations do not apply to the membership practices of social fraternities and sororities that are exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, 26 U.S.C. 501(a), the active membership of which consists primarily of students in attendance at institutions of higher education.


(b) YMCA, YWCA, Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, and Camp Fire Girls. These Title IX regulations do not apply to the membership practices of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), the Girl Scouts, the Boy Scouts, and Camp Fire Girls.


(c) Voluntary youth service organizations. These Title IX regulations do not apply to the membership practices of a voluntary youth service organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, 26 U.S.C. 501(a), and the membership of which has been traditionally limited to members of one sex and principally to persons of less than nineteen years of age.


§ 19.220 Admissions.

(a) Admissions to educational institutions prior to June 24, 1973, are not covered by these Title IX regulations.


(b) Administratively separate units. For the purposes only of this section, §§ 19.225 and 19.230, and §§ 19.300 through 19.310, each administratively separate unit shall be deemed to be an educational institution.


(c) Application of §§ 19.300 through .310. Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply to each recipient. A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in admission or recruitment in violation of §§ 19.300 through 19.310.


(d) Educational institutions. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section as to recipients that are educational institutions, §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply only to institutions of vocational education, professional education, graduate higher education, and public institutions of undergraduate higher education.


(e) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education. §§ 19.300 through 19.310 do not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher education that traditionally and continually from its establishment has had a policy of admitting students of only one sex.


§ 19.225 Educational institutions eligible to submit transition plans.

(a) Application. This section applies to each educational institution to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply that:


(1) Admitted students of only one sex as regular students as of June 23, 1972; or


(2) Admitted students of only one sex as regular students as of June 23, 1965, but thereafter admitted, as regular students, students of the sex not admitted prior to June 23, 1965.


(b) Provision for transition plans. An educational institution to which this section applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in admission or recruitment in violation of §§ 19.300 through 19.310.


§ 19.230 Transition plans.

(a) Submission of plans. An institution to which § 19.225 applies and that is composed of more than one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable to each such unit.


(b) Content of plans. In order to be approved by the Secretary of Education, a transition plan shall:


(1) State the name, address, and Federal Interagency Committee on Education Code of the educational institution submitting such plan, the administratively separate units to which the plan is applicable, and the name, address, and telephone number of the person to whom questions concerning the plan may be addressed. The person who submits the plan shall be the chief administrator or president of the institution, or another individual legally authorized to bind the institution to all actions set forth in the plan.


(2) State whether the educational institution or administratively separate unit admits students of both sexes as regular students and, if so, when it began to do so.


(3) Identify and describe with respect to the educational institution or administratively separate unit any obstacles to admitting students without discrimination on the basis of sex.


(4) Describe in detail the steps necessary to eliminate as soon as practicable each obstacle so identified and indicate the schedule for taking these steps and the individual directly responsible for their implementation.


(5) Include estimates of the number of students, by sex, expected to apply for, be admitted to, and enter each class during the period covered by the plan.


(c) Nondiscrimination. No policy or practice of a recipient to which § 19.225 applies shall result in treatment of applicants to or students of such recipient in violation of §§ 19.300 through 19.310 unless such treatment is necessitated by an obstacle identified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section and a schedule for eliminating that obstacle has been provided as required by paragraph (b)(4) of this section.


(d) Effects of past exclusion. To overcome the effects of past exclusion of students on the basis of sex, each educational institution to which § 19.225 applies shall include in its transition plan, and shall implement, specific steps designed to encourage individuals of the previously excluded sex to apply for admission to such institution. Such steps shall include instituting recruitment programs that emphasize the institution’s commitment to enrolling students of the sex previously excluded.


§ 19.235 Statutory amendments.

(a) This section, which applies to all provisions of these Title IX regulations, addresses statutory amendments to Title IX.


(b) These Title IX regulations shall not apply to or preclude:


(1) Any program or activity of the American Legion undertaken in connection with the organization or operation of any Boys State conference, Boys Nation conference, Girls State conference, or Girls Nation conference;


(2) Any program or activity of a secondary school or educational institution specifically for:


(i) The promotion of any Boys State conference, Boys Nation conference, Girls State conference, or Girls Nation conference; or


(ii) The selection of students to attend any such conference;


(3) Father-son or mother-daughter activities at an educational institution or in an education program or activity, but if such activities are provided for students of one sex, opportunities for reasonably comparable activities shall be provided to students of the other sex;


(4) Any scholarship or other financial assistance awarded by an institution of higher education to an individual because such individual has received such award in a single-sex pageant based upon a combination of factors related to the individual’s personal appearance, poise, and talent. The pageant, however, must comply with other nondiscrimination provisions of Federal law.


(c) Program or activity or program means:


(1) All of the operations of any entity described in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section, any part of which is extended Federal financial assistance:


(i)(A) A department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or of a local government; or


(B) The entity of such State or local government that distributes such assistance and each such department or agency (and each other State or local government entity) to which the assistance is extended, in the case of assistance to a State or local government;


(ii)(A) A college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or


(B) A local educational agency (as defined in section 8801 of title 20), system of vocational education, or other school system;


(iii)(A) An entire corporation, partnership, or other private organization, or an entire sole proprietorship –


(1) If assistance is extended to such corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship as a whole; or


(2) Which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation; or


(B) The entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial assistance is extended, in the case of any other corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship; or


(iv) Any other entity that is established by two or more of the entities described in paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section.


(2)(i) Program or activity does not include any operation of an entity that is controlled by a religious organization if the application of 20 U.S.C. 1681 to such operation would not be consistent with the religious tenets of such organization.


(ii) For example, all of the operations of a college, university, or other postsecondary institution, including but not limited to traditional educational operations, faculty and student housing, campus shuttle bus service, campus restaurants, the bookstore, and other commercial activities are part of a “program or activity” subject to these Title IX regulations if the college, university, or other institution receives Federal financial assistance.


(d)(1) Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be construed to require or prohibit any person, or public or private entity, to provide or pay for any benefit or service, including the use of facilities, related to an abortion. Medical procedures, benefits, services, and the use of facilities, necessary to save the life of a pregnant woman or to address complications related to an abortion are not subject to this section.


(2) Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit a penalty to be imposed on any person or individual because such person or individual is seeking or has received any benefit or service related to a legal abortion. Accordingly, subject to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, no person shall be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any academic, extracurricular, research, occupational training, employment, or other educational program or activity operated by a recipient that receives Federal financial assistance because such individual has sought or received, or is seeking, a legal abortion, or any benefit or service related to a legal abortion.


Subpart C – Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited

§ 19.300 Admission.

(a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient to which §§ 19.300 through §§ 19.310 apply, except as provided in §§ 19.225 and 19.230.


(b) Specific prohibitions. (1) In determining whether a person satisfies any policy or criterion for admission, or in making any offer of admission, a recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply shall not:


(i) Give preference to one person over another on the basis of sex, by ranking applicants separately on such basis, or otherwise;


(ii) Apply numerical limitations upon the number or proportion of persons of either sex who may be admitted; or


(iii) Otherwise treat one individual differently from another on the basis of sex.


(2) A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for admission that has a disproportionately adverse effect on persons on the basis of sex unless the use of such test or criterion is shown to predict validly success in the education program or activity in question and alternative tests or criteria that do not have such a disproportionately adverse effect are shown to be unavailable.


(c) Prohibitions relating to marital or parental status. In determining whether a person satisfies any policy or criterion for admission, or in making any offer of admission, a recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply:


(1) Shall not apply any rule concerning the actual or potential parental, family, or marital status of a student or applicant that treats persons differently on the basis of sex;


(2) Shall not discriminate against or exclude any person on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, termination of pregnancy, or recovery therefrom, or establish or follow any rule or practice that so discriminates or excludes;


(3) Subject to § 19.235(d), shall treat disabilities related to pregnancy, childbirth, termination of pregnancy, or recovery therefrom in the same manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability or physical condition; and


(4) Shall not make pre-admission inquiry as to the marital status of an applicant for admission, including whether such applicant is “Miss” or “Mrs.” A recipient may make pre-admission inquiry as to the sex of an applicant for admission, but only if such inquiry is made equally of such applicants of both sexes and if the results of such inquiry are not used in connection with discrimination prohibited by these Title IX regulations.


§ 19.305 Preference in admission.

A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis of attendance at any educational institution or other school or entity that admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation of §§ 19.300 through 19.310.


§ 19.310 Recruitment.

(a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts for one sex as remedial action pursuant to § 19.110(a), and may choose to undertake such efforts as affirmative action pursuant to § 19.110(b).


(b) Recruitment at certain institutions. A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply shall not recruit primarily or exclusively at educational institutions, schools, or entities that admit as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if such actions have the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation of §§ 19.300 through 19.310.


Subpart D – Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited

§ 19.400 Education programs or activities.

(a) General. Except as provided elsewhere in these Title IX regulations, no person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any academic, extracurricular, research, occupational training, or other education program or activity operated by a recipient that receives Federal financial assistance. Sections 19.400 through 19.455 do not apply to actions of a recipient in connection with admission of its students to an education program or activity of a recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 do not apply, or an entity, not a recipient, to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 would not apply if the entity were a recipient.


(b) Specific prohibitions. Except as provided in §§ 19.400 through 19.455, in providing any aid, benefit, or service to a student, a recipient shall not, on the basis of sex:


(1) Treat one person differently from another in determining whether such person satisfies any requirement or condition for the provision of such aid, benefit, or service;


(2) Provide different aid, benefits, or services or provide aid, benefits, or services in a different manner;


(3) Deny any person any such aid, benefit, or service;


(4) Subject any person to separate or different rules of behavior, sanctions, or other treatment;


(5) Apply any rule concerning the domicile or residence of a student or applicant, including eligibility for in-state fees and tuition;


(6) Aid or perpetuate discrimination against any person by providing significant assistance to any agency, organization, or person that discriminates on the basis of sex in providing any aid, benefit, or service to students or employees;


(7) Otherwise limit any person in the enjoyment of any right, privilege, advantage, or opportunity.


(c) Assistance administered by a recipient educational institution to study at a foreign institution. A recipient educational institution may administer or assist in the administration of scholarships, fellowships, or other awards established by foreign or domestic wills, trusts, or similar legal instruments, or by acts of foreign governments and restricted to members of one sex, that are designed to provide opportunities to study abroad, and that are awarded to students who are already matriculating at or who are graduates of the recipient institution; Provided, that a recipient educational institution that administers or assists in the administration of such scholarships, fellowships, or other awards that are restricted to members of one sex provides, or otherwise makes available, reasonable opportunities for similar studies for members of the other sex. Such opportunities may be derived from either domestic or foreign sources.


(d) Aids, benefits or services not provided by recipient. (1) This paragraph (d) applies to any recipient that requires participation by any applicant, student, or employee in any education program or activity not operated wholly by such recipient, or that facilitates, permits, or considers such participation as part of or equivalent to an education program or activity operated by such recipient, including participation in educational consortia and cooperative employment and student-teaching assignments.


(2) Such recipient:


(i) Shall develop and implement a procedure designed to assure itself that the operator or sponsor of such other education program or activity takes no action affecting any applicant, student, or employee of such recipient that these Title IX regulations would prohibit such recipient from taking; and


(ii) Shall not facilitate, require, permit, or consider such participation if such action occurs.


§ 19.405 Housing.

(a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in this section (including housing provided only to married students).


(b) Housing provided by recipient. (1) A recipient may provide separate housing on the basis of sex.


(2) Housing provided by a recipient to students of one sex, when compared to that provided to students of the other sex, shall be as a whole:


(i) Proportionate in quantity to the number of students of that sex applying for such housing; and


(ii) Comparable in quality and cost to the student.


(c) Other housing. (1) A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, administer different policies or practices concerning occupancy by its students of housing other than that provided by such recipient.


(2)(i) A recipient which, through solicitation, listing, approval of housing, or otherwise, assists any agency, organization, or person in making housing available to any of its students, shall take such reasonable action as may be necessary to assure itself that such housing as is provided to students of one sex, when compared to that provided to students of the other sex, is as a whole:


(A) Proportionate in quantity; and


(B) Comparable in quality and cost to the student.


(ii) A recipient may render such assistance to any agency, organization, or person that provides all or part of such housing to students of only one sex.


§ 19.410 Comparable facilities.

A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to such facilities provided for students of the other sex.


§ 19.415 Access to course offerings.

(a) A recipient shall not provide any course or otherwise carry out any of its education program or activity separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its students on such basis, including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult education courses.


(b)(1) With respect to classes and activities in physical education at the elementary school level, the recipient shall comply fully with this section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than one year from September 29, 2000. With respect to physical education classes and activities at the secondary and post-secondary levels, the recipient shall comply fully with this section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than three years from September 29, 2000.


(2) This section does not prohibit grouping of students in physical education classes and activities by ability as assessed by objective standards of individual performance developed and applied without regard to sex.


(3) This section does not prohibit separation of students by sex within physical education classes or activities during participation in wrestling, boxing, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact.


(4) Where use of a single standard of measuring skill or progress in a physical education class has an adverse effect on members of one sex, the recipient shall use appropriate standards that do not have such effect.


(5) Portions of classes in elementary and secondary schools, or portions of education programs or activities, that deal exclusively with human sexuality may be conducted in separate sessions for boys and girls.


(6) Recipients may make requirements based on vocal range or quality that may result in a chorus or choruses of one or predominantly one sex.


§ 19.420 Access to schools operated by LEAs.

A recipient that is a local educational agency shall not, on the basis of sex, exclude any person from admission to:


(a) Any institution of vocational education operated by such recipient; or


(b) Any other school or educational unit operated by such recipient, unless such recipient otherwise makes available to such person, pursuant to the same policies and criteria of admission, courses, services, and facilities comparable to each course, service, and facility offered in or through such schools.


§ 19.425 Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

(a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on the basis of sex in the counseling or guidance of students or applicants for admission.


(b) Use of appraisal and counseling materials. A recipient that uses testing or other materials for appraising or counseling students shall not use different materials for students on the basis of their sex or use materials that permit or require different treatment of students on such basis unless such different materials cover the same occupations and interest areas and the use of such different materials is shown to be essential to eliminate sex bias. Recipients shall develop and use internal procedures for ensuring that such materials do not discriminate on the basis of sex. Where the use of a counseling test or other instrument results in a substantially disproportionate number of members of one sex in any particular course of study or classification, the recipient shall take such action as is necessary to assure itself that such disproportion is not the result of discrimination in the instrument or its application.


(c) Disproportion in classes. Where a recipient finds that a particular class contains a substantially disproportionate number of individuals of one sex, the recipient shall take such action as is necessary to assure itself that such disproportion is not the result of discrimination on the basis of sex in counseling or appraisal materials or by counselors.


§ 19.430 Financial assistance.

(a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in providing financial assistance to any of its students, a recipient shall not:


(1) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility for such assistance that is of any particular type or source, apply different criteria, or otherwise discriminate;


(2) Through solicitation, listing, approval, provision of facilities, or other services, assist any foundation, trust, agency, organization, or person that provides assistance to any of such recipient’s students in a manner that discriminates on the basis of sex; or


(3) Apply any rule or assist in application of any rule concerning eligibility for such assistance that treats persons of one sex differently from persons of the other sex with regard to marital or parental status.


(b) Financial aid established by certain legal instruments. (1) A recipient may administer or assist in the administration of scholarships, fellowships, or other forms of financial assistance established pursuant to domestic or foreign wills, trusts, bequests, or similar legal instruments or by acts of a foreign government that require that awards be made to members of a particular sex specified therein; Provided, that the overall effect of the award of such sex-restricted scholarships, fellowships, and other forms of financial assistance does not discriminate on the basis of sex.


(2) To ensure nondiscriminatory awards of assistance as required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, recipients shall develop and use procedures under which:


(i) Students are selected for award of financial assistance on the basis of nondiscriminatory criteria and not on the basis of availability of funds restricted to members of a particular sex;


(ii) An appropriate sex-restricted scholarship, fellowship, or other form of financial assistance is allocated to each student selected under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section; and


(iii) No student is denied the award for which he or she was selected under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section because of the absence of a scholarship, fellowship, or other form of financial assistance designated for a member of that student’s sex.


(c) Athletic scholarships. (1) To the extent that a recipient awards athletic scholarships or grants-in-aid, it must provide reasonable opportunities for such awards for members of each sex in proportion to the number of students of each sex participating in interscholastic or intercollegiate athletics.


(2) A recipient may provide separate athletic scholarships or grants-in-aid for members of each sex as part of separate athletic teams for members of each sex to the extent consistent with this paragraph (c) and § 19.450.


§ 19.435 Employment assistance to students.

(a) Assistance by recipient in making available outside employment. A recipient that assists any agency, organization, or person in making employment available to any of its students:


(1) Shall assure itself that such employment is made available without discrimination on the basis of sex; and


(2) Shall not render such services to any agency, organization, or person that discriminates on the basis of sex in its employment practices.


(b) Employment of students by recipients. A recipient that employs any of its students shall not do so in a manner that violates §§ 19.500 through 19.550.


§ 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services.

Subject to § 19.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex, or provide such benefit, service, policy, or plan in a manner that would violate §§ 19.500 through 19.550 if it were provided to employees of the recipient. This section shall not prohibit a recipient from providing any benefit or service that may be used by a different proportion of students of one sex than of the other, including family planning services. However, any recipient that provides full coverage health service shall provide gynecological care.


§ 19.445 Marital or parental status.

(a) Status generally. A recipient shall not apply any rule concerning a student’s actual or potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex.


(b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A recipient shall not discriminate against any student, or exclude any student from its education program or activity, including any class or extracurricular activity, on the basis of such student’s pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, or recovery therefrom, unless the student requests voluntarily to participate in a separate portion of the program or activity of the recipient.


(2) A recipient may require such a student to obtain the certification of a physician that the student is physically and emotionally able to continue participation as long as such a certification is required of all students for other physical or emotional conditions requiring the attention of a physician.


(3) A recipient that operates a portion of its education program or activity separately for pregnant students, admittance to which is completely voluntary on the part of the student as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, shall ensure that the separate portion is comparable to that offered to non-pregnant students.


(4) Subject to § 19.235(d), a recipient shall treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy and recovery therefrom in the same manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability with respect to any medical or hospital benefit, service, plan, or policy that such recipient administers, operates, offers, or participates in with respect to students admitted to the recipient’s educational program or activity.


(5) In the case of a recipient that does not maintain a leave policy for its students, or in the case of a student who does not otherwise qualify for leave under such a policy, a recipient shall treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, and recovery therefrom as a justification for a leave of absence for as long a period of time as is deemed medically necessary by the student’s physician, at the conclusion of which the student shall be reinstated to the status that she held when the leave began.


§ 19.450 Athletics.

(a) General. No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, be treated differently from another person, or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics separately on such basis.


(b) Separate teams. Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, a recipient may operate or sponsor separate teams for members of each sex where selection for such teams is based upon competitive skill or the activity involved is a contact sport. However, where a recipient operates or sponsors a team in a particular sport for members of one sex but operates or sponsors no such team for members of the other sex, and athletic opportunities for members of that sex have previously been limited, members of the excluded sex must be allowed to try out for the team offered unless the sport involved is a contact sport. For the purposes of these Title IX regulations, contact sports include boxing, wrestling, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact.


(c) Equal opportunity. (1) A recipient that operates or sponsors interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes. In determining whether equal opportunities are available, the designated agency official will consider, among other factors:


(i) Whether the selection of sports and levels of competition effectively accommodate the interests and abilities of members of both sexes;


(ii) The provision of equipment and supplies;


(iii) Scheduling of games and practice time;


(iv) Travel and per diem allowance;


(v) Opportunity to receive coaching and academic tutoring;


(vi) Assignment and compensation of coaches and tutors;


(vii) Provision of locker rooms, practice, and competitive facilities;


(viii) Provision of medical and training facilities and services;


(ix) Provision of housing and dining facilities and services;


(x) Publicity.


(2) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, unequal aggregate expenditures for members of each sex or unequal expenditures for male and female teams if a recipient operates or sponsors separate teams will not constitute noncompliance with this section, but the designated agency official may consider the failure to provide necessary funds for teams for one sex in assessing equality of opportunity for members of each sex.


(d) Adjustment period. A recipient that operates or sponsors interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics at the elementary school level shall comply fully with this section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than one year from September 29, 2000. A recipient that operates or sponsors interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics at the secondary or postsecondary school level shall comply fully with this section as expeditiously as possible but in no event later than three years from September 29, 2000.


§ 19.455 Textbooks and curricular material.

Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be interpreted as requiring or prohibiting or abridging in any way the use of particular textbooks or curricular materials.


Subpart E – Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited

§ 19.500 Employment.

(a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether full-time or part-time, under any education program or activity operated by a recipient that receives Federal financial assistance.


(2) A recipient shall make all employment decisions in any education program or activity operated by such recipient in a nondiscriminatory manner and shall not limit, segregate, or classify applicants or employees in any way that could adversely affect any applicant’s or employee’s employment opportunities or status because of sex.


(3) A recipient shall not enter into any contractual or other relationship which directly or indirectly has the effect of subjecting employees or students to discrimination prohibited by §§ 19.500 through 19.550, including relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, and with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient.


(4) A recipient shall not grant preferences to applicants for employment on the basis of attendance at any educational institution or entity that admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preferences has the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation of these Title IX regulations.


(b) Application. The provisions of §§ 19.500 through 19.550 apply to:


(1) Recruitment, advertising, and the process of application for employment;


(2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, consideration for and award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, application of nepotism policies, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;


(3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation, and changes in compensation;


(4) Job assignments, classifications, and structure, including position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists;


(5) The terms of any collective bargaining agreement;


(6) Granting and return from leaves of absence, leave for pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, leave for persons of either sex to care for children or dependents, or any other leave;


(7) Fringe benefits available by virtue of employment, whether or not administered by the recipient;


(8) Selection and financial support for training, including apprenticeship, professional meetings, conferences, and other related activities, selection for tuition assistance, selection for sabbaticals and leaves of absence to pursue training;


(9) Employer-sponsored activities, including social or recreational programs; and


(10) Any other term, condition, or privilege of employment.


§ 19.505 Employment criteria.

A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment opportunity that has a disproportionately adverse effect on persons on the basis of sex unless:


(a) Use of such test or other criterion is shown to predict validly successful performance in the position in question; and


(b) Alternative tests or criteria for such purpose, which do not have such disproportionately adverse effect, are shown to be unavailable.


§ 19.510 Recruitment.

(a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently discriminating on the basis of sex in the recruitment or hiring of employees, or has been found to have so discriminated in the past, the recipient shall recruit members of the sex so discriminated against so as to overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination.


(b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient shall not recruit primarily or exclusively at entities that furnish as applicants only or predominantly members of one sex if such actions have the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation of §§ 19.500 through 19.550.


§ 19.515 Compensation.

A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex:


(a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation;


(b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and that are performed under similar working conditions.


§ 19.520 Job classification and structure.

A recipient shall not:


(a) Classify a job as being for males or for females;


(b) Maintain or establish separate lines of progression, seniority lists, career ladders, or tenure systems based on sex; or


(c) Maintain or establish separate lines of progression, seniority systems, career ladders, or tenure systems for similar jobs, position descriptions, or job requirements that classify persons on the basis of sex, unless sex is a bona fide occupational qualification for the positions in question as set forth in § 19.550.


§ 19.525 Fringe benefits.

(a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing or bonus plan, leave, and any other benefit or service of employment not subject to the provision of § 19.515.


(b) Prohibitions. A recipient shall not:


(1) Discriminate on the basis of sex with regard to making fringe benefits available to employees or make fringe benefits available to spouses, families, or dependents of employees differently upon the basis of the employee’s sex;


(2) Administer, operate, offer, or participate in a fringe benefit plan that does not provide for equal periodic benefits for members of each sex and for equal contributions to the plan by such recipient for members of each sex; or


(3) Administer, operate, offer, or participate in a pension or retirement plan that establishes different optional or compulsory retirement ages based on sex or that otherwise discriminates in benefits on the basis of sex.


§ 19.530 Marital or parental status.

(a) General. A recipient shall not apply any policy or take any employment action:


(1) Concerning the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for employment that treats persons differently on the basis of sex; or


(2) Which is based upon whether an employee or applicant for employment is the head of household or principal wage earner in such employee’s or applicant’s family unit.


(b) Pregnancy. A recipient shall not discriminate against or exclude from employment any employee or applicant for employment on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, or recovery therefrom.


(c) Pregnancy as a temporary disability. Subject to § 19235(d), a recipient shall treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, recovery therefrom, and any temporary disability resulting therefrom as any other temporary disability for all job-related purposes, including commencement, duration, and extensions of leave, payment of disability income, accrual of seniority and any other benefit or service, and reinstatement, and under any fringe benefit offered to employees by virtue of employment.


(d) Pregnancy leave. In the case of a recipient that does not maintain a leave policy for its employees, or in the case of an employee with insufficient leave or accrued employment time to qualify for leave under such a policy, a recipient shall treat pregnancy, childbirth, false pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, and recovery therefrom as a justification for a leave of absence without pay for a reasonable period of time, at the conclusion of which the employee shall be reinstated to the status that she held when the leave began or to a comparable position, without decrease in rate of compensation or loss of promotional opportunities, or any other right or privilege of employment.


§ 19.535 Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

(a) Prohibitory requirements. The obligation to comply with §§ 19.500 through 19.550 is not obviated or alleviated by the existence of any State or local law or other requirement that imposes prohibitions or limits upon employment of members of one sex that are not imposed upon members of the other sex.


(b) Benefits. A recipient that provides any compensation, service, or benefit to members of one sex pursuant to a State or local law or other requirement shall provide the same compensation, service, or benefit to members of the other sex.


§ 19.540 Advertising.

A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based on sex unless sex is a bona fide occupational qualification for the particular job in question.


§ 19.545 Pre-employment inquiries.

(a) Marital status. A recipient shall not make pre-employment inquiry as to the marital status of an applicant for employment, including whether such applicant is “Miss” or “Mrs.”


(b) Sex. A recipient may make pre-employment inquiry as to the sex of an applicant for employment, but only if such inquiry is made equally of such applicants of both sexes and if the results of such inquiry are not used in connection with discrimination prohibited by these Title IX regulations.


§ 19.550 Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

A recipient may take action otherwise prohibited by §§ 19.500 through 19.550 provided it is shown that sex is a bona fide occupational qualification for that action, such that consideration of sex with regard to such action is essential to successful operation of the employment function concerned. A recipient shall not take action pursuant to this section that is based upon alleged comparative employment characteristics or stereotyped characterizations of one or the other sex, or upon preference based on sex of the recipient, employees, students, or other persons, but nothing contained in this section shall prevent a recipient from considering an employee’s sex in relation to employment in a locker room or toilet facility used only by members of one sex.


Subpart F – Procedures

§ 19.600 Notice of covered programs.

Within 60 days of September 29, 2000, each Federal agency that awards Federal financial assistance shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of the programs covered by these Title IX regulations. Each such Federal agency shall periodically republish the notice of covered programs to reflect changes in covered programs. Copies of this notice also shall be made available upon request to the Federal agency’s office that enforces Title IX.


§ 19.605 Enforcement procedures.

The investigative, compliance, and enforcement procedural provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d) (“Title VI”) are hereby adopted and applied to these Title IX regulations. These procedures may be found at 32 CFR 195.7 through 195.12.


PARTS 20-24 [RESERVED]

PART 25 – UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS


Authority:Sec. 213, Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, Pub. L. 91-646, 84 Stat. 1894 (42 U.S.C. 4601) as amended by the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1987, title IV of Pub. L. 100-17, 101 Stat. 246-256 (42 U.S.C. 4601 note).

§ 25.1 Uniform relocation assistance and real property acquisition.

Regulations and procedures for complying with the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-646, 84 Stat. 1894, 42 U.S.C. 4601), as amended by the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1987 (title IV of Pub. L. 100-17, 101 Stat. 246-256, 42 U.S.C. 4601 note) are set forth in 49 CFR part 24.


[52 FR 48026, Dec. 17, 1987 and 54 FR 8912, Mar. 2, 1989]


PARTS 26-49 [RESERVED]

SUBCHAPTER B – INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION

PARTS 50-54 [RESERVED]

National Insurance Development Program

PARTS 55-58 [RESERVED]

National Flood Insurance Program

PART 59 – GENERAL PROVISIONS


Authority:42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.; 6 U.S.C. 101 et seq.

Subpart A – General

§ 59.1 Definitions.

As used in this subchapter –


Act means the statutes authorizing the National Flood Insurance Program that are incorporated in 42 U.S.C. 4001- et seq.


Actuarial rates – see risk premium rates.


Administrator means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Agency means the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC.


Alluvial fan flooding means flooding occurring on the surface of an alluvial fan or similar landform which originates at the apex and is characterized by high-velocity flows; active processes of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition; and, unpredictable flow paths.


Apex means a point on an alluvial fan or similar landform below which the flow path of the major stream that formed the fan becomes unpredictable and alluvial fan flooding can occur.


Applicant means a community which indicates a desire to participate in the Program.


Appurtenant structure means a structure which is on the same parcel of property as the principal structure to be insured and the use of which is incidental to the use of the principal structure.


Area of future-conditions flood hazard means the land area that would be inundated by the 1-percent-annual-chance (100-year) flood based on future-conditions hydrology.


Area of shallow flooding means a designated AO, AH, AR/AO, AR/AH, or VO zone on a community’s Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) with a 1 percent or greater annual chance of flooding to an average depth of 1 to 3 feet where a clearly defined channel does not exist, where the path of flooding is unpredictable, and where velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.


Area of special flood-related erosion hazard is the land within a community which is most likely to be subject to severe flood-related erosion losses. The area may be designated as Zone E on the Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM). After the detailed evaluation of the special flood-related erosion hazard area in preparation for publication of the FIRM, Zone E may be further refined.


Area of special flood hazard is the land in the flood plain within a community subject to a 1 percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. The area may be designated as Zone A on the FHBM. After detailed ratemaking has been completed in preparation for publication of the flood insurance rate map, Zone A usually is refined into Zones A, AO, AH, A1-30, AE, A99, AR, AR/A1-30, AR/AE, AR/AO, AR/AH, AR/A, VO, or V1-30, VE, or V. For purposes of these regulations, the term “special flood hazard area” is synonymous in meaning with the phrase “area of special flood hazard”.


Area of special mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazard is the land within a community most likely to be subject to severe mudslides (i.e., mudflows). The area may be designated as Zone M on the FHBM. After the detailed evaluation of the special mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazard area in preparation for publication of the FIRM, Zone M may be further refined.


Base flood means the flood having a one percent chance of being equalled or exceeded in any given year.


Basement” means any area of the building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.


Breakaway wall means a wall that is not part of the structural support of the building and is intended through its design and construction to collapse under specific lateral loading forces, without causing damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system.


Building – see structure.


Chargeable rates mean the rates established by the Federal Insurance Administrator pursuant to section 1308 of the Act for first layer limits of flood insurance on existing structures.


Chief Executive Officer of the community (CEO) means the official of the community who is charged with the authority to implement and administer laws, ordinances and regulations for that community.


Coastal high hazard area means an area of special flood hazard extending from offshore to the inland limit of a primary frontal dune along an open coast and any other area subject to high velocity wave action from storms or seismic sources.


Community means any State or area or political subdivision thereof, or any Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization, or Alaska Native village or authorized native organization, which has authority to adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations for the areas within its jurisdiction.


Condominium building means a type of building in the form of ownership in which each unit owner has an undivided interest in common elements of the building.


Contents coverage is the insurance on personal property within an enclosed structure, including the cost of debris removal, and the reasonable cost of removal of contents to minimize damage. Personal property may be household goods usual or incidental to residential occupancy, or merchandise, furniture, fixtures, machinery, equipment and supplies usual to other than residential occupancies.


Criteria means the comprehensive criteria for land management and use for flood-prone areas developed under 42 U.S.C. 4102 for the purposes set forth in part 60 of this subchapter.


Critical feature means an integral and readily identifiable part of a flood protection system, without which the flood protection provided by the entire system would be compromised.


Curvilinear Line means the border on either a FHBM or FIRM that delineates the special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazard areas and consists of a curved or contour line that follows the topography.


Deductible means the amount of an insured loss that is the responsibility of the insured and that is incurred before any amounts are paid for the insured loss under the insurance policy.


Developed area means an area of a community that is:


(a) A primarily urbanized, built-up area that is a minimum of 20 contiguous acres, has basic urban infrastructure, including roads, utilities, communications, and public facilities, to sustain industrial, residential, and commercial activities, and


(1) Within which 75 percent or more of the parcels, tracts, or lots contain commercial, industrial, or residential structures or uses; or


(2) Is a single parcel, tract, or lot in which 75 percent of the area contains existing commercial or industrial structures or uses; or


(3) Is a subdivision developed at a density of at least two residential structures per acre within which 75 percent or more of the lots contain existing residential structures at the time the designation is adopted.


(b) Undeveloped parcels, tracts, or lots, the combination of which is less than 20 acres and contiguous on at least 3 sides to areas meeting the criteria of paragraph (a) at the time the designation is adopted.


(c) A subdivision that is a minimum of 20 contiguous acres that has obtained all necessary government approvals, provided that the actual “start of construction” of structures has occurred on at least 10 percent of the lots or remaining lots of a subdivision or 10 percent of the maximum building coverage or remaining building coverage allowed for a single lot subdivision at the time the designation is adopted and construction of structures is underway. Residential subdivisions must meet the density criteria in paragraph (a)(3).


Development means any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations or storage of equipment or materials.


Eligible community or participating community means a community for which the Federal Insurance Administrator has authorized the sale of flood insurance under the National Flood Insurance Program..


Elevated building means, for insurance purposes, a nonbasement building which has its lowest elevated floor raised above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings, or columns.


Emergency program means the initial phase of a community’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program, as prescribed by Section 1306 of the Act.


Erosion means the process of the gradual wearing away of land masses. This peril is not per se covered under the Program.


Exception means a waiver from the provisions of part 60 of this subchapter directed to a community which relieves it from the requirements of a rule, regulation, order or other determination made or issued pursuant to the Act.


Existing construction, means for the purposes of determining rates, structures for which the “start of construction” commenced before the effective date of the FIRM or before January 1, 1975, for FIRMs effective before that date. “Existing construction” may also be referred to as “existing structures.”


Existing manufactured home park or subdivision means a manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed before the effective date of the floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.


Existing structures see existing construction.


Expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision means the preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufacturing homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads).


Federal agency means any department, agency, corporation, or other entity or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government, and includes the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation.


Federal instrumentality responsible for the supervision, approval, regulation, or insuring of banks, savings and loan associations, or similar institutions means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, and the National Credit Union Administration.


Financial assistance means any form of loan, grant, guaranty, insurance, payment, rebate, subsidy, disaster assistance loan or grant, or any other form of direct or indirect Federal assistance, other than general or special revenue sharing or formula grants made to States.


Financial assistance for acquisition or construction purposes means any form of financial assistance which is intended in whole or in part for the acquisition, construction, reconstruction, repair, or improvement of any publicly or privately owned building or mobile home, and for any machinery, equipment, fixtures, and furnishings contained or to be contained therein, and shall include the purchase or subsidization of mortgages or mortgage loans but shall exclude assistance pursuant to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 other than assistance under such Act in connection with a flood. It includes only financial assistance insurable under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.


First-layer coverage is the maximum amount of structural and contents insurance coverage available under the Emergency Program.


Flood or Flooding means:


(a) A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:


(1) The overflow of inland or tidal waters.


(2) The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.


(3) Mudslides (i.e., mudflows) which are proximately caused by flooding as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this definition and are akin to a river of liquid and flowing mud on the surfaces of normally dry land areas, as when earth is carried by a current of water and deposited along the path of the current.


(b) The collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such as flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results in flooding as defined in paragraph (a)(1) of this definition.


Flood elevation determination means a determination by the Federal Insurance Administrator of the water surface elevations of the base flood, that is, the flood level that has a one percent or greater chance of occurrence in any given year.


Flood elevation study means an examination, evaluation and determination of flood hazards and, if appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations, or an examination, evaluation and determination of mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards.


Flood Hazard Boundary Map means an official map of a community, issued by the Federal Insurance Administrator, where the boundaries of the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) related erosion areas having special hazards have been designated as Zones A, M, and/or E.


Flood insurance means the insurance coverage provided under the Program.


Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) means an official map of a community, on which the Federal Insurance Administrator has delineated both the special hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community. A FIRM that has been made available digitally is called a Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM).


Flood Insurance Study see flood elevation study.


Flood plain or flood-prone area means any land area susceptible to being inundated by water from any source (see definition of “flooding”).


Flood plain management means the operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, flood control works and flood plain management regulations.


Flood plain management regulations means zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance and erosion control ordinance) and other applications of police power. The term describes such state or local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.


Flood protection system means those physical structural works for which funds have been authorized, appropriated, and expended and which have been constructed specifically to modify flooding in order to reduce the extent of the area within a community subject to a “special flood hazard” and the extent of the depths of associated flooding. Such a system typically includes hurricane tidal barriers, dams, reservoirs, levees or dikes. These specialized flood modifying works are those constructed in conformance with sound engineering standards.


Flood proofing means any combination of structural and non-structural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitary facilities, structures and their contents.


Flood-related erosion means the collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water as a result of undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels or suddenly caused by an unusually high water level in a natural body of water, accompanied by a severe storm, or by an unanticipated force of nature, such as a flash flood or an abnormal tidal surge, or by some similarly unusual and unforeseeable event which results in flooding.


Flood-related erosion area or flood-related erosion prone area means a land area adjoining the shore of a lake or other body of water, which due to the composition of the shoreline or bank and high water levels or wind-driven currents, is likely to suffer flood-related erosion damage.


Flood-related erosion area management means the operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood-related erosion damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, flood-related erosion control works, and flood plain management regulations.


Floodway – see regulatory floodway.


Floodway encroachment lines mean the lines marking the limits of floodways on Federal, State and local flood plain maps.


Freeboard means a factor of safety usually expressed in feet above a flood level for purposes of flood plain management. “Freeboard” tends to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than the height calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions, such as wave action, bridge openings, and the hydrological effect of urbanization of the watershed.


Functionally dependent use means a use which cannot perform its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water. The term includes only docking facilities, port facilities that are necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, and ship building and ship repair facilities, but does not include long-term storage or related manufacturing facilities.


Future-conditions flood hazard area, or future-conditions floodplain – see Area of future-conditions flood hazard.


Future-conditions hydrology means the flood discharges associated with projected land-use conditions based on a community’s zoning maps and/or comprehensive land-use plans and without consideration of projected future construction of flood detention structures or projected future hydraulic modifications within a stream or other waterway, such as bridge and culvert construction, fill, and excavation.


Highest adjacent grade means the highest natural elevation of the ground surface prior to construction next to the proposed walls of a structure.


Historic Structure means any structure that is:


(a) Listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places (a listing maintained by the Department of Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register;


(b) Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary to qualify as a registered historic district;


(c) Individually listed on a state inventory of historic places in states with historic preservation programs which have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or


(d) Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either:


(1) By an approved state program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior or


(2) Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs.


Independent scientific body means a non-Federal technical or scientific organization involved in the study of land use planning, flood plain management, hydrology, geology, geography, or any other related field of study concerned with flooding.


Insurance adjustment organization means any organization or person engaged in the business of adjusting loss claims arising under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.


Insurance company or insurer means any person or organization authorized to engage in the insurance business under the laws of any State.


Levee means a man-made structure, usually an earthen embankment, designed and constructed in accordance with sound engineering practices to contain, control, or divert the flow of water so as to provide protection from temporary flooding.


Levee System means a flood protection system which consists of a levee, or levees, and associated structures, such as closure and drainage devices, which are constructed and operated in accordance with sound engineering practices.


Lowest Floor means the lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished or flood resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement area is not considered a building’s lowest floor; Provided, that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable non-elevation design requirements of § 60.3.


Mangrove stand means an assemblage of mangrove trees which are mostly low trees noted for a copious development of interlacing adventitious roots above the ground and which contain one or more of the following species: Black mangrove (Avicennia Nitida); red mangrove (Rhizophora Mangle); white mangrove (Languncularia Racemosa); and buttonwood (Conocarpus Erecta).


Manufactured home means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. The term “manufactured home” does not include a “recreational vehicle”.


Manufactured home park or subdivision” means a parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.


Map means the Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) or the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for a community issued by the Agency.


Mean sea level means, for purposes of the National Flood Insurance Program, the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 or other datum, to which base flood elevations shown on a community’s Flood Insurance Rate Map are referenced.


Mixed use building means a building that has both residential and non-residential uses.


Mudslide (i.e., mudflow) describes a condition where there is a river, flow or inundation of liquid mud down a hillside usually as a result of a dual condition of loss of brush cover, and the subsequent accumulation of water on the ground preceded by a period of unusually heavy or sustained rain. A mudslide (i.e., mudflow) may occur as a distinct phenomenon while a landslide is in progress, and will be recognized as such by the Administrator only if the mudflow, and not the landslide, is the proximate cause of damage that occurs.


Mudslide (i.e., mudflow) area management means the operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing mudslide (i.e., mudflow) damage, including but not limited to emergency preparedness plans, mudslide control works, and flood plain management regulations.


Mudslide (i.e., mudflow) prone area means an area with land surfaces and slopes of unconsolidated material where the history, geology and climate indicate a potential for mudflow.


Multifamily building means an other residential building that is not a condominium building.


New construction means, for the purposes of determining insurance rates, structures for which the “start of construction” commenced on or after the effective date of an initial FIRM or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later, and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures. For floodplain management purposes, new construction means structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of a floodplain management regulation adopted by a community and includes any subsequent improvements to such structures.


New manufactured home park or subdivision means a manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed (including at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or after the effective date of floodplain management regulations adopted by a community.


Non-residential building means a commercial or mixed-use building where the primary use is commercial or non-habitational.


Non-residential property means either a non-residential building, the contents within a non-residential building, or both.


100-year flood see base flood.


Other residential building means a residential building that is designed for use as a residential space for 5 or more families or a mixed use building in which the total floor area devoted to non-residential uses is less than 25 percent of the total floor area within the building.


Other residential property means either an other residential building, the contents within an other residential building, or both.


Participating community, also known as an eligible community, means a community in which the Administrator has authorized the sale of flood insurance.


Person includes any individual or group of individuals, corporation, partnership, association, or any other entity, including State and local governments and agencies.


Policy means the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.


Premium means the total premium payable by the insured for the coverage or coverages provided under the policy. The calculation of the premium may be based upon either chargeable rates or risk premium rates, or a combination of both.


Primary frontal dune means a continuous or nearly continuous mound or ridge of sand with relatively steep seaward and landward slopes immediately landward and adjacent to the beach and subject to erosion and overtopping from high tides and waves during major coastal storms. The inland limit of the primary frontal dune occurs at the point where there is a distinct change from a relatively steep slope to a relatively mild slope.


Principally above ground means that at least 51 percent of the actual cash value of the structure, less land value, is above ground.


Program means the National Flood Insurance Program authorized by 42 U.S.C. 4001 through 4128.


Program deficiency means a defect in a community’s flood plain management regulations or administrative procedures that impairs effective implementation of those flood plain management regulations or of the standards in § 60.3, § 60.4, § 60.5, or § 60.6.


Project cost means the total financial cost of a flood protection system (including design, land acquisition, construction, fees, overhead, and profits), unless the Federal Insurance Administrator determines a given “cost” not to be a part of such project cost.


Recreational vehicle means a vehicle which is:


(a) Built on a single chassis;


(b) 400 square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projection;


(c) Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light duty truck; and


(d) Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use.


Reference feature is the receding edge of a bluff or eroding frontal dune, or if such a feature is not present, the normal high-water line or the seaward line of permanent vegetation if a high-water line cannot be identified.


Regular Program means the Program authorized by the Act under which risk premium rates are required for the first half of available coverage (also known as “first layer” coverage) for all new construction and substantial improvements started on or after the effective date of the FIRM, or after December 31, 1974, for FIRM’s effective on or before that date. All buildings, the construction of which started before the effective date of the FIRM, or before January 1, 1975, for FIRMs effective before that date, are eligible for first layer coverage at either subsidized rates or risk premium rates, whichever are lower. Regardless of date of construction, risk premium rates are always required for the second layer coverage and such coverage is offered only after the Administrator has completed a risk study for the community.


Regulatory floodway means the channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated height.


Remedy a violation means to bring the structure or other development into compliance with State or local flood plain management regulations, or, if this is not possible, to reduce the impacts of its noncompliance. Ways that impacts may be reduced include protecting the structure or other affected development from flood damages, implementing the enforcement provisions of the ordinance or otherwise deterring future similar violations, or reducing Federal financial exposure with regard to the structure or other development.


Residential building means a non-commercial building designed for habitation by one or more families or a mixed use building that qualifies as a single-family, two-to-four family, or other residential building.


Residential property means either a residential building or the contents within a residential building, or both.


Risk premium rates means those rates established by the Federal Insurance Administrator pursuant to individual community studies and investigations which are undertaken to provide flood insurance in accordance with section 1307 of the Act and the accepted actuarial principles. “Risk premium rates” include provisions for operating costs and allowances.


Riverine means relating to, formed by, or resembling a river (including tributaries), stream, brook, etc.


Sand dunes mean naturally occurring accumulations of sand in ridges or mounds landward of the beach.


Scientifically incorrect. The methodology(ies) and/or assumptions which have been utilized are inappropriate for the physical processes being evaluated or are otherwise erroneous.


Second layer coverage means an additional limit of coverage equal to the amounts made available under the Emergency Program, and made available under the Regular Program.


Servicing company means a corporation, partnership, association, or any other organized entity which contracts with the Federal Insurance Administration to service insurance policies under the National Flood Insurance Program for a particular area.


Sheet flow area – see area of shallow flooding.


Single-family dwelling means either (a) a residential single-family building in which the total floor area devoted to non-residential uses is less than 50 percent of the building’s total floor area, or (b) a single-family residential unit within a two-to-four family building, other-residential building, business, or non-residential building, in which commercial uses within the unit are limited to less than 50 percent of the unit’s total floor area.


60-year setback means a distance equal to 60 times the average annual long term recession rate at a site, measured from the reference feature.


Special flood hazard area – see “area of special flood hazard”.


Special hazard area means an area having special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), or flood-related erosion hazards, and shown on an FHBM or FIRM as Zone A, AO, A1-30, AE, AR, AR/A1-30, AR/AE, AR/AO, AR/AH, AR/A, A99, AH, VO, V1-30, VE, V, M, or E.


Standard Flood Insurance Policy means the flood insurance policy issued by the Federal Insurance Administrator or an insurer pursuant to an arrangement with the Federal Insurance Administrator pursuant to Federal statutes and regulations.


Start of Construction (for other than new construction or substantial improvements under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (Pub. L. 97-348)), includes substantial improvement, and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition placement, or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The actual start means either the first placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site, such as the pouring of slab or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation; or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings, piers, or foundations or the erection of temporary forms; nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For a substantial improvement, the actual start of construction means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.


State means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.


State Coordinating Agency means the agency of the state government (or other office designated by the Governor of the state or by state statute) that, at the request of the Federal Insurance Administrator, assists in the implementation of the National Flood Insurance Program in that state.


Storm cellar means a space below grade used to accommodate occupants of the structure and emergency supplies as a means of temporary shelter against severe tornado or similar wind storm activity.


Structure means, for floodplain management purposes, a walled and roofed building, including a gas or liquid storage tank, that is principally above ground, as well as a manufactured home. Structure, for insurance purposes, means:


(1) A building with two or more outside rigid walls and a fully secured roof, that is affixed to a permanent site;


(2) A manufactured home (“a manufactured home,” also known as a mobile home, is a structure: built on a permanent chassis, transported to its site in one or more sections, and affixed to a permanent foundation); or


(3) A travel trailer without wheels, built on a chassis and affixed to a permanent foundation, that is regulated under the community’s floodplain management and building ordinances or laws.


For the latter purpose, “structure” does not mean a recreational vehicle or a park trailer or other similar vehicle, except as described in paragraph (3) of this definition, or a gas or liquid storage tank.

Subsidized rates mean the rates established by the Federal Insurance Administrator involving in the aggregate a subsidization by the Federal Government.


Substantial damage means damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before damaged condition would equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.


Substantial improvement means any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the “start of construction” of the improvement. This term includes structures which have incurred “substantial damage”, regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, include either:


(1) Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of state or local health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local code enforcement official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions or


(2) Any alteration of a “historic structure”, provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure’s continued designation as a “historic structure”.


30-year setback means a distance equal to 30 times the average annual long term recession rate at a site, measured from the reference feature.


Technically incorrect. The methodology(ies) utilized has been erroneously applied due to mathematical or measurement error, changed physical conditions, or insufficient quantity or quality of input data.


Two-to-four family building means a residential building, including an apartment building, containing two-to-four residential spaces and in which commercial uses are limited to less than 25 percent of the building’s total floor area.


V Zone – see “coastal high hazard area.”


Variance means a grant of relief by a community from the terms of a flood plain management regulation.


Violation means the failure of a structure or other development to be fully compliant with the community’s flood plain management regulations. A structure or other development without the elevation certificate, other certifications, or other evidence of compliance required in § 60.3(b)(5), (c)(4), (c)(10), (d)(3), (e)(2), (e)(4), or (e)(5) is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.


Water surface elevation means the height, in relation to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929, (or other datum, where specified) of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the flood plains of coastal or riverine areas.


Zone of imminent collapse means an area subject to erosion adjacent to the shoreline of an ocean, bay, or lake and within a distance equal to 10 feet plus 5 times the average annual long-term erosion rate for the site, measured from the reference feature.


[41 FR 46968, Oct. 26, 1976]


Editorial Note:For Federal Register citations affecting § 59.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§ 59.2 Description of program.

(a) The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 was enacted by title XIII of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 (Pub. L. 90-448, August 1, 1968) to provide previously unavailable flood insurance protection to property owners in flood-prone areas. Mudslide (as defined in § 59.1) protection was added to the Program by the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969 (Pub. L. 91-152, December 24, 1969). Flood-related erosion (as defined in § 59.1) protection was added to the Program by the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234, December 31, 1973). The Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 requires the purchase of flood insurance on and after March 2, 1974, as a condition of receiving any form of Federal or federally-related financial assistance for acquisition or construction purposes with respect to insurable buildings and mobile homes within an identified special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), or flood-related erosion hazard area that is located within any community participating in the Program. The Act also requires that on and after July 1, 1975, or one year after a community has been formally notified by the Federal Insurance Administrator. of its identification as community containing one or more special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), or flood-related erosion hazard areas, no such Federal financial assistance, shall be provided within such an area unless the community in which the area is located is then participating in the Program, subject to certain exceptions. See FIA published Guidelines at § 59.4(c).


(b) To qualify for the sale of federally-subsidized flood insurance a community must adopt and submit to the Federal Insurance Administrator as part of its application, flood plain management regulations, satisfying at a minimum the criteria set forth at part 60 of this subchapter, designed to reduce or avoid future flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damages. These regulations must include effective enforcement provisions.


(c) Minimum requirements for adequate flood plain management regulations are set forth in § 60.3 for flood-prone areas, in § 60.4 for mudslide (i.e., mudflow) areas and in § 60.5 for flood-related erosion areas. Those applicable requirements and standards are based on the amount of technical information available to the community.


[41 FR 46968, Oct. 26, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 7140, Feb. 17, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, and amended at 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984]


§ 59.3 Emergency program.

The 1968 Act required a risk study to be undertaken for each community before it could become eligible for the sale of flood insurance. Since this requirement resulted in a delay in providing insurance, the Congress, in section 408 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969 (Pub. L. 91-152, December 24, 1969), established an Emergency Flood Insurance Program as a new section 1336 of the National Flood Insurance Act (42 U.S.C. 4056) to permit the early sale of insurance in flood-prone communities. The emergency program does not affect the requirement that a community must adopt adequate flood plain management regulations pursuant to part 60 of this subchapter but permits insurance to be sold before a study is conducted to determine risk premium rates for the community. The program still requires upon the effective date of a FIRM the charging of risk premium rates for all new construction and substantial improvements and for higher limits of coverage for existing structures.


[43 FR 7140, Feb. 17, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, and amended at 48 FR 44543, Sept. 29, 1983]


§ 59.4 References.

(a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under which these regulations are issued:


(1) National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (title XIII of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968), Pub. L. 90-448, approved August 1, 1968, 42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.


(2) Housing and Urban Development Act of 1969 (Pub. L. 91-152, approved December 24, 1969).


(3) Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (87 Stat. 980), Public Law 93-234, approved December 31, 1973.


(4) Section 816 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (87 Stat. 975), Public Law 93-383, approved August 22, 1974.


(5) Public Law 5-128 (effective October 12, 1977).


(6) The above statutes are included in 42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.


(b) The following are references relevant to the National Flood Insurance Program:


(1) Executive Order 11988 (Floodplain Management, dated May 24, 1977 (42 FR 26951, May 25, 1977)).


(2) The Flood Control Act of 1960 (Pub. L. 86-645).


(3) Title II, section 314 of title III and section 406 of title IV of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-288).


(4) Coastal Zone Management Act (Pub. L. 92-583), as amended Public Law 94-370.


(5) Water Resources Planning Act (Pub. L. 89-90), as amended Public Law 94-112 (October 16, 1975).


(6) Title I, National Environmental Policy Act (Pub. L. 91-190).


(7) Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (Pub. L. 89-578), and subsequent amendments thereto.


(8) Water Resources Council, Principals and Standards for Planning, Water and Related Land Resources (38 FR 24778-24869, September 10, 1973).


(9) Executive Order 11593 (Protection and Enchancement of the Cultural Environment), dated May 13, 1971 (36 FR 8921, May 15, 1971).


(10) 89th Cong., 2nd Session, H.D. 465.


(11) Required land use element for comprehensive planning assistance under section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as amended by the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (24 CFR 600.72).


(12) Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands, dated May 24, 1977 (42 FR 26951, May 25, 1977)).


(13) Water Resources Council (Guidance for Floodplain Management) (42 FR 52590, September 30, 1977).


(14) Unified National Program for Floodplain Management of the United States Water Resources Council, July 1976.


(c) The following reference guidelines represent the views of the Federal Insurance Administration with respect to the mandatory purchase of flood insurance under section 102 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973: Mandatory Purchase of Flood Insurance Guidelines (54 FR 29666-29695, July 13, 1989).


[41 FR 46968, Oct. 26, 1976, as amended at 43 FR 7140, Feb. 17, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, and amended at 57 FR 19540, May 7, 1992]


Subpart B – Eligibility Requirements

§ 59.21 Purpose of subpart.

This subpart lists actions that must be taken by a community to become eligible and to remain eligible for the Program.


[41 FR 46968, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979]


§ 59.22 Prerequisites for the sale of flood insurance.

(a) To qualify for flood insurance availability a community shall apply for the entire area within its jurisdiction, and shall submit:


(1) Copies of legislative and executive actions indicating a local need for flood insurance and an explicit desire to participate in the National Flood Insurance Program;


(2) Citations to State and local statutes and ordinances authorizing actions regulating land use and copies of the local laws and regulations cited;


(3) A copy of the flood plain management regulations the community has adopted to meet the requirements of §§ 60.3, 60.4 and/or § 60.5 of this subchapter. This submission shall include copies of any zoning, building, and subdivision regulations, health codes, special purpose ordinances (such as a flood plain ordinance, grading ordinance, or flood-related erosion control ordinance), and any other corrective and preventive measures enacted to reduce or prevent flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion damage;


(4) A list of the incorporated communities within the applicant’s boundaries;


(5) Estimates relating to the community as a whole and to the flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone areas concerning:


(i) Population;


(ii) Number of one to four family residences;


(iii) Number of small businesses; and


(iv) Number of all other structures.


(6) Address of a local repository, such as a municipal building, where the Flood Hazard Boundary Maps (FHBM’s) and Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM’s) will be made available for public inspection;


(7) A summary of any State or Federal activities with respect to flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion area management within the community, such as federally-funded flood control projects and State-administered flood plain management regulations;


(8) A commitment to recognize and duly evaluate flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards in all official actions in the areas having special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards and to take such other official action reasonably necessary to carry out the objectives of the program; and


(9) A commitment to:


(i) Assist the Federal Insurance Administrator at his/her request, in his/her delineation of the limits of the areas having special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion hazards;


(ii) Provide such information concerning present uses and occupancy of the flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion areas as the Federal Insurance Administrator may request;


(iii) Maintain for public inspection and furnish upon request, for the determination of applicable flood insurance risk premium rates within all areas having special flood hazards identified on a FHBM or FIRM, any certificates of floodproofing, and information on the elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the level of the lowest floor (including basement) of all new or substantially improved structures, and include whether or not such structures contain a basement, and if the structure has been floodproofed, the elevation (in relation to mean sea level) to which the structure was floodproofed;


(iv) Cooperate with Federal, State, and local agencies and private firms which undertake to study, survey, map, and identify flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion areas, and cooperate with neighboring communities with respect to the management of adjoining flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion areas in order to prevent aggravation of existing hazards;


(v) Upon occurrence, notify the Federal Insurance Administrator in writing whenever the boundaries of the community have been modified by annexation or the community has otherwise assumed or no longer has authority to adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations for a particular area. In order that all FHBM’s and FIRM’s accurately represent the community’s boundaries, include within such notification a copy of a map of the community suitable for reproduction, clearly delineating the new corporate limits or new area for which the community has assumed or relinquished flood plain management regulatory authority.


(b) An applicant shall legislatively:


(1) Appoint or designate the agency or official with the responsibility, authority, and means to implement the commitments made in paragraph (a) of this section, and


(2) Designate the official responsible to submit a report to the Federal Insurance Administrator concerning the community participation in the Program, including, but not limited to the development and implementation of flood plain management regulations. This report shall be submitted annually or biennially as determined by the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(c) The documents required by paragraph (a) of this section and evidence of the actions required by paragraph (b) of this section shall be submitted to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC 20472.


[41 FR 46968, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979 and amended at 48 FR 29318, June 24, 1983; 48 FR 44543 and 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984; 49 FR 33656, Aug. 24, 1984; 50 FR 36023, Sept. 4, 1985]


§ 59.23 Priorities for the sale of flood insurance under the regular program.

Flood-prone, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion prone communities are placed on a register of areas eligible for ratemaking studies and then selected from this register for ratemaking studies on the basis of the following considerations –


(a) Recommendations of State officials;


(b) Location of community and urgency of need for flood insurance;


(c) Population of community and intensity of existing or proposed development of the flood plain, the mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and the flood-related erosion area;


(d) Availability of information on the community with respect to its flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion characteristics and previous losses;


(e) Extent of State and local progress in flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) area and flood-related erosion area management, including adoption of flood plain management regulations consistent with related ongoing programs in the area.


[41 FR 46968, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979]


§ 59.24 Suspension of community eligibility.

(a) A community eligible for the sale of flood insurance shall be subject to suspension from the Program for failing to submit copies of adequate flood plain management regulations meeting the minimum requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f) of § 60.3 or paragraph (b) of § 60.4 or § 60.5, within six months from the date the Federal Insurance Administrator provides the data upon which the flood plain regulations for the applicable paragraph shall be based. Where there has not been any submission by the community, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall notify the community that 90 days remain in the six month period in order to submit adequate flood plain management regulations. Where there has been an inadequate submission, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall notify the community of the specific deficiencies in its submitted flood plain management regulations and inform the community of the amount of time remaining within the six month period. If, subsequently, copies of adequate flood plain management regulations are not received by the Administrator, no later than 30 days before the expiration of the original six month period the Federal Insurance Administrator shall provide written notice to the community and to the state and assure publication of the community’s loss of eligibility for the sale of flood insurance on the internet or by another comparable method, such suspension to become effective upon the expiration of the six month period. Should the community remedy the defect and the Federal Insurance Administrator receive copies of adequate flood plain management regulations within the notice period, the suspension notice shall be rescinded by the Federal Insurance Administrator. If the Federal Insurance Administrator receives notice from the State that it has enacted adequate flood plain management regulations for the community within the notice period, the suspension notice shall be rescinded by the Federal Insurance Administrator. The community’s eligibility shall remain terminated after suspension until copies of adequate flood plain management regulations have been received and approved by the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(b) A community eligible for the sale of flood insurance which fails to adequately enforce flood plain management regulations meeting the minimum requirements set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4 and/or 60.5 shall be subject to probation. Probation shall represent formal notification to the community that the Federal Insurance Administrator regards the community’s flood plain management program as not compliant with NFIP criteria. Prior to imposing probation, the Federal Insurance Administrator (1) shall inform the community upon 90 days prior written notice of the impending probation and of the specific program deficiencies and violations relative to the failure to enforce, (2) shall, at least 60 days before probation is to begin, issue a press release to local media explaining the reasons for and the effects of probation, and (3) shall, at least 90 days before probation is to begin, advise all policyholders in the community of the impending probation and the additional premium that will be charged, as provided in this paragraph, on policies sold or renewed during the period of probation. During this 90-day period the community shall have the opportunity to avoid probation by demonstrating compliance with Program requirements, or by correcting Program deficiencies and remedying all violations to the maximum extent possible. If, at the end of the 90-day period, the Federal Insurance Administrator determines that the community has failed to do so, the probation shall go into effect. Probation may be continued for up to one year after the community corrects all Program deficiencies and remedies all violations to the maximum extent possible. Flood insurance may be sold or renewed in the community while it is on probation. Where a policy covers property located in a community placed on probation on or after October 1, 1986, but prior to October 1, 1992, an additional premium of $25.00 shall be charged on each such policy newly issued or renewed during the one-year period beginning on the date the community is placed on probation and during any successive one-year periods that begin prior to October 1, 1992. Where a community’s probation begins on or after October 1, 1992, the additional premium described in the preceding sentence shall be $50.00, which shall also be charged during any successive one-year periods during which the community remains on probation for any part thereof. This $50.00 additional premium shall further be charged during any successive one-year periods that begin on or after October 1, 1992, where the preceding one-year probation period began prior to October 1, 1992.


(c) A community eligible for the sale of flood insurance which fails to adequately enforce its flood plain management regulations meeting the minimum requirements set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4 and/or 60.5 and does not correct its Program deficiencies and remedy all violations to the maximum extent possible in accordance with compliance deadlines established during a period of probation shall be subject to suspension of its Program eligibility. Under such circumstances, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall grant the community 30 days in which to show cause why it should not be suspended. The Federal Insurance Administrator may conduct a hearing, written or oral, before commencing suspensive action. If a community is to be suspended, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall inform it upon 30 days prior written notice and upon publication of its loss of eligibility for the sale of flood insurance on the internet or by another comparable method. In the event of impending suspension, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall issue a press release to the local media explaining the reasons and effects of the suspension. The community’s eligibility shall only be reinstated by the Federal Insurance Administrator upon his receipt of a local legislative or executive measure reaffirming the community’s formal intent to adequately enforce the flood plain management requirements of this subpart, together with evidence of action taken by the community to correct Program deficiencies and remedy to the maximum extent possible those violations which caused the suspension. In certain cases, the Federal Insurance Administrator, in order to evaluate the community’s performance under the terms of its submission, may withhold reinstatement for a period not to exceed one year from the date of his receipt of the satisfactory submission or place the community on probation as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section.


(d) A community eligible for the sale of flood insurance which repeals its flood plain management regulations, allows its regulations to lapse, or amends its regulations so that they no longer meet the minimum requirements set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4 and/or 60.5 shall be suspended from the Program. If a community is to be suspended, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall inform it upon 30 days prior written notice and upon publication of its loss of eligibly for the sale of flood insurance on the internet or by another comparable method. The community eligibility shall remain terminated after suspension until copies of adequate flood plain management regulations have been received and approved by the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(e) A community eligible for the sale of flood insurance may withdraw from the Program by submitting to the Federal Insurance Administrator a copy of a legislative action that explicitly states its desire to withdraw from the National Flood Insurance Program. Upon receipt of a certified copy of a final legislative action, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall withdraw the community from the Program and publish its loss of eligibility for the sale of flood insurance on the internet or by another comparable method. A community that has withdrawn from the Program may be reinstated if its submits the application materials specified in § 59.22(a).


(f) If during a period of ineligibility under paragraphs (a), (d), or (e) of this section, a community has permitted actions to take place that have aggravated existing flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood related erosion hazards, the Federal Insurance Administrator may withhold reinstatement until the community submits evidence that it has taken action to remedy to the maximum extent possible the increased hazards. The Federal Insurance Administrator may also place the reinstated community on probation as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section.


(g) The Federal Insurance Administrator shall promptly notify the servicing company and any insurers issuing flood insurance pursuant to an arrangement with the Federal Insurance Administrator of those communities whose eligibility has been suspended or which have withdrawn from the program. Flood insurance shall not be sold or renewed in those communities. Policies sold or renewed within a community during a period of ineligibility are deemed to be voidable by the Federal Insurance Administrator whether or not the parties to sale or renewal had actual notice of the ineligibility.


[41 FR 46968, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, and amended at 48 FR 44543 and 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984; 50 FR 36023, Sept. 4, 1985; 57 FR 19540, May 7, 1992; 59 FR 53598, Oct. 25, 1994; 62 FR 55715, Oct. 27, 1997; 85 FR 68789, Oct. 30, 2020]


PART 60 – CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE


Authority:42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 43 FR 41943, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127 of Mar. 31, 1979, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.


Source:41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979.

Subpart A – Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations

§ 60.1 Purpose of subpart.

(a) The Act provides that flood insurance shall not be sold or renewed under the program within a community, unless the community has adopted adequate flood plain management regulations consistent with Federal criteria. Responsibility for establishing such criteria is delegated to the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(b) This subpart sets forth the criteria developed in accordance with the Act by which the Federal Insurance Administrator will determine the adequacy of a community’s flood plain management regulations. These regulations must be legally-enforceable, applied uniformly throughout the community to all privately and publicly owned land within flood-prone, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) or flood-related erosion areas, and the community must provide that the regulations take precedence over any less restrictive conflicting local laws, ordinances or codes. Except as otherwise provided in § 60.6, the adequacy of such regulations shall be determined on the basis of the standards set forth in § 60.3 for flood-prone areas, § 60.4 for mudslide areas and § 60.5 for flood-related erosion areas.


(c) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as modifying or replacing the general requirement that all eligible communities must take into account flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion hazards, to the extent that they are known, in all official actions relating to land management and use.


(d) The criteria set forth in this subpart are minimum standards for the adoption of flood plain management regulations by flood-prone, mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone and flood-related erosion-prone communities. Any community may exceed the minimum criteria under this part by adopting more comprehensive flood plain management regulations utilizing the standards such as contained in subpart C of this part. In some instances, community officials may have access to information or knowledge of conditions that require, particularly for human safety, higher standards than the minimum criteria set forth in subpart A of this part. Therefore, any flood plain management regulations adopted by a State or a community which are more restrictive than the criteria set forth in this part are encouraged and shall take precedence.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984]


§ 60.2 Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

(a) A flood-prone community applying for flood insurance eligibility shall meet the standards of § 60.3(a) in order to become eligible if a FHBM has not been issued for the community at the time of application. Thereafter, the community will be given a period of six months from the date the Federal Insurance Administrator provides the data set forth in § 60.3 (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f), in which to meet the requirements of the applicable paragraph. If a community has received a FHBM, but has not yet applied for Program eligibility, the community shall apply for eligibility directly under the standards set forth in § 60.3(b). Thereafter, the community will be given a period of six months from the date the Federal Insurance Administrator provides the data set forth in § 60.3 (c), (d), (e) or (f) in which to meet the requirements of the applicable paragraph.


(b) A mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone community applying for flood insurance eligibility shall meet the standards of § 60.4(a) to become eligible. Thereafter, the community will be given a period of six months from the date the mudslide (i.e., mudflow) areas having special mudslide hazards are delineated in which to meet the requirements of § 60.4(b).


(c) A flood-related erosion-prone community applying for flood insurance eligibility shall meet the standards of § 60.5(a) to become eligible. Thereafter, the community will be given a period of six months from the date the flood-related erosion areas having special erosion hazards are delineated in which to meet the requirements of § 60.5(b).


(d) Communities identified in part 65 of this subchapter as containing more than one type of hazard (e.g., any combination of special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), and flood-related erosion hazard areas) shall adopt flood plain management regulations for each type of hazard consistent with the requirements of §§ 60.3, 60.4 and 60.5.


(e) Local flood plain management regulations may be submitted to the State Coordinating Agency designated pursuant to § 60.25 for its advice and concurrence. The submission to the State shall clearly describe proposed enforcement procedures.


(f) The community official responsible for submitting annual or biennial reports to the Federal Insurance Administrator pursuant to § 59.22(b)(2) of this subchapter shall also submit copies of each annual or biennial report to any State Coordinating Agency.


(g) A community shall assure that its comprehensive plan is consistent with the flood plain management objectives of this part.


(h) The community shall adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations based on data provided by the Federal Insurance Administrator. Without prior approval of the Federal Insurance Administrator, the community shall not adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations based upon modified data reflecting natural or man-made physical changes.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 29318, June 24, 1983; 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984; 50 FR 36024, Sept. 4, 1985; 59 FR 53598, Oct. 25, 1994; 62 FR 55716, Oct. 27, 1997]


§ 60.3 Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

The Federal Insurance Administrator will provide the data upon which flood plain management regulations shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has not provided sufficient data to furnish a basis for these regulations in a particular community, the community shall obtain, review and reasonably utilize data available from other Federal, State or other sources pending receipt of data from the Federal Insurance Administrator. However, when special flood hazard area designations and water surface elevations have been furnished by the Federal Insurance Administrator, they shall apply. The symbols defining such special flood hazard designations are set forth in § 64.3 of this subchapter. In all cases the minimum requirements governing the adequacy of the flood plain management regulations for flood-prone areas adopted by a particular community depend on the amount of technical data formally provided to the community by the Federal Insurance Administrator. Minimum standards for communities are as follows:


(a) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has not defined the special flood hazard areas within a community, has not provided water surface elevation data, and has not provided sufficient data to identify the floodway or coastal high hazard area, but the community has indicated the presence of such hazards by submitting an application to participate in the Program, the community shall:


(1) Require permits for all proposed construction or other development in the community, including the placement of manufactured homes, so that it may determine whether such construction or other development is proposed within flood-prone areas;


(2) Review proposed development to assure that all necessary permits have been received from those governmental agencies from which approval is required by Federal or State law, including section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, 33 U.S.C. 1334;


(3) Review all permit applications to determine whether proposed building sites will be reasonably safe from flooding. If a proposed building site is in a flood-prone area, all new construction and substantial improvements shall (i) be designed (or modified) and adequately anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads, including the effects of buoyancy, (ii) be constructed with materials resistant to flood damage, (iii) be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damages, and (iv) be constructed with electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, and air conditioning equipment and other service facilities that are designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding.


(4) Review subdivision proposals and other proposed new development, including manufactured home parks or subdivisions, to determine whether such proposals will be reasonably safe from flooding. If a subdivision proposal or other proposed new development is in a flood-prone area, any such proposals shall be reviewed to assure that (i) all such proposals are consistent with the need to minimize flood damage within the flood-prone area, (ii) all public utilities and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems are located and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damage, and (iii) adequate drainage is provided to reduce exposure to flood hazards;


(5) Require within flood-prone areas new and replacement water supply systems to be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems; and


(6) Require within flood-prone areas (i) new and replacement sanitary sewage systems to be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems and discharges from the systems into flood waters and (ii) onsite waste disposal systems to be located to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding.


(b) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has designated areas of special flood hazards (A zones) by the publication of a community’s FHBM or FIRM, but has neither produced water surface elevation data nor identified a floodway or coastal high hazard area, the community shall:


(1) Require permits for all proposed construction and other developments including the placement of manufactured homes, within Zone A on the community’s FHBM or FIRM;


(2) Require the application of the standards in paragraphs (a) (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) of this section to development within Zone A on the community’s FHBM or FIRM;


(3) Require that all new subdivision proposals and other proposed developments (including proposals for manufactured home parks and subdivisions) greater than 50 lots or 5 acres, whichever is the lesser, include within such proposals base flood elevation data;


(4) Obtain, review and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation and floodway data available from a Federal, State, or other source, including data developed pursuant to paragraph (b)(3) of this section, as criteria for requiring that new construction, substantial improvements, or other development in Zone A on the community’s FHBM or FIRM meet the standards in paragraphs (c)(2), (c)(3), (c)(5), (c)(6), (c)(12), (c)(14), (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section;


(5) Where base flood elevation data are utilized, within Zone A on the community’s FHBM or FIRM:


(i) Obtain the elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the lowest floor (including basement) of all new and substantially improved structures, and


(ii) Obtain, if the structure has been floodproofed in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, the elevation (in relation to mean sea level) to which the structure was floodproofed, and


(iii) Maintain a record of all such information with the official designated by the community under § 59.22 (a)(9)(iii);


(6) Notify, in riverine situations, adjacent communities and the State Coordinating Office prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, and submit copies of such notifications to the Federal Insurance Administrator;


(7) Assure that the flood carrying capacity within the altered or relocated portion of any watercourse is maintained;


(8) Require that all manufactured homes to be placed within Zone A on a community’s FHBM or FIRM shall be installed using methods and practices which minimize flood damage. For the purposes of this requirement, manufactured homes must be elevated and anchored to resist flotation, collapse, or lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include, but are not to be limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors. This requirement is in addition to applicable State and local anchoring requirements for resisting wind forces.


(c) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has provided a notice of final flood elevations for one or more special flood hazard areas on the community’s FIRM and, if appropriate, has designated other special flood hazard areas without base flood elevations on the community’s FIRM, but has not identified a regulatory floodway or coastal high hazard area, the community shall:


(1) Require the standards of paragraph (b) of this section within all A1-30 zones, AE zones, A zones, AH zones, and AO zones, on the community’s FIRM;


(2) Require that all new construction and substantial improvements of residential structures within Zones A1-30, AE and AH zones on the community’s FIRM have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to or above the base flood level, unless the community is granted an exception by the Federal Insurance Administrator for the allowance of basements in accordance with § 60.6 (b) or (c);


(3) Require that all new construction and substantial improvements of non-residential structures within Zones A1-30, AE and AH zones on the community’s firm (i) have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated to or above the base flood level or, (ii) together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be designed so that below the base flood level the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy;


(4) Provide that where a non-residential structure is intended to be made watertight below the base flood level, (i) a registered professional engineer or architect shall develop and/or review structural design, specifications, and plans for the construction, and shall certify that the design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the applicable provisions of paragraph (c)(3)(ii) or (c)(8)(ii) of this section, and (ii) a record of such certificates which includes the specific elevation (in relation to mean sea level) to which such structures are floodproofed shall be maintained with the official designated by the community under § 59.22(a)(9)(iii);


(5) Require, for all new construction and substantial improvements, that fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are usable solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage in an area other than a basement and which are subject to flooding shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria: A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided. The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade. Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters.


(6) Require that manufactured homes that are placed or substantially improved within Zones A1-30, AH, and AE on the community’s FIRM on sites


(i) Outside of a manufactured home park or subdivision,


(ii) In a new manufactured home park or subdivision,


(iii) In an expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision, or


(iv) In an existing manufactured home park or subdivision on which a manufactured home has incurred “substantial damage” as the result of a flood, be elevated on a permanent foundation such that the lowest floor of the manufactured home is elevated to or above the base flood elevation and be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist floatation collapse and lateral movement.


(7) Require within any AO zone on the community’s FIRM that all new construction and substantial improvements of residential structures have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet on the community’s FIRM (at least two feet if no depth number is specified);


(8) Require within any AO zone on the community’s FIRM that all new construction and substantial improvements of nonresidential structures (i) have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet on the community’s FIRM (at least two feet if no depth number is specified), or (ii) together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities be completely floodproofed to that level to meet the floodproofing standard specified in § 60.3(c)(3)(ii);


(9) Require within any A99 zones on a community’s FIRM the standards of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4)(i) and (b)(5) through (b)(9) of this section;


(10) Require until a regulatory floodway is designated, that no new construction, substantial improvements, or other development (including fill) shall be permitted within Zones A1-30 and AE on the community’s FIRM, unless it is demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one foot at any point within the community.


(11) Require within Zones AH and AO, adequate drainage paths around structures on slopes, to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures.


(12) Require that manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved on sites in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision within Zones A-1-30, AH, and AE on the community’s FIRM that are not subject to the provisions of paragraph (c)(6) of this section be elevated so that either


(i) The lowest floor of the manufactured home is at or above the base flood elevation, or


(ii) The manufactured home chassis is supported by reinforced piers or other foundation elements of at least equivalent strength that are no less than 36 inches in height above grade and be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist floatation, collapse, and lateral movement.


(13) Notwithstanding any other provisions of § 60.3, a community may approve certain development in Zones Al-30, AE, and AH, on the community’s FIRM which increase the water surface elevation of the base flood by more than one foot, provided that the community first applies for a conditional FIRM revision, fulfills the requirements for such a revision as established under the provisions of § 65.12, and receives the approval of the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(14) Require that recreational vehicles placed on sites within Zones A1-30, AH, and AE on the community’s FIRM either


(i) Be on the site for fewer than 180 consecutive days,


(ii) Be fully licensed and ready for highway use, or


(iii) Meet the permit requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section and the elevation and anchoring requirements for “manufactured homes” in paragraph (c)(6) of this section.


A recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick disconnect type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions.

(d) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has provided a notice of final base flood elevations within Zones A1-30 and/or AE on the community’s FIRM and, if appropriate, has designated AO zones, AH zones, A99 zones, and A zones on the community’s FIRM, and has provided data from which the community shall designate its regulatory floodway, the community shall:


(1) Meet the requirements of paragraphs (c) (1) through (14) of this section;


(2) Select and adopt a regulatory floodway based on the principle that the area chosen for the regulatory floodway must be designed to carry the waters of the base flood, without increasing the water surface elevation of that flood more than one foot at any point;


(3) Prohibit encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development within the adopted regulatory floodway unless it has been demonstrated through hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed in accordance with standard engineering practice that the proposed encroachment would not result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge;


(4) Notwithstanding any other provisions of § 60.3, a community may permit encroachments within the adopted regulatory floodway that would result in an increase in base flood elevations, provided that the community first applies for a conditional FIRM and floodway revision, fulfills the requirements for such revisions as established under the provisions of § 65.12, and receives the approval of the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(e) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has provided a notice of final base flood elevations within Zones A1-30 and/or AE on the community’s FIRM and, if appropriate, has designated AH zones, AO zones, A99 zones, and A zones on the community’s FIRM, and has identified on the community’s FIRM coastal high hazard areas by designating Zones V1-30, VE, and/or V, the community shall:


(1) Meet the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (14) of this section;


(2) Within Zones V1-30, VE, and V on a community’s FIRM, (i) obtain the elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the bottom of the lowest structural member of the lowest floor (excluding pilings and columns) of all new and substantially improved structures, and whether or not such structures contain a basement, and (ii) maintain a record of all such information with the official designated by the community under § 59.22(a)(9)(iii);


(3) Provide that all new construction within Zones V1-30, VE, and V on the community’s FIRM is located landward of the reach of mean high tide;


(4) Provide that all new construction and substantial improvements in Zones V1-30 and VE, and also Zone V if base flood elevation data is available, on the community’s FIRM, are elevated on pilings and columns so that (i) the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor (excluding the pilings or columns) is elevated to or above the base flood level; and (ii) the pile or column foundation and structure attached thereto is anchored to resist flotation, collapse and lateral movement due to the effects of wind and water loads acting simultaneously on all building components. Water loading values used shall be those associated with the base flood. Wind loading values used shall be those required by applicable State or local building standards. A registered professional engineer or architect shall develop or review the structural design, specifications and plans for the construction, and shall certify that the design and methods of construction to be used are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the provisions of paragraphs (e)(4) (i) and (ii) of this section.


(5) Provide that all new construction and substantial improvements within Zones V1-30, VE, and V on the community’s FIRM have the space below the lowest floor either free of obstruction or constructed with non-supporting breakaway walls, open wood lattice-work, or insect screening intended to collapse under wind and water loads without causing collapse, displacement, or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. For the purposes of this section, a breakway wall shall have a design safe loading resistance of not less than 10 and no more than 20 pounds per square foot. Use of breakway walls which exceed a design safe loading resistance of 20 pounds per square foot (either by design or when so required by local or State codes) may be permitted only if a registered professional engineer or architect certifies that the designs proposed meet the following conditions:


(i) Breakaway wall collapse shall result from a water load less than that which would occur during the base flood; and,


(ii) The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system shall not be subject to collapse, displacement, or other structural damage due to the effects of wind and water loads acting simultaneously on all building components (structural and non-structural). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the base flood. Wind loading values used shall be those required by applicable State or local building standards.


Such enclosed space shall be useable solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage.

(6) Prohibit the use of fill for structural support of buildings within Zones V1-30, VE, and V on the community’s FIRM;


(7) Prohibit man-made alteration of sand dunes and mangrove stands within Zones V1-30, VE, and V on the community’s FIRM which would increase potential flood damage.


(8) Require that manufactured homes placed or substantially improved within Zones V1-30, V, and VE on the community’s FIRM on sites


(i) Outside of a manufactured home park or subdivision,


(ii) In a new manufactured home park or subdivision,


(iii) In an expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision, or


(iv) In an existing manufactured home park or subdivision on which a manufactured home has incurred “substantial damage” as the result of a flood, meet the standards of paragraphs (e)(2) through (7) of this section and that manufactured homes placed or substantially improved on other sites in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision within Zones VI-30, V, and VE on the community’s FIRM meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(12) of this section.


(9) Require that recreational vehicles placed on sites within Zones V1-30, V, and VE on the community’s FIRM either


(i) Be on the site for fewer than 180 consecutive days,


(ii) Be fully licensed and ready for highway use, or


(iii) Meet the requirements in paragraphs (b)(1) and (e) (2) through (7) of this section.


A recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick disconnect type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions.

(f) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has provided a notice of final base flood elevations within Zones A1-30 or AE on the community’s FIRM, and, if appropriate, has designated AH zones, AO zones, A99 zones, and A zones on the community’s FIRM, and has identified flood protection restoration areas by designating Zones AR, AR/A1-30, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, or AR/A, the community shall:


(1) Meet the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (14) and (d)(1) through (4) of this section.


(2) Adopt the official map or legal description of those areas within Zones AR, AR/A1-30, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A, or AR/AO that are designated developed areas as defined in § 59.1 in accordance with the eligibility procedures under § 65.14.


(3) For all new construction of structures in areas within Zone AR that are designated as developed areas and in other areas within Zone AR where the AR flood depth is 5 feet or less:


(i) Determine the lower of either the AR base flood elevation or the elevation that is 3 feet above highest adjacent grade; and


(ii) Using this elevation, require the standards of paragraphs (c)(1) through (14) of this section.


(4) For all new construction of structures in those areas within Zone AR that are not designated as developed areas where the AR flood depth is greater than 5 feet:


(i) Determine the AR base flood elevation; and


(ii) Using that elevation require the standards of paragraphs (c)(1) through (14) of this section.


(5) For all new construction of structures in areas within Zone AR/A1-30, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, and AR/A:


(i) Determine the applicable elevation for Zone AR from paragraphs (a)(3) and (4) of this section;


(ii) Determine the base flood elevation or flood depth for the underlying A1-30, AE, AH, AO and A Zone; and


(iii) Using the higher elevation from paragraphs (a)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section require the standards of paragraphs (c)(1) through (14) of this section.


(6) For all substantial improvements to existing construction within Zones AR/A1-30, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, and AR/A:


(i) Determine the A1-30 or AE, AH, AO, or A Zone base flood elevation; and


(ii) Using this elevation apply the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (14) of this section.


(7) Notify the permit applicant that the area has been designated as an AR, AR/A1-30, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, or AR/A Zone and whether the structure will be elevated or protected to or above the AR base flood elevation.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976]


Editorial Note:For Federal Register citations affecting § 60.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

§ 60.4 Flood plain management criteria for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas.

The Federal Insurance Administrator will provide the data upon which flood plain management regulations shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has not provided sufficient data to furnish a basis for these regulations in a particular community, the community shall obtain, review, and reasonably utilize data available from other Federal, State or other sources pending receipt of data from the Federal Insurance Administrator. However, when special mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazard area designations have been furnished by the Federal Insurance Administrator, they shall apply. The symbols defining such special mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazard designations are set forth in § 64.3 of this subchapter. In all cases, the minimum requirements for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas adopted by a particular community depend on the amount of technical data provided to the community by the Federal Insurance Administrator. Minimum standards for communities are as follows:


(a) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has not yet identified any area within the community as an area having special mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazards, but the community has indicated the presence of such hazards by submitting an application to participate in the Program, the community shall


(1) Require permits for all proposed construction or other development in the community so that it may determine whether development is proposed within mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas;


(2) Require review of each permit application to determine whether the proposed site and improvements will be reasonably safe from mudslides (i.e., mudflows). Factors to be considered in making such a determination should include but not be limited to (i) the type and quality of soils, (ii) any evidence of ground water or surface water problems, (iii) the depth and quality of any fill, (iv) the overall slope of the site, and (v) the weight that any proposed structure will impose on the slope;


(3) Require, if a proposed site and improvements are in a location that may have mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazards, that (i) a site investigation and further review be made by persons qualified in geology and soils engineering, (ii) the proposed grading, excavations, new construction, and substantial improvements are adequately designed and protected against mudslide (i.e., mudflow) damages, (iii) the proposed grading, excavations, new construction and substantial improvements do not aggravate the existing hazard by creating either on-site or off-site disturbances, and (iv) drainage, planting, watering, and maintenance be such as not to endanger slope stability.


(b) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has delineated Zone M on the community’s FIRM, the community shall:


(1) Meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section; and


(2) Adopt and enforce a grading ordinance or regulation in accordance with data supplied by the Federal Insurance Administrator which (i) regulates the location of foundation systems and utility systems of new construction and substantial improvements, (ii) regulates the location, drainage and maintenance of all excavations, cuts and fills and planted slopes, (iii) provides special requirements for protective measures including but not necessarily limited to retaining walls, buttress fills, sub-drains, diverter terraces, benchings, etc., and (iv) requires engineering drawings and specifications to be submitted for all corrective measures, accompanied by supporting soils engineering and geology reports. Guidance may be obtained from the provisions of the 1973 edition and any subsequent edition of the Uniform Building Code, sections 7001 through 7006, and 7008 through 7015. The Uniform Building Code is published by the International Conference of Building Officials, 50 South Los Robles, Pasadena, California 91101.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984]


§ 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

The Federal Insurance Administrator will provide the data upon which flood plain management regulations for flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has not provided sufficient data to furnish a basis for these regulations in a particular community, the community shall obtain, review, and reasonably utilize data available from other Federal, State or other sources, pending receipt of data from the Federal Insurance Administrator. However, when special flood-related erosion hazard area designations have been furnished by the Federal Insurance Administrator they shall apply. The symbols defining such special flood-related erosion hazard designations are set forth in § 64.3 of this subchapter. In all cases the minimum requirements governing the adequacy of the flood plain management regulations for flood-related erosion-prone areas adopted by a particular community depend on the amount of technical data provided to the community by the Federal Insurance Administrator. Minimum standards for communities are as follows:


(a) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has not yet identified any area within the community as having special flood-related erosion hazards, but the community has indicated the presence of such hazards by submitting an application to participate in the Program, the community shall


(1) Require the issuance of a permit for all proposed construction, or other development in the area of flood-related erosion hazard, as it is known to the community;


(2) Require review of each permit application to determine whether the proposed site alterations and improvements will be reasonably safe from flood-related erosion and will not cause flood-related erosion hazards or otherwise aggravate the existing flood-related erosion hazard; and


(3) If a proposed improvement is found to be in the path of flood-related erosion or to increase the erosion hazard, require the improvement to be relocated or adequate protective measures to be taken which will not aggravate the existing erosion hazard.


(b) When the Federal Insurance Administrator has delineated Zone E on the community’s FIRM, the community shall


(1) Meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section; and


(2) Require a setback for all new development from the ocean, lake, bay, riverfront or other body of water, to create a safety buffer consisting of a natural vegetative or contour strip. This buffer will be designated by the Federal Insurance Administrator according to the flood-related erosion hazard and erosion rate, in conjunction with the anticipated “useful life” of structures, and depending upon the geologic, hydrologic, topographic and climatic characteristics of the community’s land. The buffer may be used for suitable open space purposes, such as for agricultural, forestry, outdoor recreation and wildlife habitat areas, and for other activities using temporary and portable structures only.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984]


§ 60.6 Variances and exceptions.

(a) The Federal Insurance Administrator does not set forth absolute criteria for granting variances from the criteria set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4, and 60.5. The issuance of a variance is for flood plain management purposes only. Insurance premium rates are determined by statute according to actuarial risk and will not be modified by the granting of a variance. The community, after examining the applicant’s hardships, shall approve or disapprove a request. While the granting of variances generally is limited to a lot size less than one-half acre (as set forth in paragraph (a)(2) of this section), deviations from that limitation may occur. However, as the lot size increases beyond one-half acre, the technical justification required for issuing a variance increases. The Federal Insurance Administrator may review a community’s findings justifying the granting of variances, and if that review indicates a pattern inconsistent with the objectives of sound flood plain management, the Federal Insurance Administrator may take appropriate action under § 59.24(b) of this subchapter. Variances may be issued for the repair or rehabilitation of historic structures upon a determination that the proposed repair or rehabilitation will not preclude the structure’s continued designation as a historic structure and the variance is the minimum necessary to preserve the historic character and design of the structure. Procedures for the granting of variances by a community are as follows:


(1) Variances shall not be issued by a community within any designated regulatory floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result;


(2) Variances may be issued by a community for new construction and substantial improvements to be erected on a lot of one-half acre or less in size contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the base flood level, in conformance with the procedures of paragraphs (a) (3), (4), (5) and (6) of this section;


(3) Variances shall only be issued by a community upon (i) a showing of good and sufficient cause, (ii) a determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship to the applicant, and (iii) a determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances;


(4) Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief;


(5) A community shall notify the applicant in writing over the signature of a community official that (i) the issuance of a variance to construct a structure below the base flood level will result in increased premium rates for flood insurance up to amounts as high as $25 for $100 of insurance coverage and (ii) such construction below the base flood level increases risks to life and property. Such notification shall be maintained with a record of all variance actions as required in paragraph (a)(6) of this section; and


(6) A community shall (i) maintain a record of all variance actions, including justification for their issuance, and (ii) report such variances issued in its annual or biennial report submitted to the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(7) Variances may be issued by a community for new construction and substantial improvements and for other development necessary for the conduct of a functionally dependent use provided that (i) the criteria of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section are met, and (ii) the structure or other development is protected by methods that minimize flood damages during the base flood and create no additional threats to public safety.


(b)(1) The requirement that each flood-prone, mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone, and flood-related erosion prone community must adopt and submit adequate flood plain management regulations as a condition of initial and continued flood insurance eligibility is statutory and cannot be waived, and such regulations shall be adopted by a community within the time periods specified in § 60.3, § 60.4 or § 60.5. However, certain exceptions from the standards contained in this subpart may be permitted where the Federal Insurance Administrator recognizes that, because of extraordinary circumstances, local conditions may render the application of certain standards the cause for severe hardship and gross inequity for a particular community. Consequently, a community proposing the adoption of flood plain management regulations which vary from the standards set forth in § 60.3, § 60.4, or § 60.5, shall explain in writing to the Federal Insurance Administrator the nature and extent of and the reasons for the exception request and shall include sufficient supporting economic, environmental, topographic, hydrologic, and other scientific and technical data, and data with respect to the impact on public safety and the environment.


(2) The Federal Insurance Administrator shall prepare a Special Environmental Clearance to determine whether the proposal for an exception under paragraph (b)(1) of this section will have significant impact on the human environment. The decision whether an Environmental Impact Statement or other environmental document will be prepared, will be made in accordance with applicable environmental and historic preservation laws, regulations, Executive Orders, and agency policy. Ninety or more days may be required for an environmental quality clearance if the proposed exception will have significant impact on the human environment thereby requiring an EIS.


(c) A community may propose flood plain management measures which adopt standards for floodproofed residential basements below the base flood level in zones A1-30, AH, AO, and AE which are not subject to tidal flooding. Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section the Federal Insurance Administrator may approve the proposal provided that:


(1) The community has demonstrated that areas of special flood hazard in which basements will be permitted are subject to shallow and low velocity flooding and that there is adequate flood warning time to ensure that all residents are notified of impending floods. For the purposes of this paragraph flood characteristics must include:


(i) Flood depths that are five feet or less for developable lots that are contiguous to land above the base flood level and three feet or less for other lots;


(ii) Flood velocities that are five feet per second or less; and


(iii) Flood warning times that are 12 hours or greater. Flood warning times of two hours or greater may be approved if the community demonstrates that it has a flood warning system and emergency plan in operation that is adequate to ensure safe evacuation of flood plain residents.


(2) The community has adopted flood plain management measures that require that new construction and substantial improvements of residential structures with basements in zones A1-30, AH, AO, and AE shall:


(i) Be designed and built so that any basement area, together with attendant utilities and sanitary facilities below the floodproofed design level, is watertight with walls that are impermeable to the passage of water without human intervention. Basement walls shall be built with the capacity to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy resulting from flooding to the floodproofed design level, and shall be designed so that minimal damage will occur from floods that exceed that level. The floodproofed design level shall be an elevation one foot above the level of the base flood where the difference between the base flood and the 500-year flood is three feet or less and two feet above the level of the base flood where the difference is greater than three feet.


(ii) Have the top of the floor of any basement area no lower than five feet below the elevation of the base flood;


(iii) Have the area surrounding the structure on all sides filled to or above the elevation of the base flood. Fill must be compacted with slopes protected by vegetative cover;


(iv) Have a registered professional engineer or architect develop or review the building’s structural design, specifications, and plans, including consideration of the depth, velocity, and duration of flooding and type and permeability of soils at the building site, and certify that the basement design and methods of construction proposed are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting the provisions of this paragraph;


(v) Be inspected by the building inspector or other authorized representative of the community to verify that the structure is built according to its design and those provisions of this section which are verifiable.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44543 and 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984; 50 FR 36025, Sept. 4, 1985; 51 FR 30308, Aug. 25, 1986; 54 FR 33550, Aug. 15, 1989; 81 FR 56533, Aug. 22, 2016]


§ 60.7 Revisions of criteria for flood plain management regulations.

From time to time part 60 may be revised as experience is acquired under the Program and new information becomes available. Communities will be given six months from the effective date of any new regulation to revise their flood plain management regulations to comply with any such changes.


§ 60.8 Definitions.

The definitions set forth in part 59 of this subchapter are applicable to this part.


Subpart B – Requirements for State Flood Plain Management Regulations

§ 60.11 Purpose of this subpart.

(a) A State is considered a “community” pursuant to § 59.1 of this subchapter; and, accordingly, the Act provides that flood insurance shall not be sold or renewed under the Program unless a community has adopted adequate flood plain management regulations consistent with criteria established by the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(b) This subpart sets forth the flood plain management criteria required for State-owned properties located within special hazard areas identified by the Federal Insurance Administrator. A State shall satisfy such criteria as a condition to the purchase of a Standard Flood Insurance Policy for a State-owned structure or its contents, or as a condition to the approval by the Federal Insurance Administrator, pursuant to part 75 of this subchapter, of its plan of self-insurance.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984]


§ 60.12 Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in special hazard areas.

(a) The State shall comply with the minimum flood plain management criteria set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4, and 60.5. A State either shall:


(1) Comply with the flood plain management requirements of all local communities participating in the program in which State-owned properties are located; or


(2) Establish and enforce flood plain management regulations which, at a minimum, satisfy the criteria set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4, and 60.5.


(b) The procedures by which a state government adopts and administers flood plain management regulations satisfying the criteria set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4 and 60.5 may vary from the procedures by which local governments satisfy the criteria.


(c) If any State-owned property is located in a non-participating local community, then the State shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section for the property.


§ 60.13 Noncompliance.

If a State fails to submit adequate flood plain management regulations applicable to State-owned properties pursuant to § 60.12 within six months of the effective date of this regulation, or fails to adequately enforce such regulations, the State shall be subject to suspensive action pursuant to § 59.24. Where the State fails to adequately enforce its flood plain management regulations, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall conduct a hearing before initiating such suspensive action.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984]


Subpart C – Additional Considerations in Managing Flood-Prone, Mudslide (i.e., Mudflow)-Prone and Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas

§ 60.21 Purpose of this subpart.

The purpose of this subpart is to encourage the formation and adoption of overall comprehensive management plans for flood-prone, mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone and flood-related erosion-prone areas. While adoption by a community of the standards in this subpart is not mandatory, the community shall completely evaluate these standards.


§ 60.22 Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.

(a) The flood plain management regulations adopted by a community for flood-prone areas should:


(1) Permit only that development of flood-prone areas which (i) is appropriate in light of the probability of flood damage and the need to reduce flood losses, (ii) is an acceptable social and economic use of the land in relation to the hazards involved, and (iii) does not increase the danger to human life;


(2) Prohibit nonessential or improper installation of public utilities and public facilities in flood-prone areas.


(b) In formulating community development goals after the occurrence of a flood disaster, each community shall consider –


(1) Preservation of the flood-prone areas for open space purposes;


(2) Relocation of occupants away from flood-prone areas;


(3) Acquisition of land or land development rights for public purposes consistent with a policy of minimization of future property losses;


(4) Acquisition of frequently flood-damaged structures;


(c) In formulating community development goals and in adopting flood plain management regulations, each community shall consider at least the following factors –


(1) Human safety;


(2) Diversion of development to areas safe from flooding in light of the need to reduce flood damages and in light of the need to prevent environmentally incompatible flood plain use;


(3) Full disclosure to all prospective and interested parties (including but not limited to purchasers and renters) that (i) certain structures are located within flood-prone areas, (ii) variances have been granted for certain structures located within flood-prone areas, and (iii) premium rates applied to new structures built at elevations below the base flood substantially increase as the elevation decreases;


(4) Adverse effects of flood plain development on existing development;


(5) Encouragement of floodproofing to reduce flood damage;


(6) Flood warning and emergency preparedness plans;


(7) Provision for alternative vehicular access and escape routes when normal routes are blocked or destroyed by flooding;


(8) Establishment of minimum floodproofing and access requirements for schools, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, penal institutions, fire stations, police stations, communications centers, water and sewage pumping stations, and other public or quasi-public facilities already located in the flood-prone area, to enable them to withstand flood damage, and to facilitate emergency operations;


(9) Improvement of local drainage to control increased runoff that might increase the danger of flooding to other properties;


(10) Coordination of plans with neighboring community’s flood plain management programs;


(11) The requirement that all new construction and substantial improvements in areas subject to subsidence be elevated above the base flood level equal to expected subsidence for at least a ten year period;


(12) For riverine areas, requiring subdividers to furnish delineations for floodways before approving a subdivision;


(13) Prohibition of any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, except as part of an overall drainage basin plan. In the event of an overall drainage basin plan, provide that the flood carrying capacity within the altered or relocated portion of the watercourse is maintained;


(14) Requirement of setbacks for new construction within Zones V1-30, VE, and V on a community’s FIRM;


(15) Requirement of additional elevation above the base flood level for all new construction and substantial improvements within Zones A1-30, AE, V1-30, and VE on the community’s FIRM to protect against such occurrences as wave wash and floating debris, to provide an added margin of safety against floods having a magnitude greater than the base flood, or to compensate for future urban development;


(16) Requirement of consistency between state, regional and local comprehensive plans and flood plain management programs;


(17) Requirement of pilings or columns rather than fill, for the elevation of structures within flood-prone areas, in order to maintain the storage capacity of the flood plain and to minimize the potential for negative impacts to sensitive ecological areas;


(18) Prohibition, within any floodway or coastal high hazard area, of plants or facilities in which hazardous substances are manufactured.


(19) Requirement that a plan for evacuating residents of all manufactured home parks or subdivisions located within flood prone areas be developed and filed with and approved by appropriate community emergency management authorities.


[41 FR 46975, Oct. 26, 1976. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 50 FR 36025, Sept. 4, 1985; 54 FR 40284, Sept. 29, 1989]


§ 60.23 Planning considerations for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas.

The planning process for communities identified under part 65 of this subchapter as containing Zone M, or which indicate in their applications for flood insurance pursuant to § 59.22 of this subchapter that they have mudslide (i.e., mudflow) areas, should include –


(a) The existence and extent of the hazard;


(b) The potential effects of inappropriate hillside development, including


(1) Loss of life and personal injuries, and


(2) Public and private property losses, costs, liabilities, and exposures resulting from potential mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazards;


(c) The means of avoiding the hazard including the (1) availability of land which is not mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone and the feasibility of developing such land instead of further encroaching upon mudslide (i.e., mudflow) areas, (2) possibility of public acquisition of land, easements, and development rights to assure the proper development of hillsides, and (3) advisability of preserving mudslide (i.e., mudflow) areas as open space;


(d) The means of adjusting to the hazard, including the (1) establishment by ordinance of site exploration, investigation, design, grading, construction, filing, compacting, foundation, sewerage, drainage, subdrainage, planting, inspection and maintenance standards and requirements that promote proper land use, and (2) provision for proper drainage and subdrainage on public property and the location of public utilities and service facilities, such as sewer, water, gas and electrical systems and streets in a manner designed to minimize exposure to mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazards and prevent their aggravation;


(e) Coordination of land use, sewer, and drainage regulations and ordinances with fire prevention, flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), soil, land, and water regulation in neighboring communities;


(f) Planning subdivisions and other developments in such a manner as to avoid exposure to mudslide (i.e., mudflow) hazards and the control of public facility and utility extension to discourage inappropriate development;


(g) Public facility location and design requirements with higher site stability and access standards for schools, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, correctional and other residential institutions, fire and police stations, communication centers, electric power transformers and substations, water and sewer pumping stations and any other public or quasi-public institutions located in the mudslide (i.e., mudflow) area to enable them to withstand mudslide (i.e., mudflow) damage and to facilitate emergency operations; and


(h) Provision for emergencies, including:


(1) Warning, evacuation, abatement, and access procedures in the event of mudslide (i.e., mudflow),


(2) Enactment of public measures and initiation of private procedures to limit danger and damage from continued or future mudslides (i.e., mudflow),


(3) Fire prevention procedures in the event of the rupture of gas or electrical distribution systems by mudslides,


(4) Provisions to avoid contamination of water conduits or deterioration of slope stability by the rupture of such systems,


(5) Similar provisions for sewers which in the event of rupture pose both health and site stability hazards and


(6) Provisions for alternative vehicular access and escape routes when normal routes are blocked or destroyed by mudslides (i.e., mudflow);


(i) The means for assuring consistency between state, areawide, and local comprehensive plans with the plans developed for mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas;


(j) Deterring the nonessential installation of public utilities and public facilities in mudslide (i.e., mudflow)-prone areas.


§ 60.24 Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

The planning process for communities identified under part 65 of this subchapter as containing Zone E or which indicate in their applications for flood insurance coverage pursuant to § 59.22 of this subchapter that they have flood-related erosion areas should include –


(a) The importance of directing future developments to areas not exposed to flood-related erosion;


(b) The possibility of reserving flood-related erosion-prone areas for open space purposes;


(c) The coordination of all planning for the flood-related erosion-prone areas with planning at the State and Regional levels, and with planning at the level of neighboring communities;


(d) Preventive action in E zones, including setbacks, shore protection works, relocating structures in the path of flood-related erosion, and community acquisition of flood-related erosion-prone properties for public purposes;


(e) Consistency of plans for flood-related erosion-prone areas with comprehensive plans at the state, regional and local levels.


§ 60.25 Designation, duties, and responsibilities of State Coordinating Agencies.

(a) States are encouraged to demonstrate a commitment to the minimum flood plain management criteria set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4, and 60.5 as evidenced by the designation of an agency of State government to be responsible for coordinating the Program aspects of flood plain management in the State.


(b) State participation in furthering the objectives of this part shall include maintaining capability to perform the appropriate duties and responsibilities as follows:


(1) Enact, whenever necessary, legislation enabling counties and municipalities to regulate development within flood-prone areas;


(2) Encourage and assist communities in qualifying for participation in the Program;


(3) Guide and assist county and municipal public bodies and agencies in developing, implementing, and maintaining local flood plain management regulations;


(4) Provide local governments and the general public with Program information on the coordination of local activities with Federal and State requirements for managing flood-prone areas;


(5) Assist communities in disseminating information on minimum elevation requirements for development within flood-prone areas;


(6) Assist in the delineation of riverine and coastal flood-prone areas, whenever possible, and provide all relevant technical information to the Federal Insurance Administrator;


(7) Recommend priorities for Federal flood plain management activities in relation to the needs of county and municipal localities within the State;


(8) Provide notification to the Federal Insurance Administrator in the event of apparent irreconcilable differences between a community’s local flood plain management program and the minimum requirements of the Program;


(9) Establish minimum State flood plain management regulatory standards consistent with those established in this part and in conformance with other Federal and State environmental and water pollution standards for the prevention of pollution during periods of flooding;


(10) Assure coordination and consistency of flood plain management activities with other State, areawide, and local planning and enforcement agencies;


(11) Assist in the identification and implementation of flood hazard mitigation recommendations which are consistent with the minimum flood plain management criteria for the Program;


(12) Participate in flood plain management training opportunities and other flood hazard preparedness programs whenever practicable.


(c) Other duties and responsibilities, which may be deemed appropriate by the State and which are to be officially designated as being conducted in the capacity of the State Coordinating Agency for the Program, may be carried out with prior notification of the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(d) For States which have demonstrated a commitment to and experience in application of the minimum flood plain management criteria set forth in §§ 60.3, 60.4, and 60.5 as evidenced by the establishment and implementation of programs which substantially encompass the activities described in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section, the Federal Insurance Administrator shall take the foregoing into account when:


(1) Considering State recommendations prior to implementing Program activities affecting State communities;


(2) Considering State approval or certifications of local flood plain management regulations as meeting the requirements of this part.


[51 FR 30309, Aug. 25, 1986]


§ 60.26 Local coordination.

(a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage abatement programs should be coordinated with relevant Federal, State, and regional programs;


(b) A community adopting flood plain management regulations pursuant to these criteria should coordinate with the appropriate State agency to promote public acceptance and use of effective flood plain, mudslide, (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations;


(c) A community should notify adjacent communities prior to substantial commercial developments and large subdivisions to be undertaken in areas having special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-related erosion hazards.


PART 61 – INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES


Authority:42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.; 6 U.S.C. 101 et seq.



Source:43 FR 2570, Jan. 17, 1978, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979.

§ 61.1 Purpose of part.

This part describes the types of properties eligible for flood insurance coverage under the Program, the limits of such coverage, and the premium rates actually to be paid by insureds.


[85 FR 43957, July 20, 2020]


§ 61.2 Definitions.

The definitions set forth in part 59 of this subchapter are applicable to this part.


§ 61.3 Coverage and benefits provided under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.

(a) Insurance coverage under the Program is available for buildings and their contents. Coverage for each may be purchased separately.


(b) In addition to building and contents coverage, the Dwelling Form of the Standard Flood Insurance Policy (SFIP) covers debris removal, loss avoidance measures, and condominium loss assessments. The General Property Form of the SFIP covers debris removal, loss avoidance measures, and pollution damage. The Residential Condominium Building Association Policy Form of the SFIP covers debris removal and loss avoidance measures.


(c) With the purchase of building coverage, the Standard Flood Insurance Policy covers the costs associated with bringing the building into compliance with local floodplain ordinances.


[85 FR 43957, July 20, 2020]


§ 61.4 Special terms and conditions.

(a) No new flood insurance or renewal of flood insurance policies will be written for properties declared by a duly constituted State or local zoning or other authority to be in violation of any floodplain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), or flood-related erosion area management or control law, regulation, or ordinance.


(b) In order to reduce the administrative costs of the Program, of which the Federal Government pays a major share, applicants must pay the full policy premium at the time of application.


[85 FR 43957, July 20, 2020]


§ 61.5 Deductibles.

FEMA must provide policyholders with deductible options in various amounts, up to and including $10,000, subject to the following minimum deductible amounts:


(a) The minimum deductible for policies covering pre-FIRM buildings charged less than full-risk rates with building coverage amounts less than or equal to $100,000 is $1,500.


(b) The minimum deductible for policies covering pre-FIRM buildings charged less than full-risk rates with building coverage amounts greater than $100,000 is $2,000.


(c) The minimum deductible for policies covering post-FIRM buildings and pre-FIRM buildings charged full risk rates, with building coverage amounts equal to or less than $100,000 is $1,000.


(d) The minimum deductible for policies covering post-FIRM buildings and pre-FIRM buildings charged full risk rates, with building coverage amounts greater than $100,000 is $1,250.


[85 FR 43958, July 20, 2020]


§ 61.6 Maximum amounts of coverage available.

(a) Pursuant to section 1306 of the Act, the following are the limits of coverage available under the emergency program and under the regular program.


Table 1 to Paragraph (a) – Maximum Amounts of Coverage Available
1

Occupancy
Emergency

Program

Regular Program
Amount
Amount
Building Coverage
Single-Family Dwelling* $35,000$250,000.
Two-to-Four Family Building* 35,000$250,000.
Other Residential Building (including Multifamily Building)** 100,000$500,000.
Residential Condominium BuildingN/A$250,000 times the number of units in the building.
Non-Residential Building100,000$500,000.

Contents Coverage
2
Residential Property
3
10,000$100,000.
Non-Residential Property100,000$500,000.


1 This Table provides the maximum coverage amounts available under the Emergency Program and the Regular Program, and the columns cannot be aggregated to exceed the limits in the Regular Program, which are established by statute. The aggregate limits for building coverage are the maximum coverage amounts allowed by statute for each building included in the relevant Occupancy Category.


2 The policy limits for contents coverage are not per building. Although a single insured may not have more than one policy covering contents in a building, several insureds may have separate policies of up to the policy limits.


3 The Residential Property occupancy category includes the Single-Family Dwelling, Two-to-Four Family Building, Other Residential Building, and Condominium Building occupancies categories.

* In Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and U.S. Virgin Islands, the amount available is $50,000.

** In Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and U.S. Virgin Islands, the amount available is $150,000.


(b) Coverage and benefits payable under the SFIP pursuant to § 61.3(b) and (c) are included in, not in addition to, the coverage limits provided by the Act or stated in paragraph (a) of this section.


[85 FR 43958, July 20, 2020; 86 FR 10029, Feb. 18, 2021, as amended at 86 FR 62104, Nov. 9, 2021]


§ 61.7 Risk premium rate determinations.

(a) Pursuant to section 1307 of the Act, the Federal Insurance Administrator is authorized to undertake studies and investigations to enable him/her to estimate the risk premium rates necessary to provide flood insurance in accordance with accepted actuarial principles, including applicable operating costs and allowances. Such rates are also referred to in this subchapter as “actuarial rates.”


(b) The Federal Insurance Administrator is also authorized to prescribe by regulation the rates which can reasonably be charged to insureds in order to encourage them to purchase the flood insurance made available under the Program. Such rates are referred to in this subchapter as “chargeable rates.” For areas having special flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), and flood-related erosion hazards, chargeable rates are usually lower than actuarial rates.


§ 61.8 Applicability of risk premium rates.

Risk premium rates are applicable to all flood insurance made available for:


(a) Any structure, the construction or substantial improvement of which was started after December 31, 1974 or on or after the effective date of the initial FIRM, whichever is later.


(b) Coverage which exceeds the following limits:


(1) For dwelling properties in States other than Alaska, Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, and Guam (i) $35,000 aggregate liability for any property containing only one unit, (ii) $100,000 for any property containing more than one unit, and (iii) $10,000 liability per unit for any contents related to such unit.


(2) For dwelling properties in Alaska, Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, and Guam (i) $50,000 aggregate liability for any property containing only one unit, (ii) $150,000 for property containing more than one unit, and (iii) $10,000 aggregate liability per unit for any contents related to such unit.


(3) For churches and other properties (i) $100,000 for the structure and (ii) $100,000 for contents of any such unit.


(c) Any structure or the contents thereof for which the chargeable rates prescribed by this part would exceed the risk premium rates.


§ 61.9 Establishment of chargeable rates.

(a) Under section 1308 of the Act, we are establishing annual chargeable rates for each $100 of flood insurance coverage as follows for Pre-FIRM, A zone properties, Pre-FIRM, V-zone properties, and emergency program properties.


Type of structure
A zone
1 rates per year

per $100 coverage on:
V zone
2 rates per year

per $100 coverage on:
structure
Contents
Structure
Contents
RCBAP
3
All

other
RCBAP
3
All

other
High

rise
Low

rise
High

rise
Low

rise
1. Residential:
No Basement or Enclosure.85.70.76.961.08.93.991.23
With Basement or Enclosure.90.75.81.961.151.001.061.23
2. All other including hotels and motels with normal occupancy of less than 6 months duration:
No Basement or EnclosureN/AN/A.831.62N/AN/A1.102.14
With Basement or EnclosureN/AN/A.881.62N/AN/A1.162.14


1 1 A zones are zones A1-A30, AE, AO, AH, and unnumbered A zones.


2 V zones are zones V1-V30, VE, and unnumbered V zones.


3 Residential Condominium Building Association Policies (RCBAP) are distinguished between High Rise (those structures that have 3 or more floors and 5 or more units) and Low Rise (those structures that have either less than 3 floors or less than 5 units).


(b) We will charge rates for contents in pre-FIRM buildings according to the use of the building.


(c) A-zone rates for buildings without basements or enclosures apply uniformly to all buildings throughout emergency program communities.


(d) Properties that meet the definition of Severe Repetitive Loss properties as defined in § 79.2(g) of this subchapter, and who refuse an offer of mitigation pursuant to § 79.7 of this subchapter are not eligible for the rates identified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section.


(e) Properties leased from the Federal Government and located either on the river-facing side of a dike, levee, or other riverine flood control structure, or seaward of any seawall or other coastal flood control structure are not eligible for the rates identified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section.


[64 FR 13116, Mar. 17, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 8905, Feb. 27, 2002; 68 FR 15668, Apr. 1, 2003; 72 FR 61737, Oct. 31, 2007]


§ 61.10 Requirements for issuance or renewal of flood insurance coverage.

FEMA will not issue or renew flood insurance unless FEMA receives:


(a) The full amount due (including applicable premiums, surcharges, and fees); and


(b) A complete application, including the information necessary to establish a premium rate for the policy, or submission of corrected or additional information necessary to calculate the premium for the renewal of the policy.


[85 FR 43958, July 20, 2020]


§ 61.11 Effective date and time of coverage under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy – New Business Applications and Endorsements.

(a) During the 13-month period beginning on the effective date of a revised Flood Hazard Boundary Map or Flood Insurance Rate Map for a community, the effective date and time of any initial flood insurance coverage shall be 12:01 a.m. (local time) on the first calendar day after the application date and the presentment of payment of premium; for example, a flood insurance policy applied for with the payment of the premium on May 1 will become effective at 12:01 a.m. on May 2.


(b) Where the initial purchase of flood insurance is in connection with the making, increasing, extension, or renewal of a loan, the coverage with respect to the property which is the subject of the loan shall be effective as of the time of the loan closing, provided the written request for the coverage is received by the NFIP and the flood insurance policy is applied for and the presentment of payment of premium is made at or prior to the loan closing.


(c) Where the following conditions are met, the effective date and time of any initial purchase of flood insurance coverage for any privately-owned property will be 12:01 a.m. (local time) on the first calendar day after the application date and the presentment of payment of premium:


(1) The Administrator has determined that the property is affected by flooding on Federal land that is a result of, or is exacerbated by, post-wildfire conditions, after consultation with an authorized employee of the Federal agency that has jurisdiction of the land on which the wildfire that caused the post-wildfire conditions occurred; and


(2) The flood insurance coverage was purchased not later than 60 calendar days after the fire containment date, as determined by the appropriate Federal employee, relating to the wildfire that caused the post-wildfire conditions described in clause (1).


(d) Except as provided by paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section, the effective date and time of any new policy, added coverage, or increase in the amount of coverage will be 12:01 a.m. (local time) on the 30th calendar day after the application date and the presentment of payment of premium; for example, a flood insurance policy applied for with the payment of the premium on May 1 will become effective at 12:01 a.m. on May 31.


(e) Adding new coverage or increasing the amount of coverage in force is permitted during the term of any policy, subject to any applicable waiting periods. The additional premium for any new coverage or increase in the amount of coverage will be calculated pro rata in accordance with the rates currently in force.


(f) With respect to any submission of an application in connection with new business, the payment by an insured to an agent or the issuance of premium payment by the agent does not constitute payment to the NFIP. Therefore, it is important that an application for flood insurance, as well as the full amount due, be mailed to the NFIP promptly in order to have the effective date of the coverage based on the application date plus the waiting period. If the application and the full amount due are received at the office of the NFIP within ten (10) calendar days from the date of application, the waiting period will be calculated from the date of application. Also, as an alternative, in those cases where the application and premium payment are mailed by certified mail within four (4) calendar days from the date of application, the waiting period will be calculated from the date of application even though the application and full amount due are received at the office of the NFIP after ten (10) calendar days following the date of application. Thus, if the application and premium payment are received after ten (10) calendar days from the date of the application or are not mailed by certified mail within four (4) calendar days from the date of application, the waiting period will be calculated from the date of receipt at the office of the NFIP. To determine the effective date of any coverage added by endorsement to a flood insurance policy already in effect, substitute the term endorsement for the term application in this paragraph (f).


(g) The rules set forth in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section apply to Write Your Own (WYO) companies, except that agents must mail the premium payments and accompanying applications and endorsements to the WYO company and the WYO company must receive the applications and endorsements, rather than the NFIP.


[43 FR 50427, Oct. 30, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 46 FR 13514, Feb. 23, 1981; 48 FR 39069, Aug. 29, 1983; 48 FR 44544, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 33656, Aug. 24, 1984; 50 FR 16242, Apr. 25, 1985; 50 FR 36026, Sept. 4, 1985; 51 FR 30309, Aug. 25, 1986; 53 FR 15211, Apr. 28, 1988; 60 FR 5585, 5586, Jan. 30, 1995; 85 FR 43958, July 20, 2020]


§ 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

(a) Where the Federal Insurance Administrator determines that a community has made adequate progress on the construction of a flood protection system involving Federal funds which will significantly limit the area of special flood hazards, the applicable risk premium rates for any property, located within a special flood hazard area intended to be protected directly by such system will be those risk premium rates which would be applicable when the system is complete.


(b) Adequate progress in paragraph (a) of this section means that the community has provided information to the Federal Insurance Administrator sufficient to determine that substantial completion of the flood protection system has been effected because:


(1) 100 percent of the total financial project cost of the completed flood protection system has been authorized;


(2) At least 60 percent of the total financial project cost of the completed flood protection system has been appropriated;


(3) At least 50 percent of the total financial project cost of the completed flood protection system has been expended;


(4) All critical features of the flood protection system, as identified by the Federal Insurance Administrator, are under construction, and each critical feature is 50 percent completed as measured by the actual expenditure of the estimated construction budget funds; and


(5) The community has not been responsible for any delay in the completion of the system.


(c) Each request by a community for a determination must be submitted in writing to the Risk Analysis Division, Mitigation Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC, and contain a complete statement of all relevant facts relating to the flood protection system, including, but not limited to, supporting technical data (e.g., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers flood protection project data), cost schedules, budget appropriation data and the extent of Federal funding of the system’s construction. Such facts shall include information sufficient to identify all persons affected by such flood protection system or by such request: A full and precise statement of intended purposes of the flood protection system; and a carefully detailed description of such project, including construction completion target dates. In addition, true copies of all contracts, agreements, leases, instruments, and other documents involved must be submitted with the request. Relevant facts reflected in documents, however, must be included in the statement and not merely incorporated by reference, and must be accompanied by an analysis of their bearing on the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, specifying the pertinent provisions. The request must contain a statement whether, to the best of the knowledge of the person responsible for preparing the application for the community, the flood protection system is currently the subject matter of litigation before any Federal, State or local court or administrative agency, and the purpose of that litigation. The request must also contain a statement as to whether the community has previously requested a determination with respect to the same subject matter from the Federal Insurance Administrator, detailing the disposition of such previous request. As documents become part of the file and cannot be returned, the original documents should not be submitted.


(d) The effective date for any risk premium rates established under this section shall be the date of final determination by the Federal Insurance Administrator that adequate progress toward completion of a flood protection system has been made in a community.


(e) A responsible official of a community which received a determination that adequate progress has been made towards completion of a flood protection system shall certify to the Federal Insurance Administrator annually on the anniversary date of receipt of such determination that no present delay in completion of the system is attributable to local sponsors of the system, and that a good faith effort is being made to complete the project.


(f) A community for which risk premium rates have been made available under section 1307(e) of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, shall notify the Federal Insurance Administrator if, at any time, all progress on the completion of the flood protection system has been halted or if the project for the completion of the flood protection system has been canceled.


[43 FR 2570, Jan. 17, 1978, Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 47 FR 43061 Sept. 30, 1982; 48 FR 39069, Aug. 29, 1983; 48 FR 44552, Sept. 29, 1983; 49 FR 4751, Feb. 8, 1984; 51 FR 30310, Aug. 25, 1986]


§ 61.13 Standard Flood Insurance Policy.

(a) Incorporation of forms. Each of the Standard Flood Insurance Policy forms included in appendix “A” hereto (General Property, Dwelling, and Residential Condominium Building Association) and by reference incorporated herein shall be incorporated into the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.


(b) Endorsements. All endorsements to the Standard Flood Insurance Policy shall be final upon publication in the Federal Register for inclusion in appendix A.


(c) Applications. The application and renewal application forms utilized by the National Flood Insurance Program shall be the only application forms used in connection with the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.


(d) Waivers. The Standard Flood Insurance Policy and required endorsements must be used in the Flood Insurance Program, and no provision of the said documents shall be altered, varied, or waived other than by the express written consent of the Federal Insurance Administrator through the issuance of an appropriate amendatory endorsement, approved by the Federal Insurance Administrator as to form and substance for uniform use.


(e) Authorized only under terms and conditions established by the Act and Regulation. The Standard Flood Insurance Policy is authorized only under terms and conditions established by Federal statute, the program’s regulations, the Federal Insurance Administrator’s interpretations, and the express terms of the policy itself. Accordingly, representations regarding the extent and scope of coverage that are not consistent with Federal statute, the program’s regulations, the Federal Insurance Administrator’s interpretations, and the express terms of the policy itself, are void.


(f) Agent acts only for policyholder. The duly licensed property or casualty agent acts for the policyholder and does not act as agent for the Federal Government, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Write Your Own (WYO) program participating insurance company authorized by part 62 of this chapter, or the NFIP servicing agent.


(g) Oral and written binders. No oral binder or contract will be effective. No written binder will be effective unless issued with express authorization of the Federal Insurance Administrator.


(h) The Standard Flood Insurance Policy and endorsements may be issued by private sector Write Your Own (WYO) property insurance companies, based upon flood insurance applications and renewal forms, all of which instruments of flood insurance may bear the name, as Insurer, of the issuing WYO company. In the case of any Standard Flood Insurance Policy, and its related forms, issued by a WYO company, wherever the names “Federal Emergency Management Agency” and “Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration” appear, a WYO company must substitute its own name therefore. Standard Flood Insurance Policies issued by WYO companies may be executed by the issuing WYO company as Insurer, in the place and stead of the Federal Insurance Administrator, but the risk of loss is borne by the National Flood Insurance Fund, not the WYO company.


[43 FR 2570, Jan. 17, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 44 FR 62517, Oct. 31, 1979; 48 FR 46791, Oct. 14, 1983; 58 FR 62424, Nov. 26, 1993; 85 FR 43959, July 20, 2020]


§ 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

(a) Definition. A Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretation is a written determination by the Federal Insurance Administrator construing the scope of the flood insurance coverage that has been and is provided under the policy.


(b) Publication and requests for interpretation. The Federal Insurance Administrator shall, pursuant to these regulations from time to time, issue interpretative rulings regarding the provisions of the Standard Flood Insurance Policy. Such Interpretations shall be published in the Federal Register, made a part of appendix C to these regulations, and incorporated by reference as part of these regulations. Any policyholder or person in privity with a policyholder may file a request for an interpretation in writing with the Federal Insurance Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC 20472.


[43 FR 2570, Jan. 17, 1978. Redesignated at 44 FR 31177, May 31, 1979, as amended at 48 FR 39072, Aug. 29, 1983]


§ 61.16 Probation additional premium.

The additional premium charged pursuant to § 59.24(b) on each policy sold or renewed within a community placed on probation prior to October 1, 1992, is $25.00. Where the community was placed on probation on or after October 1, 1992, the additional premium charge is $50.00.”


[50 FR 36026, Sept. 4, 1985, as amended at 57 FR 19541, May 7, 1992; 74 FR 15340, Apr. 3, 2009]


§ 61.17 Group Flood Insurance Policy.

(a) A Group Flood Insurance Policy (GFIP) is a policy covering all individuals named by a State as recipients under section 408 of the Stafford Act (42 U.S.C. 5174) of an Individuals and Households Program (IHP) award for flood damage as a result of major disaster declaration by the President.


(b) The premium for the GFIP is a flat fee of $600 per insured. We may adjust the premium to reflect NFIP loss experience and any adjustment of benefits under the IHP program.


(c) The amount of coverage is equivalent to the maximum grant amount established under section 408 of the Stafford Act (42 U.S.C. 5174).


(d) The term of the GFIP is for 36 months and begins 60 days after the date of the disaster declaration.


(e) Coverage for individual grantees begins on the thirtieth day after the NFIP receives the required data for individual grantees and their premium payments.


(f) We will send a Certificate of Flood Insurance to each individual insured under the GFIP.


(g) The GFIP is the Standard Flood Insurance Policy Dwelling Form (a copy of which is included in appendix A(1) of this part), except that:


(1) VI. DEDUCTIBLES does not apply to the GFIP. A special deductible of $200 (applicable separately to any building loss and any contents loss) applies to insured flood-damage losses sustained by the insured property in the course of any subsequent flooding event during the term of the GFIP. The deductible does not apply to:


(i) III.C.2. Loss Avoidance Measures; or


(ii) III. C.3. Condominium Loss Assessments coverage.


(2) VIII. POLICY NULLIFICATION, CANCELLATION, AND NON-RENEWAL, C. Cancellation of the Policy by You, does not apply to the GFIP.


(3) VII. GENERAL CONDITIONS, E. Policy Renewal, does not apply to the GFIP.


(h) We will send a notice to the GFIP certificate holders approximately 60 days before the end of the thirty-six month term of the GFIP. The notice will encourage them to contact a local insurance agent or producer or a private insurance company selling NFIP policies under the Write Your Own program of the NFIP Standard Flood Insurance Policy, and advise them as to the amount of coverage they must maintain in order not to jeopardize their eligibility for future disaster assistance. The IHP program will provide the NFIP the amount of flood insurance coverage to be maintained by certificate holders.


[65 FR 60769, Oct. 12, 2000, as amended at 67 FR 61462, Sept. 30, 2002; 85 FR 43959, July 20, 2020]


Appendix A(1) to Part 61

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration

Standard Flood Insurance Policy

Dwelling Form

Please read the policy carefully. The flood insurance provided is subject to limitations, restrictions, and exclusions.


I. Agreement

A. This policy insures the following types of property only:


1. A one to four family residential building, not under a condominium form of ownership;


2. A single-family dwelling unit in a condominium building; and


3. Personal property in a building.


B. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides flood insurance under the terms of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and its amendments, and Title 44 of the Code of Federal Regulations.


C. We will pay you for direct physical loss by or from flood to your insured property if you:


1. Have paid the full amount due (including applicable premiums, surcharges, and fees);


2. Comply with all terms and conditions of this policy; and


3. Have furnished accurate information and statements.


D. We have the right to review the information you give us at any time and revise your policy based on our review.


E. This policy insures only one building. If you own more than one building, coverage will apply to the single building specifically described in the Flood Insurance Application.


F. Subject to the exception in I.G below, multiple policies with building coverage cannot be issued to insure a single building to one insured or to different insureds, even if separate policies were issued through different NFIP insurers. Payment for damages may only be made under a single policy for building damages under Coverage A – Building Property.


G. A Dwelling Form policy with building coverage may be issued to a unit owner in a condominium building that is also insured under a Residential Condominium Building Association Policy (RCBAP). However, no more than $250,000 may be paid in combined benefits for a single unit under the Dwelling Form policy and the RCBAP. We will only pay for damage once. Items of damage paid for under an RCBAP cannot also be claimed under the Dwelling Form policy.


II. Definitions

A. In this policy, “you” and “your” refer to the named insured(s) shown on the Declarations Page of this policy and the spouse of the named insured, if a resident of the same household. Insured(s) also includes: Any mortgagee and loss payee named in the Application and Declarations Page, as well as any other mortgagee or loss payee determined to exist at the time of loss, in the order of precedence. “We,” “us,” and “our” refer to the insurer.


Some definitions are complex because they are provided as they appear in the law or regulations, or result from court cases.


B. Flood, as used in this flood insurance policy, means:


1. A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties (one of which is your property) from:


a. Overflow of inland or tidal waters;


b. Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source;


c. Mudflow.


2. Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined in B.1.a above.


C. The following are the other key definitions we use in this policy:


1. Act. The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and any amendments to it.


2. Actual Cash Value. The cost to replace an insured item of property at the time of loss, less the value of its physical depreciation.


3. Application. The statement made and signed by you or your agent in applying for this policy. The application gives information we use to determine the eligibility of the risk, the kind of policy to be issued, and the correct premium payment. The application is part of this flood insurance policy.


4. Base Flood. A flood having a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.


5. Basement. Any area of a building, including any sunken room or sunken portion of a room, having its floor below ground level on all sides.


6. Building


a. A structure with two or more outside rigid walls and a fully secured roof that is affixed to a permanent site;


b. A manufactured home, also known as a mobile home, is a structure: Built on a permanent chassis, transported to its site in one or more sections, and affixed to a permanent foundation; or


c. A travel trailer without wheels, built on a chassis and affixed to a permanent foundation, that is regulated under the community’s floodplain management and building ordinances or laws.


Building does not mean a gas or liquid storage tank, shipping container, or a recreational vehicle, park trailer, or other similar vehicle, except as described in C.6.c above.


7. Cancellation. The ending of the insurance coverage provided by this policy before the expiration date.


8. Condominium. That form of ownership of one or more buildings in which each unit owner has an undivided interest in common elements.


9. Condominium Association. The entity made up of the unit owners responsible for the maintenance and operation of:


a. Common elements owned in undivided shares by unit owners; and


b. Other buildings in which the unit owners have use rights; where membership in the entity is a required condition of ownership.


10. Condominium Building. A type of building for which the form of ownership is one in which each unit owner has an undivided interest in common elements of the building.


11. Declarations Page. A computer-generated summary of information you provided in your application for insurance. The Declarations Page also describes the term of the policy, limits of coverage, and displays the premium and our name. The Declarations Page is a part of this flood insurance policy.


12. Deductible. The amount of an insured loss that is your responsibility and that is incurred by you before any amounts are paid for the insured loss under this policy.


13. Described Location. The location where the insured building(s) or personal property are found. The described location is shown on the Declarations Page.


14. Direct Physical Loss By or From Flood. Loss or damage to insured property, directly caused by a flood. There must be evidence of physical changes to the property.


15. Dwelling. A building designed for use as a residence for no more than four families or a single-family unit in a condominium building.


16. Elevated Building. A building that has no basement and that has its lowest elevated floor raised above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings, or columns.


17. Emergency Program. The initial phase of a community’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. During this phase, only limited amounts of insurance are available under the Act and the regulations prescribed pursuant to the Act.


18. Federal Policy Fee. A flat rate charge you must pay on each new or renewal policy to defray certain administrative expenses incurred in carrying out the National Flood Insurance Program.


19. Improvements. Fixtures, alterations, installations, or additions comprising a part of the dwelling or apartment in which you reside.


20. Mudflow. A river of liquid and flowing mud on the surface of normally dry land areas, as when earth is carried by a current of water. Other earth movements, such as landslide, slope failure, or a saturated soil mass moving by liquidity down a slope, are not mudflows.


21. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The program of flood insurance coverage and floodplain management administered under the Act and applicable Federal regulations in Title 44 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter B.


22. Policy. The entire written contract between you and us. It includes:


a. This printed form;


b. The application and Declarations Page;


c. Any endorsement(s) that may be issued; and


d. Any renewal certificate indicating that coverage has been instituted for a new policy and new policy term. Only one dwelling, which you specifically described in the application, may be insured under this policy.


23. Pollutants. Substances that include, but are not limited to, any solid, liquid, gaseous, or thermal irritant or contaminant, including smoke, vapor, soot, fumes, acids, alkalis, chemicals, and waste. “Waste” includes, but is not limited to, materials to be recycled, reconditioned, or reclaimed.


24. Post-FIRM Building. A building for which construction or substantial improvement occurred after December 31, 1974, or on or after the effective date of an initial Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), whichever is later.


25. Principal Residence. The dwelling in which you or your spouse have lived for at least 80 percent of:


a. The 365 days immediately preceding the time of loss; or


b. The period of ownership of you or your spouse, if either you or your spouse owned the dwelling for less than 365 days immediately preceding the time of loss.


26. Probation Surcharge. A flat charge you must pay on each new or renewal policy issued covering property in a community the NFIP has placed on probation under the provisions of 44 CFR 59.24.


27. Regular Program. The final phase of a community’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. In this phase, a Flood Insurance Rate Map is in effect and full limits of coverage are available under the Act and the regulations prescribed pursuant to the Act.


28. Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). An area having special flood or mudflow, and/or flood-related erosion hazards, and shown on a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or Flood Insurance Rate Map as Zone A, AO, A1-A30, AE, A99, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, VE, or V.


29. Unit. A single-family residential space you own in a condominium building.


30. Valued Policy. A policy in which the insured and the insurer agree on the value of the property insured, that value being payable in the event of a total loss. The Standard Flood Insurance Policy is not a valued policy.


III. Property Insured

A. Coverage A – Building Property

We insure against direct physical loss by or from flood to:


1. The dwelling at the described location, or for a period of 45 days at another location as set forth in III.C.2.b, Property Removed to Safety.


2. Additions and extensions attached to and in contact with the dwelling by means of a rigid exterior wall, a solid load-bearing interior wall, a stairway, an elevated walkway, or a roof. At your option, additions and extensions connected by any of these methods may be separately insured. Additions and extensions attached to and in contact with the building by means of a common interior wall that is not a solid load-bearing wall are always considered part of the dwelling and cannot be separately insured.


3. A detached garage at the described location. Coverage is limited to no more than 10 percent of the limit of liability on the dwelling. Use of this insurance is at your option but reduces the building limit of liability. We do not cover any detached garage used or held for use for residential (i.e., dwelling), business, or farming purposes.


4. Materials and supplies to be used for construction, alteration, or repair of the dwelling or a detached garage while the materials and supplies are stored in a fully enclosed building at the described location or on an adjacent property.


5. A building under construction, alteration, or repair at the described location.


a. If the structure is not yet walled or roofed as described in the definition for building (see II.C.6.a) then coverage applies:


(1) Only while such work is in progress; or


(2) If such work is halted, only for a period of up to 90 continuous days thereafter.


b. However, coverage does not apply until the building is walled and roofed if the lowest floor, including the basement floor, of a non-elevated building or the lowest elevated floor of an elevated building is:


(1) Below the base flood elevation in Zones AH, AE, A1-A30, AR, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, AR/A, AR/AO; or


(2) Below the base flood elevation adjusted to include the effect of wave action in Zones VE or V1-V30.


The lowest floor level is based on the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the floor in Zones VE or V1-V30 or the top of the floor in Zones AH, AE, A1-A30, AR, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, AR/A, and AR/AO.


6. A manufactured home or a travel trailer, as described in the II.C.6. If the manufactured home or travel trailer is in a special flood hazard area, it must be anchored in the following manner at the time of the loss:


a. By over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors; or


b. In accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications; or


c. In compliance with the community’s floodplain management requirements unless it has been continuously insured by the NFIP at the same described location since September 30, 1982.


7. The following items of property which are insured under Coverage A only:


a. Awnings and canopies;


b. Blinds;


c. Built-in dishwashers;


d. Built-in microwave ovens;


e. Carpet permanently installed over unfinished flooring;


f. Central air conditioners;


g. Elevator equipment;


h. Fire sprinkler systems;


i. Walk-in freezers;


j. Furnaces and radiators;


k. Garbage disposal units;


l. Hot water heaters, including solar water heaters;


m. Light fixtures;


n. Outdoor antennas and aerials fastened to buildings;


o. Permanently installed cupboards, bookcases, cabinets, paneling, and wallpaper;


p. Plumbing fixtures;


q. Pumps and machinery for operating pumps;


r. Ranges, cooking stoves, and ovens;


s. Refrigerators; and


t. Wall mirrors, permanently installed.


8. Items of property below the lowest elevated floor of an elevated post-FIRM building located in Zones A1-A30, AE, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, or VE, or in a basement regardless of the zone. Coverage is limited to the following:


a. Any of the following items, if installed in their functioning locations and, if necessary for operation, connected to a power source:


(1) Central air conditioners;


(2) Cisterns and the water in them;


(3) Drywall for walls and ceilings in a basement and the cost of labor to nail it, unfinished and unfloated and not taped, to the framing;


(4) Electrical junction and circuit breaker boxes;


(5) Electrical outlets and switches;


(6) Elevators, dumbwaiters and related equipment, except for related equipment installed below the base flood elevation after September 30, 1987;


(7) Fuel tanks and the fuel in them;


(8) Furnaces and hot water heaters;


(9) Heat pumps;


(10) Nonflammable insulation in a basement;


(11) Pumps and tanks used in solar energy systems;


(12) Stairways and staircases attached to the building, not separated from it by elevated walkways;


(13) Sump pumps;


(14) Water softeners and the chemicals in them, water filters, and faucets installed as an integral part of the plumbing system;


(15) Well water tanks and pumps;


(16) Required utility connections for any item in this list; and


(17) Footings, foundations, posts, pilings, piers, or other foundation walls and anchorage systems required to support a building.


b. Clean-up.


B. Coverage B – Personal Property

1. If you have purchased personal property coverage, we insure against direct physical loss by or from flood to personal property inside a building at the described location, if:


a. The property is owned by you or your household family members; and


b. At your option, the property is owned by guests or servants.


2. Personal property is also insured for a period of 45 days at another location as set forth in III.C.2.b, Property Removed to Safety.


3. Personal property in a building that is not fully enclosed must be secured to prevent flotation out of the building. If the personal property does float out during a flood, it will be conclusively presumed that it was not reasonably secured. In that case, there is no coverage for such property.


4. Coverage for personal property includes the following property, subject to B.1 above, which is insured under Coverage B only:


a. Air conditioning units, portable or window type;


b. Carpets, not permanently installed, over unfinished flooring;


c. Carpets over finished flooring;


d. Clothes washers and dryers;


e. “Cook-out” grills;


f. Food freezers, other than walk-in, and food in any freezer; and


g. Portable microwave ovens and portable dishwashers.


5. Coverage for items of property below the lowest elevated floor of an elevated post-FIRM building located in Zones A1-A30, AE, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, or VE, or in a basement regardless of the zone, is limited to the following items, if installed in their functioning locations and, if necessary for operation, connected to a power source:


a. Air conditioning units, portable or window type;


b. Clothes washers and dryers; and


c. Food freezers, other than walk-in, and food in any freezer.


6. If you are a tenant and have insured personal property under Coverage B in this policy, we will cover such property, including your cooking stove or range and refrigerator. The policy will also cover improvements made or acquired solely at your expense in the dwelling or apartment in which you reside, but for not more than 10 percent of the limit of liability shown for personal property on the Declarations Page. Use of this insurance is at your option but reduces the personal property limit of liability.


7. If you are the owner of a unit and have insured personal property under Coverage B in this policy, we will also cover your interior walls, floor, and ceiling (not otherwise insured under a flood insurance policy purchased by your condominium association) for not more than 10 percent of the limit of liability shown for personal property on the Declarations Page. Use of this insurance is at your option but reduces the personal property limit of liability.


8. Special Limits. We will pay no more than $2,500 for any one loss to one or more of the following kinds of personal property:


a. Artwork, photographs, collectibles, or memorabilia, including but not limited to, porcelain or other figures, and sports cards;


b. Rare books or autographed items;


c. Jewelry, watches, precious and semi-precious stones, or articles of gold, silver, or platinum;


d. Furs or any article containing fur that represents its principal value; or


e. Personal property used in any business.


9. We will pay only for the functional value of antiques.


C. Coverage C – Other Coverages

1. Debris Removal

a. We will pay the expense to remove non-owned debris that is on or in insured property and debris of insured property anywhere.


b. If you or a member of your household perform the removal work, the value of your work will be based on the Federal minimum wage.


c. This coverage does not increase the Coverage A or Coverage B limit of liability.


2. Loss Avoidance Measures

a. Sandbags, Supplies, and Labor

(1) We will pay up to $1,000 for costs you incur to protect the insured building from a flood or imminent danger of flood, for the following:


(a) Your reasonable expenses to buy:


(i) Sandbags, including sand to fill them;


(ii) Fill for temporary levees;


(iii) Pumps; and


(iv) Plastic sheeting and lumber used in connection with these items.


(b) The value of work, at the Federal minimum wage, that you or a member of your household perform.


(2) This coverage for Sandbags, Supplies, and Labor only applies if damage to insured property by or from flood is imminent and the threat of flood damage is apparent enough to lead a person of common prudence to anticipate flood damage. One of the following must also occur:


(a) A general and temporary condition of flooding in the area near the described location must occur, even if the flood does not reach the building; or


(b) A legally authorized official must issue an evacuation order or other civil order for the community in which the building is located calling for measures to preserve life and property from the peril of flood.


This coverage does not increase the Coverage A or Coverage B limit of liability.


b. Property Removed to Safety

(1) We will pay up to $1,000 for the reasonable expenses you incur to move insured property to a place other than the described location that contains the property in order to protect it from flood or the imminent danger of flood. Reasonable expenses include the value of work, at the Federal minimum wage, you or a member of your household perform.


(2) If you move insured property to a location other than the described location that contains the property in order to protect it from flood or the imminent danger of flood, we will cover such property while at that location for a period of 45 consecutive days from the date you begin to move it there. The personal property that is moved must be placed in a fully enclosed building or otherwise reasonably protected from the elements.


(3) Any property removed, including a moveable home described in II.6.b and c, must be placed above ground level or outside of the special flood hazard area.


(4) This coverage does not increase the Coverage A or Coverage B limit of liability.


3. Condominium Loss Assessments

a. Subject to III.C.3.b below, if this policy insures a condominium unit, we will pay, up to the Coverage A limit of liability, your share of loss assessments charged against you by the condominium association in accordance with the condominium association’s articles of association, declarations and your deed. The assessment must be made because of direct physical loss by or from flood during the policy term, to the unit or to the common elements of the NFIP insured condominium building in which this unit is located.


b. We will not pay any loss assessment:


(1) Charged against you and the condominium association by any governmental body;


(2) That results from a deductible under the insurance purchased by the condominium association insuring common elements;


(3) That results from a loss to personal property, including contents of a condominium building;


(4) In which the total payment combined under all policies exceeds the maximum amount of coverage available under the Act for a single unit in a condominium building where the unit is insured under both a Dwelling Policy and a RCBAP; or


(5) On any item of damage that has already been paid under a RCBAP where a single unit in a condominium building is insured by both a Dwelling Policy and a RCBAP.


c. Condominium Loss Assessment coverage does not increase the Coverage A Limit of Liability and is subject to the maximum coverage limits available for a single-family dwelling under the Act, payable between all policies issued and covering the unit, under the Act.


D. Coverage D – Increased Cost of Compliance

1. General

This policy pays you to comply with a State or local floodplain management law or ordinance affecting repair or reconstruction of a building suffering flood damage. Compliance activities eligible for payment are: elevation, floodproofing, relocation, or demolition (or any combination of these activities) of your building. Eligible floodproofing activities are limited to:


a. Non-residential buildings.


b. Residential buildings with basements that satisfy FEMA’s standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations [44 CFR 60.6(b) or (c)].


2. Limit of Liability

We will pay you up to $30,000 under this Coverage D – Increased Cost of Compliance, which only applies to policies with building coverage (Coverage A). Our payment of claims under Coverage D is in addition to the amount of coverage which you selected on the application and which appears on the Declarations Page. But the maximum you can collect under this policy for both Coverage A – Building Property and Coverage D – Increased Cost of Compliance cannot exceed the maximum permitted under the Act. We do not charge a separate deductible for a claim under Coverage D.


3. Eligibility

a. A building insured under Coverage A – Building Property sustaining a loss caused by a flood as defined by this policy must:


(1) Be a “repetitive loss building.” A repetitive loss building is one that meets the following conditions:


(a) The building is insured by a contract of flood insurance issued under the NFIP.


(b) The building has suffered flood damage on two occasions during a 10-year period which ends on the date of the second loss.


(c) The cost to repair the flood damage, on average, equaled or exceeded 25 percent of the market value of the building at the time of each flood loss.


(d) In addition to the current claim, the NFIP must have paid the previous qualifying claim, and the State or community must have a cumulative, substantial damage provision or repetitive loss provision in its floodplain management law or ordinance being enforced against the building; or


(2) Be a building that has had flood damage in which the cost to repair equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building at the time of the flood. The State or community must have a substantial damage provision in its floodplain management law or ordinance being enforced against the building.


b. This Coverage D pays you to comply with State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances that meet the minimum standards of the National Flood Insurance Program found in the Code of Federal Regulations at 44 CFR 60.3. We pay for compliance activities that exceed those standards under these conditions:


(1) 3.a.1 above.


(2) Elevation or floodproofing in any risk zone to preliminary or advisory base flood elevations provided by FEMA which the State or local government has adopted and is enforcing for flood-damaged buildings in such areas. (This includes compliance activities in B, C, X, or D zones which are being changed to zones with base flood elevations. This also includes compliance activities in zones where base flood elevations are being increased, and a flood-damaged building must comply with the higher advisory base flood elevation.) Increased Cost of Compliance coverage does not apply to situations in B, C, X, or D zones where the community has derived its own elevations and is enforcing elevation or floodproofing requirements for flood-damaged buildings to elevations derived solely by the community.


(3) Elevation or floodproofing above the base flood elevation to meet State or local “free-board” requirements, i.e., that a building must be elevated above the base flood elevation.


c. Under the minimum NFIP criteria at 44 CFR 60.3(b)(4), States and communities must require the elevation or floodproofing of buildings in unnumbered A zones to the base flood elevation where elevation data is obtained from a Federal, State, or other source. Such compliance activities are eligible for Coverage D.


d. Coverage D will pay for the incremental cost, after demolition or relocation, of elevating or floodproofing a building during its rebuilding at the same or another site to meet State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances, subject to Coverage D Exclusion 5.g below.


e. Coverage D will pay to bring a flood-damaged building into compliance with State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances even if the building had received a variance before the present loss from the applicable floodplain management requirements.


4. Conditions

a. When a building insured under Coverage A – Building Property sustains a loss caused by a flood, our payment for the loss under this Coverage D will be for the increased cost to elevate, floodproof, relocate, or demolish (or any combination of these activities) caused by the enforcement of current State or local floodplain management ordinances or laws. Our payment for eligible demolition activities will be for the cost to demolish and clear the site of the building debris or a portion thereof caused by the enforcement of current State or local floodplain management ordinances or laws. Eligible activities for the cost of clearing the site will include those necessary to discontinue utility service to the site and ensure proper abandonment of on-site utilities.


b. When the building is repaired or rebuilt, it must be intended for the same occupancy as the present building unless otherwise required by current floodplain management ordinances or laws.


5. Exclusions

Under this Coverage D (Increased Cost of Compliance), we will not pay for:


a. The cost to comply with any floodplain management law or ordinance in communities participating in the Emergency Program.


b. The cost associated with enforcement of any ordinance or law that requires any insured or others to test for, monitor, clean up, remove, contain, treat, detoxify or neutralize, or in any way respond to, or assess the effects of pollutants.


c. The loss in value to any insured building due to the requirements of any ordinance or law.


d. The loss in residual value of the undamaged portion of a building demolished as a consequence of enforcement of any State or local floodplain management law or ordinance.


e. Any Increased Cost of Compliance under this Coverage D:


(1) Until the building is elevated, floodproofed, demolished, or relocated on the same or to another premises; and


(2) Unless the building is elevated, floodproofed, demolished, or relocated as soon as reasonably possible after the loss, not to exceed two years.


f. Any code upgrade requirements, e.g., plumbing or electrical wiring, not specifically related to the State or local floodplain management law or ordinance.


g. Any compliance activities needed to bring additions or improvements made after the loss occurred into compliance with State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances.


h. Loss due to any ordinance or law that you were required to comply with before the current loss.


i. Any rebuilding activity to standards that do not meet the NFIP’s minimum requirements. This includes any situation where the insured has received from the State or community a variance in connection with the current flood loss to rebuild the property to an elevation below the base flood elevation.


j. Increased Cost of Compliance for a garage or carport.


k. Any building insured under an NFIP Group Flood Insurance Policy.


l. Assessments made by a condominium association on individual condominium unit owners to pay increased costs of repairing commonly owned buildings after a flood in compliance with State or local floodplain management ordinances or laws.


6. Other Provisions

a. Increased Cost of Compliance coverage will not be included in the calculation to determine whether coverage meets the 80 percent insurance-to-value requirement for replacement cost coverage as set forth in Art. VII.R (“Loss Settlement”) of this policy.


b. All other conditions and provisions of this policy apply.


IV. Property Not Insured

We do not insure any of the following:


1. Personal property not inside a building.


2. A building, and personal property in it, located entirely in, on, or over water or seaward of mean high tide if it was constructed or substantially improved after September 30, 1982.


3. Open structures, including a building used as a boathouse or any structure or building into which boats are floated, and personal property located in, on, or over water.


4. Recreational vehicles other than travel trailers described in the Definitions section (see II.C.6.c) whether affixed to a permanent foundation or on wheels.


5. Self-propelled vehicles or machines, including their parts and equipment. However, we do cover self-propelled vehicles or machines not licensed for use on public roads that are:


a. Used mainly to service the described location; or


b. Designed and used to assist handicapped persons, while the vehicles or machines are inside a building at the described location.


6. Land, land values, lawns, trees, shrubs, plants, growing crops, or animals.


7. Accounts, bills, coins, currency, deeds, evidences of debt, medals, money, scrip, stored value cards, postage stamps, securities, bullion, manuscripts, or other valuable papers.


8. Underground structures and equipment, including wells, septic tanks, and septic systems.


9. Those portions of walks, walkways, decks, driveways, patios and other surfaces, all whether protected by a roof or not, located outside the perimeter, exterior walls of the insured building or the building in which the insured unit is located.


10. Containers, including related equipment, such as, but not limited to, tanks containing gases or liquids.


11. Buildings or units and all their contents if more than 49 percent of the actual cash value of the building is below ground, unless the lowest level is at or above the base flood elevation and is below ground by reason of earth having been used as insulation material in conjunction with energy efficient building techniques.


12. Fences, retaining walls, seawalls, bulkheads, wharves, piers, bridges, and docks.


13. Aircraft or watercraft, or their furnishings and equipment.


14. Hot tubs and spas that are not bathroom fixtures, and swimming pools, and their equipment, such as, but not limited to, heaters, filters, pumps, and pipes, wherever located.


15. Property not eligible for flood insurance pursuant to the provisions of the Coastal Barrier Resources Act and the Coastal Barrier Improvement Act and amendments to these acts.


16. Personal property you own in common with other unit owners comprising the membership of a condominium association.


V. Exclusions

A. We only pay for direct physical loss by or from flood, which means that we do not pay you for:


1. Loss of revenue or profits;


2. Loss of access to the insured property or described location;


3. Loss of use of the insured property or described location;


4. Loss from interruption of business or production;


5. Any additional living expenses incurred while the insured building is being repaired or is unable to be occupied for any reason;


6. The cost of complying with any ordinance or law requiring or regulating the construction, demolition, remodeling, renovation, or repair of property, including removal of any resulting debris. This exclusion does not apply to any eligible activities we describe in Coverage D – Increased Cost of Compliance; or


7. Any other economic loss you suffer.


B. Flood in Progress. If this policy became effective as of the time of a loan closing, as provided by 44 CFR 61.11(b), we will not pay for a loss caused by a flood that is a continuation of a flood that existed prior to coverage becoming effective. In all other circumstances, we will not pay for a loss caused by a flood that is a continuation of a flood that existed on or before the day you submitted the application for coverage under this policy and the full amount due. We will determine the date of application using 44 CFR 61.11(f).


C. We do not insure for loss to property caused directly by earth movement even if the earth movement is caused by flood. Some examples of earth movement that we do not cover are:


1. Earthquake;


2. Landslide;


3. Land subsidence;


4. Sinkholes;


5. Destabilization or movement of land that results from accumulation of water in subsurface land area; or


6. Gradual erosion.


We do, however, pay for losses from mudflow and land subsidence as a result of erosion that are specifically insured under our definition of flood (see II.B.1.c and II.B.2).


D. We do not insure for direct physical loss caused directly or indirectly by any of the following:


1. The pressure or weight of ice;


2. Freezing or thawing;


3. Rain, snow, sleet, hail, or water spray;


4. Water, moisture, mildew, or mold damage that results primarily from any condition:


a. Substantially confined to the dwelling; or


b. That is within your control, including but not limited to:


(1) Design, structural, or mechanical defects;


(2) Failure, stoppage, or breakage of water or sewer lines, drains, pumps, fixtures, or equipment; or


(3) Failure to inspect and maintain the property after a flood recedes;


5. Water or water-borne material that:


a. Backs up through sewers or drains;


b. Discharges or overflows from a sump, sump pump, or related equipment; or


c. Seeps or leaks on or through the insured property;


unless there is a flood in the area and the flood is the proximate cause of the sewer or drain backup, sump pump discharge or overflow, or the seepage of water;

6. The pressure or weight of water unless there is a flood in the area and the flood is the proximate cause of the damage from the pressure or weight of water;


7. Power, heating, or cooling failure unless the failure results from direct physical loss by or from flood to power, heating, or cooling equipment on the described location;


8. Theft, fire, explosion, wind, or windstorm;


9. Anything you or any member of your household do or conspire to do to deliberately cause loss by flood; or


10. Alteration of the insured property that significantly increases the risk of flooding.


E. We do not insure for loss to any building or personal property located on land leased from the Federal Government, arising from or incident to the flooding of the land by the Federal Government, where the lease expressly holds the Federal Government harmless under flood insurance issued under any Federal Government program.


F. We do not pay for the testing for or monitoring of pollutants unless required by law or ordinance.


VI. Deductibles

A. When a loss is insured under this policy, we will pay only that part of the loss that exceeds your deductible amount, subject to the limit of liability that applies. The deductible amount is shown on the Declarations Page.


However, when a building under construction, alteration, or repair does not have at least two rigid exterior walls and a fully secured roof at the time of loss, your deductible amount will be two times the deductible that would otherwise apply to a completed building.


B. In each loss from flood, separate deductibles apply to the building and personal property insured by this policy.


C. The deductible does NOT apply to:


1. III.C.2. Loss Avoidance Measures;


2. III.C.3. Condominium Loss Assessments; or


3. III.D. Increased Cost of Compliance.


VII. General Conditions

A. Pair and Set Clause

In case of loss to an article that is part of a pair or set, we will have the option of paying you:


1. An amount equal to the cost of replacing the lost, damaged, or destroyed article, minus its depreciation; or


2. The amount that represents the fair proportion of the total value of the pair or set that the lost, damaged, or destroyed article bears to the pair or set.


B. Other Insurance

1. If a loss insured by this policy is also insured by other insurance that includes flood coverage not issued under the Act, we will not pay more than the amount of insurance you are entitled to for lost, damaged, or destroyed property insured under this policy subject to the following:


a. We will pay only the proportion of the loss that the amount of insurance that applies under this policy bears to the total amount of insurance covering the loss, unless VII.B.1.b or c immediately below applies.


b. If the other policy has a provision stating that it is excess insurance, this policy will be primary.


c. This policy will be primary (but subject to its own deductible) up to the deductible in the other flood policy (except another policy as described in VII.B.1.b above). When the other deductible amount is reached, this policy will participate in the same proportion that the amount of insurance under this policy bears to the total amount of both policies, for the remainder of the loss.


2. If there is other insurance issued under the Act in the name of your condominium association covering the same property insured by this policy, then this policy will be in excess over the other insurance, except where a condominium loss assessment to the unit owner results from a loss sustained by the condominium association that was not reimbursed under a flood insurance policy written in the name of the association under the Act because the building was not, at the time of loss, insured for an amount equal to the lesser of:


a. 80 percent or more of its full replacement cost; or


b. The maximum amount of insurance permitted under the Act.


The combined coverage payment under the other NFIP insurance and this policy cannot exceed the maximum coverage available under the Act, of $250,000 per single unit.


C. Amendments, Waivers, Assignment

This policy cannot be changed, nor can any of its provisions be waived, without the express written consent of the Federal Insurance Administrator. No action we take under the terms of this policy constitutes a waiver of any of our rights. You may assign this policy in writing when you transfer title of your property to someone else except under these conditions:


a. When this policy insures only personal property; or


b. When this policy insures a building under construction.


D. Insufficient Premium or Rating Information

1. Applicability. The following provisions apply to all instances where the premium paid on this policy is insufficient or where the rating information is insufficient, such as where an Elevation Certificate is not provided.


2. Reforming the Policy with Reduced Coverage. Except as otherwise provided in VII.D.1, if the premium we received from you was not sufficient to buy the kinds and amounts of coverage you requested, we will provide only the kinds and amounts of coverage that can be purchased for the premium payment we received.


a. For the purpose of determining whether your premium payment is sufficient to buy the kinds and amounts of coverage you requested, we will first deduct the costs of all applicable fees and surcharges.


b. If the amount paid, after deducting the costs of all applicable fees and surcharges, is not sufficient to buy any amount of coverage, your payment will be refunded. Unless the policy is reformed to increase the coverage amount to the amount originally requested pursuant to VII.D.3, this policy will be cancelled, and no claims will be paid under this policy.


c. Coverage limits on the reformed policy will be based upon the amount of premium submitted per type of coverage, but will not exceed the amount originally requested.


3. Discovery of Insufficient Premium or Rating Information. If we discover that your premium payment was not sufficient to buy the requested amount of coverage, the policy will be reformed as described in VII.D.2. You have the option of increasing the amount of coverage resulting from this reformation to the amount you requested as follows:


a. Insufficient Premium. If we discover that your premium payment was not sufficient to buy the requested amount of coverage, we will send you, and any mortgagee or trustee known to us, a bill for the required additional premium for the current policy term (or that portion of the current policy term following any endorsement changing the amount of coverage). If it is discovered that the initial amount charged to you for any fees or surcharges is incorrect, the difference will be added or deducted, as applicable, to the total amount in this bill.


(1) If you or the mortgagee or trustee pays the additional premium amount due within 30 days from the date of our bill, we will reform the policy to increase the amount of coverage to the originally requested amount, effective to the beginning of the current policy term (or subsequent date of any endorsement changing the amount of coverage).


(2) If you or the mortgagee or trustee do not pay the additional amount due within 30 days of the date of our bill, any flood insurance claim will be settled based on the reduced amount of coverage.


(3) As applicable, you have the option of paying all or part of the amount due out of a claim payment based on the originally requested amount of coverage.


b. Insufficient Rating Information. If we determine that the rating information we have is insufficient and prevents us from calculating the additional premium, we will ask you to send the required information. You must submit the information within 60 days of our request.


(1) If we receive the information within 60 days of our request, we will determine the amount of additional premium for the current policy term, and follow the procedure in VII.D.3.a above.


(2) If we do not receive the information within 60 days of our request, no claims will be paid until the requested information is provided. Coverage will be limited to the amount of coverage that can be purchased for the payments we received, as determined when the requested information is provided.


4. Coverage Increases. If we do not receive the amounts requested in VII.D.3.a or the additional information requested in VII.D.3.b by the date it is due, the amount of coverage under this policy can only be increased by endorsement subject to the appropriate waiting period. However, no coverage increases will be allowed until you have provided the information requested in VII.D.3.b.


5. Falsifying Information. However, if we find that you or your agent intentionally did not tell us, or falsified any important fact or circumstance or did anything fraudulent relating to this insurance, the provisions of VIII.A apply.


E. Policy Renewal

1. This policy will expire at 12:01 a.m. on the last day of the policy term.


2. We must receive the payment of the appropriate renewal premium within 30 days of the expiration date.


3. If we find, however, that we did not place your renewal notice into the U.S. Postal Service, or if we did mail it, we made a mistake, e.g., we used an incorrect, incomplete, or illegible address, which delayed its delivery to you before the due date for the renewal premium, then we will follow these procedures:


a. If you or your agent notified us, not later than one year after the date on which the payment of the renewal premium was due, of non-receipt of a renewal notice before the due date for the renewal premium, and we determine that the circumstances in the preceding paragraph apply, we will mail a second bill providing a revised due date, which will be 30 days after the date on which the bill is mailed.


b. If we do not receive the premium requested in the second bill by the revised due date, then we will not renew the policy. In that case, the policy will remain an expired policy as of the expiration date shown on the Declarations Page.


4. In connection with the renewal of this policy, we may ask you during the policy term to recertify, on a Recertification Questionnaire we will provide to you, the rating information used to rate your most recent application for or renewal of insurance.


F. Conditions Suspending or Restricting Insurance

We are not liable for loss that occurs while there is a hazard that is increased by any means within your control or knowledge.


G. Requirements in Case of Loss

In case of a flood loss to insured property, you must:


1. Give prompt written notice to us.


2. As soon as reasonably possible, separate the damaged and undamaged property, putting it in the best possible order so that we may examine it.


3. Prepare an inventory of damaged property showing the quantity, description, actual cash value, and amount of loss. Attach all bills, receipts, and related documents.


4. Within 60 days after the loss, send us a proof of loss, which is your statement of the amount you are claiming under the policy signed and sworn to by you, and which furnishes us with the following information:


a. The date and time of loss;


b. A brief explanation of how the loss happened;


c. Your interest (for example, “owner”) and the interest, if any, of others in the damaged property;


d. Details of any other insurance that may cover the loss;


e. Changes in title or occupancy of the insured property during the term of the policy;


f. Specifications of damaged buildings and detailed repair estimates;


g. Names of mortgagees or anyone else having a lien, charge, or claim against the insured property;


h. Details about who occupied any insured building at the time of loss and for what purpose; and


i. The inventory of damaged personal property described in G.3 above.


5. In completing the proof of loss, you must use your own judgment concerning the amount of loss and justify that amount.


6. You must cooperate with the adjuster or representative in the investigation of the claim.


7. The insurance adjuster whom we hire to investigate your claim may furnish you with a proof of loss form, and she or he may help you complete it. However, this is a matter of courtesy only, and you must still send us a proof of loss within 60 days after the loss even if the adjuster does not furnish the form or help you complete it.


8. We have not authorized the adjuster to approve or disapprove claims or to tell you whether we will approve your claim.


9. At our option, we may accept the adjuster’s report of the loss instead of your proof of loss. The adjuster’s report will include information about your loss and the damages you sustained. You must sign the adjuster’s report. At our option, we may require you to swear to the report.


H. Our Options After a Loss

Options we may, in our sole discretion, exercise after loss include the following:


1. At such reasonable times and places that we may designate, you must:


a. Show us or our representative the damaged property;


b. Submit to examination under oath, while not in the presence of another insured, and sign the same; and


c. Permit us to examine and make extracts and copies of:


(1) Any policies of property insurance insuring you against loss and the deed establishing your ownership of the insured real property;


(2) Condominium association documents including the Declarations of the condominium, its Articles of Association or Incorporation, Bylaws, rules and regulations, and other relevant documents if you are a unit owner in a condominium building; and


(3) All books of accounts, bills, invoices and other vouchers, or certified copies pertaining to the damaged property if the originals are lost.


2. We may request, in writing, that you furnish us with a complete inventory of the lost, damaged or destroyed property, including:


a. Quantities and costs;


b. Actual cash values or replacement cost (whichever is appropriate);


c. Amounts of loss claimed;


d. Any written plans and specifications for repair of the damaged property that you can reasonably make available to us; and


e. Evidence that prior flood damage has been repaired.


3. If we give you written notice within 30 days after we receive your signed, sworn proof of loss, we may:


a. Repair, rebuild, or replace any part of the lost, damaged, or destroyed property with material or property of like kind and quality or its functional equivalent; and


b. Take all or any part of the damaged property at the value that we agree upon or its appraised value.


I. No Benefit to Bailee

No person or organization, other than you, having custody of insured property will benefit from this insurance.


J. Loss Payment

1. We will adjust all losses with you. We will pay you unless some other person or entity is named in the policy or is legally entitled to receive payment. Loss will be payable 60 days after we receive your proof of loss (or within 90 days after the insurance adjuster files the adjuster’s report signed and sworn to by you in lieu of a proof of loss) and:


a. We reach an agreement with you;


b. There is an entry of a final judgment; or


c. There is a filing of an appraisal award with us, as provided in VII.M.


2. If we reject your proof of loss in whole or in part you may:


a. Accept our denial of your claim;


b. Exercise your rights under this policy; or


c. File an amended proof of loss as long as it is filed within 60 days of the date of the loss.


K. Abandonment

You may not abandon to us damaged or undamaged property insured under this policy.


L. Salvage

We may permit you to keep damaged property insured under this policy after a loss, and we will reduce the amount of the loss proceeds payable to you under the policy by the value of the salvage.


M. Appraisal

If you and we fail to agree on the actual cash value or, if applicable, replacement cost of your damaged property to settle upon the amount of loss, then either may demand an appraisal of the loss. In this event, you and we will each choose a competent and impartial appraiser within 20 days after receiving a written request from the other. The two appraisers will choose an umpire. If they cannot agree upon an umpire within 15 days, you or we may request that the choice be made by a judge of a court of record in the state where the insured property is located. The appraisers will separately state the actual cash value, the replacement cost, and the amount of loss to each item. If the appraisers submit a written report of an agreement to us, the amount agreed upon will be the amount of loss. If they fail to agree, they will submit their differences to the umpire. A decision agreed to by any two will set the amount of actual cash value and loss, or if it applies, the replacement cost and loss.


Each party will:


1. Pay its own appraiser; and


2. Bear the other expenses of the appraisal and umpire equally.


N. Mortgage Clause

1. The word “mortgagee” includes trustee.


2. Any loss payable under Coverage A – Building Property will be paid to any mortgagee of whom we have actual notice, as well as any other mortgagee or loss payee determined to exist at the time of loss, and you, as interests appear. If more than one mortgagee is named, the order of payment will be the same as the order of precedence of the mortgages.


3. If we deny your claim, that denial will not apply to a valid claim of the mortgagee, if the mortgagee:


a. Notifies us of any change in the ownership or occupancy, or substantial change in risk of which the mortgagee is aware;


b. Pays any premium due under this policy on demand if you have neglected to pay the premium; and


c. Submits a signed, sworn proof of loss within 60 days after receiving notice from us of your failure to do so.


4. All of the terms of this policy apply to the mortgagee.


5. The mortgagee has the right to receive loss payment even if the mortgagee has started foreclosure or similar action on the building.


6. If we decide to cancel or not renew this policy, it will continue in effect for the benefit of the mortgagee only for 30 days after we notify the mortgagee of the cancellation or non-renewal.


7. If we pay the mortgagee for any loss and deny payment to you, we are subrogated to all the rights of the mortgagee granted under the mortgage on the property. Subrogation will not impair the right of the mortgagee to recover the full amount of the mortgagee’s claim.


O. Suit Against Us

You may not sue us to recover money under this policy unless you have complied with all the requirements of the policy. If you do sue, you must start the suit within one year after the date of the written denial of all or part of the claim, and you must file the suit in the United States District Court of the district in which the insured property was located at the time of loss. This requirement applies to any claim that you may have under this policy and to any dispute that you may have arising out of the handling of any claim under the policy.


P. Subrogation

Whenever we make a payment for a loss under this policy, we are subrogated to your right to recover for that loss from any other person. That means that your right to recover for a loss that was partly or totally caused by someone else is automatically transferred to us, to the extent that we have paid you for the loss. We may require you to acknowledge this transfer in writing. After the loss, you may not give up our right to recover this money or do anything that would prevent us from recovering it. If you make any claim against any person who caused your loss and recover any money, you must pay us back first before you may keep any of that money.


Q. Continuous Lake Flooding

1. If an insured building has been flooded by rising lake waters continuously for 90 days or more and it appears reasonably certain that a continuation of this flooding will result in an insured loss to the insured building equal to or greater than the building policy limits plus the deductible or the maximum payable under the policy for any one building loss, we will pay you the lesser of these two amounts without waiting for the further damage to occur if you sign a release agreeing:


a. To make no further claim under this policy;


b. Not to seek renewal of this policy;


c. Not to apply for any flood insurance under the Act for property at the described location;


d. Not to seek a premium refund for current or prior terms.


If the policy term ends before the insured building has been flooded continuously for 90 days, the provisions of this paragraph Q.1 will apply when the insured building suffers a covered loss before the policy term ends.


2. If your insured building is subject to continuous lake flooding from a closed basin lake, you may elect to file a claim under either paragraph Q.1 above or Q.2 (A “closed basin lake” is a natural lake from which water leaves primarily through evaporation and whose surface area now exceeds or has exceeded one square mile at any time in the recorded past. Most of the nation’s closed basin lakes are in the western half of the United States where annual evaporation exceeds annual precipitation and where lake levels and surface areas are subject to considerable fluctuation due to wide variations in the climate. These lakes may overtop their basins on rare occasions.) Under this paragraph Q.2, we will pay your claim as if the building is a total loss even though it has not been continuously inundated for 90 days, subject to the following conditions:


a. Lake floodwaters must damage or imminently threaten to damage your building.


b. Before approval of your claim, you must:


(1) Agree to a claim payment that reflects your buying back the salvage on a negotiated basis; and


(2) Grant the conservation easement described in FEMA’s “Policy Guidance for Closed Basin Lakes” to be recorded in the office of the local recorder of deeds. FEMA, in consultation with the community in which the property is located, will identify on a map an area or areas of special consideration (ASC) in which there is a potential for flood damage from continuous lake flooding. FEMA will give the community the agreed-upon map showing the ASC. This easement will only apply to that portion of the property in the ASC. It will allow certain agricultural and recreational uses of the land. The only structures it will allow on any portion of the property within the ASC are certain simple agricultural and recreational structures. If any of these allowable structures are insurable buildings under the NFIP and are insured under the NFIP, they will not be eligible for the benefits of this paragraph Q.2. If a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers certified flood control project or otherwise certified flood control project later protects the property, FEMA will, upon request, amend the ASC to remove areas protected by those projects. The restrictions of the easement will then no longer apply to any portion of the property removed from the ASC; and


(3) Comply with paragraphs Q.1.a through Q.1.d above.


c. Within 90 days of approval of your claim, you must move your building to a new location outside the ASC. FEMA will give you an additional 30 days to move if you show there is sufficient reason to extend the time.


d. Before the final payment of your claim, you must acquire an elevation certificate and a floodplain development permit from the local floodplain administrator for the new location of your building.


e. Before the approval of your claim, the community having jurisdiction over your building must:


(1) Adopt a permanent land use ordinance, or a temporary moratorium for a period not to exceed 6 months to be followed immediately by a permanent land use ordinance that is consistent with the provisions specified in the easement required in paragraph Q.2.b above;


(2) Agree to declare and report any violations of this ordinance to FEMA so that under Section 1316 of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, flood insurance to the building can be denied; and


(3) Agree to maintain as deed-restricted, for purposes compatible with open space or agricultural or recreational use only, any affected property the community acquires an interest in. These deed restrictions must be consistent with the provisions of paragraph Q.2.b above, except that, even if a certified project protects the property, the land use restrictions continue to apply if the property was acquired under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program or the Flood Mitigation Assistance Program. If a non-profit land trust organization receives the property as a donation, that organization must maintain the property as deed-restricted, consistent with the provisions of paragraph Q2.b above.


f. Before the approval of your claim, the affected State must take all action set forth in FEMA’s “Policy Guidance for Closed Basin Lakes.”


g. You must have NFIP flood insurance coverage continuously in effect from a date established by FEMA until you file a claim under paragraph Q.2. If a subsequent owner buys NFIP insurance that goes into effect within 60 days of the date of transfer of title, any gap in coverage during that 60-day period will not be a violation of this continuous coverage requirement. For the purpose of honoring a claim under this paragraph Q.2, we will not consider to be in effect any increased coverage that became effective after the date established by FEMA. The exception to this is any in-creased coverage in the amount suggested by your insurer as an inflation adjustment.


h. This paragraph Q.2 will be in effect for a community when the FEMA Regional Administrator for the affected region provides to the community, in writing, the following:


(1) Confirmation that the community and the State are in compliance with the conditions in paragraphs Q.2.e and Q.2.f above; and


(2) The date by which you must have flood insurance in effect.


R. Loss Settlement

1. Introduction

This policy provides three methods of settling losses: Replacement Cost, Special Loss Settlement, and Actual Cash Value. Each method is used for a different type of property, as explained in paragraphs a-c below.


a. Replacement Cost Loss Settlement, described in R.2 below, applies to a single-family dwelling provided:


(1) It is your principal residence; and


(2) At the time of loss, the amount of insurance in this policy that applies to the dwelling is 80 percent or more of its full replacement cost immediately before the loss, or is the maximum amount of insurance available under the NFIP.


b. Special Loss Settlement, described in R.3 below, applies to a single-family dwelling that is a manufactured or mobile home or a travel trailer.


c. Actual Cash Value Loss Settlement applies to a single-family dwelling not subject to replacement cost or special loss settlement, and to the property listed in R.4 below.


2. Replacement Cost Loss Settlement

The following loss settlement conditions apply to a single-family dwelling described in R.1.a above:


a. We will pay to repair or replace the damaged dwelling after application of the deductible and without deduction for depreciation, but not more than the least of the following amounts:


(1) The building limit of liability shown on your Declarations Page;


(2) The replacement cost of that part of the dwelling damaged, with materials of like kind and quality and for like use; or


(3) The necessary amount actually spent to repair or replace the damaged part of the dwelling for like use.


b. If the dwelling is rebuilt at a new location, the cost described above is limited to the cost that would have been incurred if the dwelling had been rebuilt at its former location.


c. When the full cost of repair or replacement is more than $1,000, or more than 5 percent of the whole amount of insurance that applies to the dwelling, we will not be liable for any loss under R.2.a above or R.4.a.2 below unless and until actual repair or replacement is completed.


d. You may disregard the replacement cost conditions above and make claim under this policy for loss to dwellings on an actual cash value basis. You may then make claim for any additional liability according to R.2.a, b, and c above, provided you notify us of your intent to do so within 180 days after the date of loss.


e. If the community in which your dwelling is located has been converted from the Emergency Program to the Regular Program during the current policy term, then we will consider the maximum amount of available NFIP insurance to be the amount that was available at the beginning of the current policy term.


3. Special Loss Settlement

a. The following loss settlement conditions apply to a single-family dwelling that:


(1) is a manufactured or mobile home or a travel trailer, as defined in II.C.6.b and c;


(2) is at least 16 feet wide when fully assembled and has an area of at least 600 square feet within its perimeter walls when fully assembled; and


(3) is your principal residence as specified in R.1.a.1 above.


b. If such a dwelling is totally destroyed or damaged to such an extent that, in our judgment, it is not economically feasible to repair, at least to its pre-damage condition, we will, at our discretion pay the least of the following amounts:


(1) The lesser of the replacement cost of the dwelling or 1.5 times the actual cash value; or


(2) The building limit of liability shown on your Declarations Page.


c. If such a dwelling is partially damaged and, in our judgment, it is economically feasible to repair it to its pre-damage condition, we will settle the loss according to the Replacement Cost conditions in R.2 above.


4. Actual Cash Value Loss Settlement

The types of property noted below are subject to actual cash value (or in the case of R.4.a.2., below, proportional) loss settlement.


a. A dwelling, at the time of loss, when the amount of insurance on the dwelling is both less than 80 percent of its full replacement cost immediately before the loss and less than the maximum amount of insurance available under the NFIP. In that case, we will pay the greater of the following amounts, but not more than the amount of insurance that applies to that dwelling:


(1) The actual cash value, as defined in II.C.2, of the damaged part of the dwelling; or


(2) A proportion of the cost to repair or replace the damaged part of the dwelling, without deduction for physical depreciation and after application of the deductible.


This proportion is determined as follows: If 80 percent of the full replacement cost of the dwelling is less than the maximum amount of insurance available under the NFIP, then the proportion is determined by dividing the actual amount of insurance on the dwelling by the amount of insurance that represents 80 percent of its full replacement cost. But if 80 percent of the full replacement cost of the dwelling is greater than the maximum amount of insurance available under the NFIP, then the proportion is determined by dividing the actual amount of insurance on the dwelling by the maximum amount of insurance available under the NFIP.


b. A two-, three-, or four-family dwelling.


c. A unit that is not used exclusively for single-family dwelling purposes.


d. Detached garages.


e. Personal property.


f. Appliances, carpets, and carpet pads.


g. Outdoor awnings, outdoor antennas or aerials of any type, and other outdoor equipment.


h. Any property insured under this policy that is abandoned after a loss and remains as debris anywhere on the described location.


i. A dwelling that is not your principal residence.


5. Amount of Insurance Required

To determine the amount of insurance required for a dwelling immediately before the loss, we do not include the value of:


a. Footings, foundations, piers, or any other structures or devices that are below the undersurface of the lowest basement floor and support all or part of the dwelling;


b. Those supports listed in R.5.a above, that are below the surface of the ground inside the foundation walls if there is no basement; and


c. Excavations and underground flues, pipes, wiring, and drains.


Note: The Coverage D – Increased Cost of Compliance limit of liability is not included in the determination of the amount of insurance required.


VIII. Policy Nullification, Cancellation, and Non-Renewal

A. Policy Nullification for Fraud, Misrepresentation, or Making False Statements

1. With respect to all insureds under this policy, this policy is void and has no legal force and effect if at any time, before or after a loss, you or any other insured or your agent have, with respect to this policy or any other NFIP insurance:


a. Concealed or misrepresented any material fact or circumstance;


b. Engaged in fraudulent conduct; or


c. Made false statements.


2. Policies voided under A.1 cannot be renewed or replaced by a new NFIP policy.


3. Policies are void as of the date the acts described in A.1 above were committed.


4. Fines, civil penalties, and imprisonment under applicable Federal laws may also apply to the acts of fraud or concealment described above.


B. Policy Nullification for Reasons Other Than Fraud

1. This policy is void from its inception, and has no legal force or effect, if:


a. The property listed on the application is located in a community that was not participating in the NFIP on this policy’s inception date and did not join or reenter the program during the policy term and before the loss occurred;


b. The property listed on the application is otherwise not eligible for coverage under the NFIP at the time of the initial application;


c. You never had an insurable interest in the property listed on the application;


d. You provided an agent with an application and payment, but the payment did not clear; or


e. We receive notice from you, prior to the policy effective date, that you have determined not to take the policy and you are not subject to a requirement to obtain and maintain flood insurance pursuant to any statute, regulation, or contract.


2. In such cases, you will be entitled to a full refund of all premium, fees, and surcharges received. However, if a claim was paid for a policy that is void, the claim payment must be returned to FEMA or offset from the premiums to be refunded before the refund will be processed.


C. Cancellation of the Policy by You

1. You may cancel this policy in accordance with the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


2. If you cancel this policy, you may be entitled to a full or partial refund of premium, surcharges, or fees under the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


D. Cancellation of the Policy by Us

1. Cancellation for Underpayment of Amounts Owed on Policy. This policy will be cancelled, pursuant to VII.D.2, if it is determined that the premium amount you paid is not sufficient to buy any amount of coverage, and you do not pay the additional amount of premium owed to increase the coverage to the originally requested amount within the required time period.


2. Cancellation Due to Lack of an Insurable Interest.


a. If you no longer have an insurable interest in the insured property, we will cancel this policy. You will cease to have an insurable interest if:


(1) For building coverage, the building was sold, destroyed, or removed.


(2) For contents coverage, the contents were sold or transferred ownership, or the contents were completely removed from the described location.


b. If your policy is cancelled for this reason, you may be entitled to a partial refund of premium under the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


3. Cancellation of Duplicate Policies


a. Except as allowed under Article I.G, your property may not be insured by more than one NFIP policy, and payment for damages to your property will only be made under one policy.


b. Except as allowed under Article I.G, if the property is insured by more than one NFIP policy, we will cancel all but one of the policies. The policy, or policies, will be selected for cancellation in accordance with 44 CFR 62.5 and the applicable rules and guidance of the NFIP.


c. If this policy is cancelled pursuant to VIII.D.3.b, you may be entitled to a full or partial refund of premium, surcharges, or fees under the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


4. Cancellation Due to Physical Alteration of Property


a. If the insured building has been physically altered in such a manner that it is no longer eligible for flood insurance coverage, we will cancel this policy.


b. If your policy is cancelled for this reason, you may be entitled to a partial refund of premium under the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


E. Non-Renewal of the Policy by Us

Your policy will not be renewed if:


1. The community where your insured property is located is suspended or stops participating in the NFIP;


2. Your building is otherwise ineligible for flood insurance under the Act;


3. You have failed to provide the information we requested for the purpose of rating the policy within the required deadline.


IX. Liberalization Clause

If we make a change that broadens your coverage under this edition of our policy, but does not require any additional premium, then that change will automatically apply to your insurance as of the date we implement the change, provided that this implementation date falls within 60 days before or during the policy term stated on the Declarations Page.


X. What Law Governs

This policy and all disputes arising from the insurer’s policy issuance, policy administration, or the handling of any claim under the policy are governed exclusively by the flood insurance regulations issued by FEMA, the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4001, et seq.), and Federal common law.


In Witness Whereof, we have signed this policy below and hereby enter into this Insurance Agreement.


Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration


[85 FR 43959, July 20, 2020; 86 FR 10029, Feb. 18, 2021; 86 FR 31177, June 11, 2021; 86 FR 48511, Aug. 31, 2021]

Appendix A(2) to Part 61

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration

Standard Flood Insurance Policy

General Property Form

Please read the policy carefully. The flood insurance provided is subject to limitations, restrictions, and exclusions.


I. Agreement

A. Coverage Under This Policy


1. Except as provided in I.A.2, this policy provides coverage for multifamily buildings (residential buildings designed for use by 5 or more families that are not condominium buildings), non-residential buildings, and their contents.


2. There is no coverage for a residential condominium building in a regular program community, except for personal property coverage for a unit in a condominium building.


B. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides flood insurance under the terms of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and its amendments, and Title 44 of the Code of Federal Regulations.


C. We will pay you for direct physical loss by or from flood to your insured property if you:


1. Have paid the full amount due (including applicable premiums, surcharges, and fees);


2. Comply with all terms and conditions of this policy; and


3. Have furnished accurate information and statements.


D. We have the right to review the information you give us at any time and revise your policy based on our review.


E. This policy insures only one building. If you own more than one building, coverage will apply to the single building specifically described in the Flood Insurance Application.


F. Multiple policies with building coverage cannot be issued to insure a single building to one insured or to different insureds, even if issued through different NFIP insurers. Payment for damages may only be made under a single policy for building damages under Coverage A – Building Property.


II. Definitions

A. In this policy, “you” and “your” refer to the named insured(s) shown on the Declarations Page of this policy. Insured(s) also includes: Any mortgagee and loss payee named in the Application and Declarations Page, as well as any other mortgagee or loss payee determined to exist at the time of loss, in the order of precedence. “We,” “us,” and “our” refer to the insurer.


Some definitions are complex because they are provided as they appear in the law or regulations, or result from court cases.


B. Flood, as used in this flood insurance policy, means:


1. A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties (one of which is your property) from:


a. Overflow of inland or tidal waters;


b. Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source;


c. Mudflow.


2. Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined in B.1.a above.


C. The following are the other key definitions we use in this policy:


1. Act. The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and any amendments to it.


2. Actual Cash Value. The cost to replace an insured item of property at the time of loss, less the value of its physical depreciation.


3. Application. The statement made and signed by you or your agent in applying for this policy. The application gives information we use to determine the eligibility of the risk, the kind of policy to be issued, and the correct premium payment. The application is part of this flood insurance policy.


4. Base Flood. A flood having a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.


5. Basement. Any area of a building, including any sunken room or sunken portion of a room, having its floor below ground level on all sides.


6. Building


a. A structure with two or more outside rigid walls and a fully secured roof that is affixed to a permanent site;


b. A manufactured home, also known as a mobile home, is a structure built on a permanent chassis, transported to its site in one or more sections, and affixed to a permanent foundation; or


c. A travel trailer without wheels, built on a chassis and affixed to a permanent foundation, that is regulated under the community’s floodplain management and building ordinances or laws.


Building does not mean a gas or liquid storage tank, shipping container, or a recreational vehicle, park trailer, or other similar vehicle, except as described in C.6.c above.


7. Cancellation. The ending of the insurance coverage provided by this policy before the expiration date.


8. Condominium. That form of ownership of one or more buildings in which each unit owner has an undivided interest in common elements.


9. Condominium Association. The entity made up of the unit owners responsible for the maintenance and operation of:


a. Common elements owned in undivided shares by unit owners; and


b. Other buildings in which the unit owners have use rights where membership in the entity is a required condition of unit ownership.


10. Condominium Building. A type of building for which the form of ownership is one in which each unit owner has an undivided interest in common elements of the building.


11. Declarations Page. A computer-generated summary of information you provided in your application for insurance. The Declarations Page also describes the term of the policy, limits of coverage, and displays the premium and our name. The Declarations Page is a part of this flood insurance policy.


12. Deductible. The fixed amount of an insured loss that is your responsibility and that is incurred by you before any amounts are paid for the insured loss under this policy.


13. Described Location. The location where the insured building(s) or personal property are found. The described location is shown on the Declarations Page.


14. Direct Physical Loss By or From Flood. Loss or damage to insured property, directly caused by a flood. There must be evidence of physical changes to the property.


15. Elevated Building. A building that has no basement and that has its lowest elevated floor raised above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings, or columns.


16. Emergency Program. The initial phase of a community’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. During this phase, only limited amounts of insurance are available under the Act and the regulations prescribed pursuant to the Act.


17. Federal Policy Fee. A flat rate charge you must pay on each new or renewal policy to defray certain administrative expenses incurred in carrying out the National Flood Insurance Program.


18. Improvements. Fixtures, alterations, installations, or additions comprising a part of the building.


19. Mudflow. A river of liquid and flowing mud on the surface of normally dry land areas, as when earth is carried by a current of water. Other earth movements, such as landslide, slope failure, or a saturated soil mass moving by liquidity down a slope, are not mudflows.


20. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The program of flood insurance coverage and floodplain management administered under the Act and applicable Federal regulations in Title 44 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter B.


21. Policy. The entire written contract between you and us. It includes:


a. This printed form;


b. The application and Declarations Page;


c. Any endorsement(s) that may be issued; and


d. Any renewal certificate indicating that coverage has been instituted for a new policy and new policy term. Only one building, which you specifically described in the application, may be insured under this policy.


22. Pollutants. Substances that include, but are not limited to, any solid, liquid, gaseous, or thermal irritant or contaminant, including smoke, vapor, soot, fumes, acids, alkalis, chemicals, and waste. “Waste” includes, but is not limited to, materials to be recycled, reconditioned, or reclaimed.


23. Post-FIRM Building. A building for which construction or substantial improvement occurred after December 31, 1974, or on or after the effective date of an initial Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), whichever is later.


24. Probation Surcharge. A flat charge you must pay on each new or renewal policy issued covering property in a community the NFIP has placed on probation under the provisions of 44 CFR 59.24.


25. Regular Program. The final phase of a community’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. In this phase, a Flood Insurance Rate Map is in effect and full limits of coverage are available under the Act and the regulations prescribed pursuant to the Act.


26. Residential Condominium Building. A condominium building, containing one or more family units and in which at least 75 percent of the floor area is residential.


27. Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). An area having special flood or mudflow, and/or flood-related erosion hazards, and shown on a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or Flood Insurance Rate Map as Zone A, AO, A1-A30, AE, A99, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, VE, or V.


28. Stock means merchandise held in storage or for sale, raw materials, and in-process or finished goods, including supplies used in their packing or shipping. Stock does not include any property not insured under Section IV. Property Not Insured, except the following:


a. Parts and equipment for self-propelled vehicles;


b. Furnishings and equipment for watercraft;


c. Spas and hot-tubs, including their equipment; and


d. Swimming pool equipment.


29. Unit. A single-family residential or non-residential space you own in a condominium building.


30. Valued Policy. A policy in which the insured and the insurer agree on the value of the property insured, that value being payable in the event of a total loss. The Standard Flood Insurance Policy is not a valued policy.


III. Property Insured

A. Coverage A – Building Property

We insure against direct physical loss by or from flood to:


1. The building described on the Declarations Page at the described location. If the building is a condominium building and the named insured is the condominium association, Coverage A includes all units within the building and the improvements within the units, provided the units are owned in common by all unit owners.


2. Building property located at another location for a period of 45 days at another location, as set forth in III.C.2.b, Property Removed to Safety.


3. Additions and extensions attached to and in contact with the building by means of a rigid exterior wall, a solid load-bearing interior wall, a stairway, an elevated walkway, or a roof. At your option, additions and extensions connected by any of these methods may be separately insured. Additions and extensions attached to and in contact with the building by means of a common interior wall that is not a solid load-bearing wall are always considered part of the building and cannot be separately insured.


4. The following fixtures, machinery, and equipment, which are insured under Coverage A only:


a. Awnings and canopies;


b. Blinds;


c. Carpet permanently installed over unfinished flooring;


d. Central air conditioners;


e. Elevator equipment;


f. Fire extinguishing apparatus;


g. Fire sprinkler systems;


h. Walk-in freezers;


i. Furnaces;


j. Light fixtures;


k. Outdoor antennas and aerials attached to buildings;


l. Permanently installed cupboards, bookcases, paneling, and wallpaper;


m. Pumps and machinery for operating pumps;


n. Ventilating equipment;


o. Wall mirrors, permanently installed; and


p. In the units within the building, installed:


(1) Built-in dishwashers;


(2) Built-in microwave ovens;


(3) Garbage disposal units;


(4) Hot water heaters, including solar water heaters;


(5) Kitchen cabinets;


(6) Plumbing fixtures;


(7) Radiators;


(8) Ranges;


(9) Refrigerators; and


(10) Stoves.


5. Materials and supplies to be used for construction, alteration, or repair of the insured building while the materials and supplies are stored in a fully enclosed building at the described location or on an adjacent property.


6. A building under construction, alteration, or repair at the described location.


a. If the structure is not yet walled or roofed as described in the definition for building (see II.C.6.a) then coverage applies:


(1) Only while such work is in progress; or


(2) If such work is halted, only for a period of up to 90 continuous days thereafter.


b. However, coverage does not apply until the building is walled and roofed if the lowest floor, including the basement floor, of a non-elevated building or the lowest elevated floor of an elevated building is:


(1) Below the base flood elevation in Zones AH, AE, A1-A30, AR, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, AR/A, AR/AO; or


(2) Below the base flood elevation adjusted to include the effect of wave action in Zones VE or V1-V30.


The lowest floor level is based on the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the floor in Zones VE or V1-V30 or the top of the floor in Zones AH, AE, A1-A30, AR, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, AR/A, and AR/AO.


7. A manufactured home or a travel trailer, as described in the II.C.6. If the manufactured home or travel trailer is in a special flood hazard area, it must be anchored in the following manner at the time of the loss:


a. By over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors; or


b. In accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications; or


c. In compliance with the community’s floodplain management requirements unless it has been continuously insured by the NFIP at the same described location since September 30, 1982.


8. Items of property below the lowest elevated floor of an elevated post-FIRM building located in zones A1-A30, AE, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, or VE, or in a basement regardless of the zone. Coverage is limited to the following:


a. Any of the following items, if installed in their functioning locations and, if necessary for operation, connected to a power source:


(1) Central air conditioners;


(2) Cisterns and the water in them;


(3) Drywall for walls and ceilings in a basement and the cost of labor to nail it, unfinished and unfloated and not taped, to the framing;


(4) Electrical junction and circuit breaker boxes;


(5) Electrical outlets and switches;


(6) Elevators, dumbwaiters, and related equipment, except for related equipment installed below the base flood elevation after September 30, 1987;


(7) Fuel tanks and the fuel in them;


(8) Furnaces and hot water heaters;


(9) Heat pumps;


(10) Nonflammable insulation in a basement;


(11) Pumps and tanks used in solar energy systems;


(12) Stairways and staircases attached to the building, not separated from it by elevated walkways;


(13) Sump pumps;


(14) Water softeners and the chemicals in them, water filters, and faucets installed as an integral part of the plumbing system;


(15) Well water tanks and pumps;


(16) Required utility connections for any item in this list; and


(17) Footings, foundations, posts, pilings, piers, or other foundation walls and anchorage systems required to support a building.


b. Clean-up.


B. Coverage B – Personal Property

1. If you have purchased personal property coverage, we insure, subject to B.2-4 below, against direct physical loss by or from flood to personal property inside the fully enclosed insured building:


a. Owned solely by you, or in the case of a condominium, owned solely by the condominium association and used exclusively in the conduct of the business affairs of the condominium association; or


b. Owned in common by the unit owners of the condominium association.


2. We also insure such personal property for 45 days while stored at a temporary location, as set forth in III.C.2.b, Property Removed to Safety.


3. When this policy insures personal property, coverage will be either for household personal property or other than household personal property, while within the insured building, but not both.


a. If this policy insures household personal property, it will insure household personal property usual to a living quarters, that:


(1) Belongs to you, or a member of your household, or at your option:


(a) Your domestic worker;


(b) Your guest; or


(2) You may be legally liable for.


b. If this policy insures other than household personal property, it will insure your:


(1) Furniture and fixtures;


(2) Machinery and equipment;


(3) Stock; and


(4) Other personal property owned by you and used in your business, subject to IV, Property Not Insured.


4. Coverage for personal property includes the following property, subject to B.1.a and B.1.b above, which is insured under Coverage B, only:


a. Air conditioning units, portable or window type;


b. Carpets, not permanently installed, over unfinished flooring;


c. Carpets over finished flooring;


d. Clothes washers and dryers;


e. “Cook-out” grills;


f. Food freezers, other than walk-in, and food in any freezer;


g. Outdoor equipment and furniture stored inside the insured building;


h. Ovens and the like; and


i. Portable microwave ovens and portable dishwashers.


5. Coverage for items of property below the lowest elevated floor of an elevated post-FIRM building located in Zones A1-A30, AE, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, or VE, or in a basement regardless of the zone, is limited to the following items, if installed in their functioning locations and, if necessary for operation, connected to a power source:


a. Air conditioning units, portable or window type;


b. Clothes washers and dryers; and


c. Food freezers, other than walk-in, and food in any freezer.


6. Special Limits. We will pay no more than $2,500 for any loss to one or more of the following kinds of personal property:


a. Artwork, photographs, collectibles, or memorabilia, including but not limited to, porcelain or other figures, and sports cards.


b. Rare books or autographed items.


c. Jewelry, watches, precious and semi-precious stones, or articles of gold, silver, or platinum.


d. Furs or any article containing fur that represents its principal value.


7. We will pay only for the functional value of antiques.


8. If you are a tenant, you may apply up to 10 percent of the Coverage B limit to improvements:


a. Made a part of the building you occupy; and


b. You acquired, or made at your expense, even though you cannot legally remove.


This coverage does not increase the amount of insurance that applies to insured personal property.


9. If you are a condominium unit owner, you may apply up to 10 percent of the Coverage B limit to cover loss to interior:


a. walls,


b. floors, and


c. ceilings,


that are not insured under a policy issued to the condominium association insuring the condominium building.

This coverage does not increase the amount of insurance that applies to insured personal property.


10. If you are a tenant, personal property must be inside the fully enclosed building.


C. Coverage C – Other Coverages

1. Debris Removal

a. We will pay the expense to remove non-owned debris that is on or in insured property and debris of insured property anywhere.


b. If you or a member of your household perform the removal work, the value of your work will be based on the Federal minimum wage.


c. This coverage does not increase the Coverage A or Coverage B limit of liability.


2. Loss Avoidance Measures

a. Sandbags, Supplies, and Labor


(1) We will pay up to $1,000 for costs you incur to protect the insured building from a flood or imminent danger of flood, for the following:


(a) Your reasonable expenses to buy:


(i) Sandbags, including sand to fill them;


(ii) Fill for temporary levees;


(iii) Pumps; and


(iv) Plastic sheeting and lumber used in connection with these items.


(b) The value of work, at the Federal minimum wage, that you perform.


(2) This coverage for Sandbags, Supplies, and Labor only applies if damage to insured property by or from flood is imminent and the threat of flood damage is apparent enough to lead a person of common prudence to anticipate flood damage. One of the following must also occur:


(a) A general and temporary condition of flooding in the area near the described location must occur, even if the flood does not reach the building; or


(b) A legally authorized official must issue an evacuation order or other civil order for the community in which the building is located calling for measures to preserve life and property from the peril of flood.


This coverage does not increase the Coverage A or Coverage B limit of liability.


b. Property Removed to Safety


(1) We will pay up to $1,000 for the reasonable expenses you incur to move insured property to a place other than the described location that contains the property in order to protect it from flood or the imminent danger of flood. Reasonable expenses include the value of work, at the Federal minimum wage, you or a member of your household perform.


(2) If you move insured property to a location other than the described location that contains the property in order to protect it from flood or the imminent danger of flood, we will cover such property while at that location for a period of 45 consecutive days from the date you begin to move it there. The personal property that is moved must be placed in a fully enclosed building or otherwise reasonably protected from the elements.


(3) Any property removed, including a moveable home described in II.6, must be placed above ground level or outside of the special flood hazard area.


(4) This coverage does not increase the Coverage A or Coverage B limit of liability.


3. Pollution Damage

We will pay for damage caused by pollutants to insured property if the discharge, seepage, migration, release, or escape of the pollutants is caused by or results from flood. The most we will pay under this coverage is $10,000. This coverage does not increase the Coverage A or Coverage B limits of liability. Any payment under this provision when combined with all other payments for the same loss cannot exceed the replacement cost or actual cash value, as appropriate, of the insured property. This coverage does not include the testing for or monitoring of pollutants unless required by law or ordinance.


D. Coverage D – Increased Cost of Compliance

1. General

This policy pays you to comply with a State or local floodplain management law or ordinance affecting repair or reconstruction of a building suffering flood damage. Compliance activities eligible for payment are: elevation, floodproofing, relocation, or demolition (or any combination of these activities) of your building. Eligible floodproofing activities are limited to:


a. Non-residential buildings.


b. Residential buildings with basements that satisfy FEMA’s standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations [44 CFR 60.6(b) or (c)].


2. Limits of Liability

We will pay you up to $30,000 under this Coverage D (Increased Cost of Compliance), which only applies to policies with building coverage (Coverage A). Our payment of claims under Coverage D is in addition to the amount of coverage which you selected on the application and which appears on the Declarations Page. However, the maximum you can collect under this policy for both Coverage A (Building Property) and Coverage D (Increased Cost of Compliance) cannot exceed the maximum permitted under the Act. We do NOT charge a separate deductible for a claim under Coverage D.


3. Eligibility

a. A building insured under Coverage A (Building Property) sustaining a loss caused by a flood as defined by this policy must:


(1) Be a “repetitive loss building.” A repetitive loss building is one that meets the following conditions:


(a) The building is insured by a contract of flood insurance issued under the NFIP.


(b) The building has suffered flood damage on two occasions during a 10-year period which ends on the date of the second loss.


(c) The cost to repair the flood damage, on average, equaled or exceeded 25 percent of the market value of the building at the time of each flood loss.


(d) In addition to the current claim, the NFIP must have paid the previous qualifying claim, and the State or community must have a cumulative, substantial damage provision or repetitive loss provision in its floodplain management law or ordinance being enforced against the building; or


(2) Be a building that has had flood damage in which the cost to repair equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building at the time of the flood. The State or community must have a substantial damage provision in its floodplain management law or ordinance being enforced against the building.


b. This Coverage D pays you to comply with State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances that meet the minimum standards of the National Flood Insurance Program found in the Code of Federal Regulations at 44 CFR 60.3. We pay for compliance activities that exceed those standards under these conditions:


(1) 3.a.1 above.


(2) Elevation or floodproofing in any risk zone to preliminary or advisory base flood elevations provided by FEMA which the State or local government has adopted and is enforcing for flood-damaged buildings in such areas. (This includes compliance activities in B, C, X, or D zones which are being changed to zones with base flood elevations. This also includes compliance activities in zones where base flood elevations are being increased, and a flood-damaged building must comply with the higher advisory base flood elevation.) Increased Cost of Compliance coverage does not apply to situations in B, C, X, or D zones where the community has derived its own elevations and is enforcing elevation or floodproofing requirements for flood-damaged buildings to elevations derived solely by the community.


(3) Elevation or floodproofing above the base flood elevation to meet State or local “free-board” requirements, i.e., that a building must be elevated above the base flood elevation.


c. Under the minimum NFIP criteria at 44 CFR 60.3(b)(4), States and communities must require the elevation or floodproofing of buildings in unnumbered A zones to the base flood elevation where elevation data is obtained from a Federal, State, or other source. Such compliance activities are also eligible for Coverage D.


d. This coverage will pay for the incremental cost, after demolition or relocation, of elevating or floodproofing a building during its rebuilding at the same or another site to meet State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances, subject to the exclusion at III.D.5.g.


e. This coverage will pay to bring a flood-damaged building into compliance with State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances even if the building had received a variance before the present loss from the applicable floodplain management requirements.


4. Conditions

a. When a building insured under Coverage A – Building Property sustains a loss caused by a flood, our payment for the loss under this Coverage D will be for the increased cost to elevate, floodproof, relocate, or demolish (or any combination of these activities) caused by the enforcement of current State or local floodplain management ordinances or laws. Our payment for eligible demolition activities will be for the cost to demolish and clear the site of the building debris or a portion thereof caused by the enforcement of current State or local floodplain management ordinances or laws. Eligible activities for the cost of clearing the site will include those necessary to discontinue utility service to the site and ensure proper abandonment of on-site utilities.


b. When the building is repaired or rebuilt, it must be intended for the same occupancy as the present building unless otherwise required by current floodplain management ordinances or laws.


5. Exclusions

Under this Coverage D (Increased Cost of Compliance), we will not pay for:


a. The cost to comply with any floodplain management law or ordinance in communities participating in the Emergency Program.


b. The cost associated with enforcement of any ordinance or law that requires any insured or others to test for, monitor, clean up, remove, contain, treat, detoxify or neutralize, or in any way respond to, or assess the effects of pollutants.


c. The loss in value to any insured building due to the requirements of any ordinance or law.


d. The loss in residual value of the undamaged portion of a building demolished as a consequence of enforcement of any State or local floodplain management law or ordinance.


e. Any Increased Cost of Compliance under this Coverage D:


(1) Until the building is elevated, floodproofed, demolished, or relocated on the same or to another premises; and


(2) Unless the building is elevated, floodproofed, demolished, or relocated as soon as reasonably possible after the loss, not to exceed two years.


f. Any code upgrade requirements, e.g., plumbing or electrical wiring, not specifically related to the State or local floodplain management law or ordinance.


g. Any compliance activities needed to bring additions or improvements made after the loss occurred into compliance with State or local floodplain management laws or ordinances.


h. Loss due to any ordinance or law that you were required to comply with before the current loss.


i. Any rebuilding activity to standards that do not meet the NFIP’s minimum requirements. This includes any situation where the insured has received from the State or community a variance in connection with the current flood loss to rebuild the property to an elevation below the base flood elevation.


j. Increased Cost of Compliance for a garage or carport.


k. Any building insured under an NFIP Group Flood Insurance Policy.


l. Assessments made by a condominium association on individual condominium unit owners to pay increased costs of repairing commonly owned buildings after a flood in compliance with State or local floodplain management ordinances or laws.


6. Other Provisions

All other conditions and provisions of the policy apply.


IV. Property Not Insured

We do not insure any of the following property:


1. Personal property not inside the fully enclosed building.


2. A building, and personal property in it, located entirely in, on, or over water or seaward of mean high tide if it was constructed or substantially improved after September 30, 1982.


3. Open structures, including a building used as a boathouse or any structure or building into which boats are floated, and personal property located in, on, or over water.


4. Recreational vehicles other than travel trailers described in the II.C.6.c, whether affixed to a permanent foundation or on wheels.


5. Self-propelled vehicles or machines, including their parts and equipment. However, we do cover self-propelled vehicles or machines not licensed for use on public roads and are:


a. Used mainly to service the described location; or


b. Designed and used to assist handicapped persons, while the vehicles or machines are inside a building at the described location.


6. Land, land values, lawns, trees, shrubs, plants, growing crops, or animals.


7. Accounts, bills, coins, currency, deeds, evidences of debt, medals, money, scrip, stored value cards, postage stamps, securities, bullion, manuscripts, or other valuable papers.


8. Underground structures and equipment, including wells, septic tanks, and septic systems.


9. Those portions of walks, walkways, decks, driveways, patios, and other surfaces, all whether protected by a roof or not, located outside the perimeter, exterior walls of the insured building.


10. Containers, including related equipment, such as, but not limited to, tanks containing gases or liquids.


11. Buildings or units and all their contents if more than 49 percent of the actual cash value of the building is below ground, unless the lowest level is at or above the base flood elevation and is below ground by reason of earth having been used as insulation material in conjunction with energy efficient building techniques.


12. Fences, retaining walls, seawalls, bulkheads, wharves, piers, bridges, and docks.


13. Aircraft or watercraft, or their furnishings and equipment.


14. Hot tubs and spas that are not bathroom fixtures, and swimming pools, and their equipment, such as, but not limited to, heaters, filters, pumps, and pipes, wherever located.


15. Property not eligible for flood insurance pursuant to the provisions of the Coastal Barrier Resources Act and the Coastal Barrier Improvement Act and amendments to these Acts.


16. Personal property owned by or in the care, custody or control of a unit owner, except for property of the type and under the circumstances set forth under III. Coverage B – Personal Property of this policy.


17. A residential condominium building located in a Regular Program community.


V. Exclusions

A. We only pay for “direct physical loss by or from flood,” which means that we do not pay you for:


1. Loss of revenue or profits;


2. Loss of access to the insured property or described location;


3. Loss of use of the insured property or described location;


4. Loss from interruption of business or production;


5. Any additional living expenses incurred while the insured building is being repaired or is unable to be occupied for any reason;


6. The cost of complying with any ordinance or law requiring or regulating the construction, demolition, remodeling, renovation, or repair of property, including removal of any resulting debris. This exclusion does not apply to any eligible activities we describe in Coverage D – Increased Cost of Compliance; or


7. Any other economic loss you suffer.


B. Flood in Progress. If this policy became effective as of the time of a loan closing, as provided by 44 CFR 61.11(b), we will not pay for a loss caused by a flood that is a continuation of a flood that existed prior to coverage becoming effective. In all other circumstances, we will not pay for a loss caused by a flood that is a continuation of a flood that existed on or before the day you submitted the application for coverage under this policy and the correct premium. We will determine the date of application using 44 CFR 611.11(f).


C. We do not insure for loss to property caused directly by earth movement even if the earth movement is caused by flood. Some examples of earth movement that we do not cover are:


1. Earthquake;


2. Landslide;


3. Land subsidence;


4. Sinkholes;


5. Destabilization or movement of land that results from accumulation of water in subsurface land areas; or


6. Gradual erosion.


We do, however, pay for losses from mudflow and land subsidence as a result of erosion that are specifically insured under our definition of flood (see II.B.1.c and II.B.2).


D. We do not insure for direct physical loss caused directly or indirectly by:


1. The pressure or weight of ice;


2. Freezing or thawing;


3. Rain, snow, sleet, hail, or water spray;


4. Water, moisture, mildew, or mold damage that results primarily from any condition:


a. Substantially confined to the insured building; or


b. That is within your control including, but not limited to:


(1) Design, structural, or mechanical defects;


(2) Failures, stoppages, or breakage of water or sewer lines, drains, pumps, fixtures, or equipment; or


(3) Failure to inspect and maintain the property after a flood recedes;


5. Water or water-borne material that:


a. Backs up through sewers or drains;


b. Discharges or overflows from a sump, sump pump, or related equipment; or


c. Seeps or leaks on or through the insured property;


unless there is a flood in the area and the flood is the proximate cause of the sewer or drain backup, sump pump discharge or overflow, or the seepage of water;


6. The pressure or weight of water unless there is a flood in the area and the flood is the proximate cause of the damage from the pressure or weight of water;


7. Power, heating, or cooling failure unless the failure results from direct physical loss by or from flood to power, heating, or cooling equipment on the described location;


8. Theft, fire, explosion, wind, or windstorm;


9. Anything you or any member of your household do or conspires to do to deliberately cause loss by flood; or


10. Alteration of the insured property that significantly increases the risk of flooding.


E. We do not insure for loss to any building or personal property located on land leased from the Federal Government, arising from or incident to the flooding of the land by the Federal Government, where the lease expressly holds the Federal Government harmless under flood insurance issued under any Federal Government program.


VI. Deductibles

A. When a loss is insured under this policy, we will pay only that part of the loss that exceeds your deductible amount, subject to the limit of liability that applies. The deductible amount is shown on the Declarations Page.


However, when a building under construction, alteration, or repair does not have at least two rigid exterior walls and a fully secured roof at the time of loss, your deductible amount will be two times the deductible that would otherwise apply to a completed building.


B. In each loss from flood, separate deductibles apply to the building and personal property insured by this policy.


C. The deductible does NOT apply to:


1. III.C.2. Loss Avoidance Measures; or


2. III.D. Increased Cost of Compliance.


VII. General Conditions

A. Pair and Set Clause

In case of loss to an article that is part of a pair or set, we will have the option of paying you:


1. An amount equal to the cost of replacing the lost, damaged, or destroyed article, minus its depreciation; or


2. The amount that represents the fair proportion of the total value of the pair or set that the lost, damaged, or destroyed article bears to the pair or set.


B. Other Insurance

1. If a loss insured by this policy is also insured by other insurance that includes flood coverage not issued under the Act, we will not pay more than the amount of insurance that you are entitled to for lost, damaged, or destroyed property insured under this policy subject to the following:


a. We will pay only the proportion of the loss that the amount of insurance that applies under this policy bears to the total amount of insurance covering the loss, unless VII.B.1.b or c below applies.


b. If the other policy has a provision stating that it is excess insurance, this policy will be primary.


c. This policy will be primary (but subject to its own deductible) up to the deductible in the other flood policy (except another policy as described in VII.B.1.b above). When the other deductible amount is reached, this policy will participate in the same proportion that the amount of insurance under this policy bears to the total amount of both policies, for the remainder of the loss.


2. Where this policy insures a condominium association and there is a National Flood Insurance Program flood insurance policy in the name of a unit owner that insures the same loss as this policy, then this policy will be primary.


C. Amendments, Waivers, Assignment

This policy cannot be changed, nor can any of its provisions be waived, without the express written consent of the Federal Insurance Administrator. No action that we take under the terms of this policy can constitute a waiver of any of our rights. You may assign this policy in writing when you transfer title of your property to someone else except under these conditions:


1. When this policy insures only personal property; or


2. When this policy insures a building under construction.


D. Insufficient Premium or Rating Information

1. Applicability. The following provisions apply to all instances where the premium paid on this policy is insufficient or where the rating information is insufficient, such as where an Elevation Certificate is not provided.


2. Reforming the Policy with Reduced Coverage. Except as otherwise provided in VII.D.1 and VII.D.4, if the premium we received from you was not sufficient to buy the kinds and amounts of coverage you requested, we will provide only the kinds and amounts of coverage that can be purchased for the premium payment we received.


a. For the purpose of determining whether your premium payment is sufficient to buy the kinds and amounts of coverage you requested, we will first deduct the costs of all applicable fees and surcharges.


b. If the amount paid, after deducting the costs of all applicable fees and surcharges, is not sufficient to buy any amount of coverage, your payment will be refunded. Unless the policy is reformed to increase the coverage amount to the amount originally requested pursuant to VII.D.3, this policy will be cancelled, and no claims will be paid under this policy.


c. Coverage limits on the reformed policy will be based upon the amount of premium submitted per type of coverage, but will not exceed the amount originally requested.


3. Discovery of Insufficient Premium or Rating Information. If we discover that your premium payment was not sufficient to buy the requested amount of coverage, the policy will be reformed as described in VII.D.2. You have the option of increasing the amount of coverage resulting from this reformation to the amount you requested as follows:


a. Insufficient Premium. If we discover that your premium payment was not sufficient to buy the requested amount of coverage, we will send you, and any mortgagee or trustee known to us, a bill for the required additional premium for the current policy term (or that portion of the current policy term following any endorsement changing the amount of coverage). If it is discovered that the initial amount charged to you for any fees or surcharges is incorrect, the difference will be added or deducted, as applicable, to the total amount in this bill.


(1) If you or the mortgagee or trustee pay the additional amount due within 30 days from the date of our bill, we will reform the policy to increase the amount of coverage to the originally requested amount, effective to the beginning of the current policy term (or subsequent date of any endorsement changing the amount of coverage).


(2) If you or the mortgagee or trustee do not pay the additional amount due within 30 days of the date of our bill, any flood insurance claim will be settled based on the reduced amount of coverage.


(3) As applicable, you have the option of paying all or part of the amount due out of a claim payment based on the originally requested amount of coverage.


b. Insufficient Rating Information. If we determine that the rating information we have is insufficient and prevents us from calculating the additional premium, we will ask you to send the required information. You must submit the information within 60 days of our request.


(1) If we receive the information within 60 days of our request, we will determine the amount of additional premium for the current policy term and follow the procedure in VII.D.3.a above.


(2) If we do not receive the information within 60 days of our request, no claims will be paid until the requested information is provided. Coverage will be limited to the amount of coverage that can be purchased for the payments we received, as determined when the requested information is provided.


4. Coverage Increases. If we do not receive the amounts requested in VII.D.3.a or the additional information requested in VII.D.3.b by the date it is due, the amount of coverage under this policy can only be increased by endorsement subject to the appropriate waiting period. However, no coverage increases will be allowed until you have provided the information requested in VII.D.3.b is provided.


5. Falsifying Information. However, if we find that you or your agent intentionally did not tell us, or falsified, any important fact or circumstance or did anything fraudulent relating to this insurance, the provisions of VIII.A apply.


E. Policy Renewal

1. This policy will expire at 12:01 a.m. on the last day of the policy term.


2. We must receive the payment of the appropriate renewal premium within 30 days of the expiration date.


3. If we find, however, that we did not place your renewal notice into the U.S. Postal Service, or if we did mail it, we made a mistake, e.g., we used an incorrect, incomplete, or illegible address, which delayed its delivery to you before the due date for the renewal premium, then we will follow these procedures:


a. If you or your agent notified us, not later than one year after the date on which the payment of the renewal premium was due, of non-receipt of a renewal notice before the due date for the renewal premium, and we determine that the circumstances in the preceding paragraph apply, we will mail a second bill providing a revised due date, which will be 30 days after the date on which the bill is mailed.


b. If we do not receive the premium requested in the second bill by the revised due date, then we will not renew the policy. In that case, the policy will remain as an expired policy as of the expiration date shown on the Declarations Page.


4. In connection with the renewal of this policy, we may ask you during the policy term to recertify, on a Recertification Questionnaire that we will provide to you, the rating information used to rate your most recent application for or renewal of insurance.


F. Conditions Suspending or Restricting Insurance

We are not liable for loss that occurs while there is a hazard that is increased by any means within your control or knowledge.


G. Requirements in Case of Loss

In case of a flood loss to insured property, you must:


1. Give prompt written notice to us.


2. As soon as reasonably possible, separate the damaged and undamaged property, putting it in the best possible order so that we may examine it.


3. Prepare an inventory of damaged property showing the quantity, description, actual cash value, and amount of loss. Attach all bills, receipts, and related documents.


4. Within 60 days after the loss, send us a proof of loss, which is your statement of the amount you are claiming under the policy signed and sworn to by you, and which furnishes us with the following information:


a. The date and time of loss;


b. A brief explanation of how the loss happened;


c. Your interest (for example, “owner”) and the interest, if any, of others in the damaged property;


d. Details of any other insurance that may cover the loss;


e. Changes in title or occupancy of the insured property during the term of the policy;


f. Specifications of damaged buildings and detailed repair estimates;


g. Names of mortgagees or anyone else having a lien, charge, or claim against the insured property;


h. Details about who occupied any insured building at the time of loss and for what purpose; and


i. The inventory of damaged personal property described in G.3 above.


5. In completing the proof of loss, you must use your own judgment concerning the amount of loss and justify that amount.


6. You must cooperate with the adjuster or representative in the investigation of the claim.


7. The insurance adjuster whom we hire to investigate your claim may furnish you with a proof of loss form, and she or he may help you complete it. However, this is a matter of courtesy only, and you must still send us a proof of loss within 60 days after the loss even if the adjuster does not furnish the form or help you complete it.


8. We have not authorized the adjuster to approve or disapprove claims or to tell you whether we will approve your claim.


9. At our option, we may accept the adjuster’s report of the loss instead of your proof of loss. The adjuster’s report will include information about your loss and the damages you sustained. You must sign the adjuster’s report. At our option, we may require you to swear to the report.


H. Our Options After a Loss

Options we may, in our sole discretion, exercise after loss include the following:


1. At such reasonable times and places that we may designate, you must:


a. Show us or our representative the damaged property;


b. Submit to examination under oath, while not in the presence of another insured, and sign the same; and


c. Permit us to examine and make extracts and copies of:


(1) Any policies of property insurance insuring you against loss and the deed establishing your ownership of the insured real property;


(2) Condominium association documents including the Declarations of the condominium, its Articles of Association or Incorporation, Bylaws, rules and regulations, and other relevant documents if you are a unit owner in a condominium building; and


(3) All books of accounts, bills, invoices and other vouchers, or certified copies pertaining to the damaged property if the originals are lost.


2. We may request, in writing, that you furnish us with a complete inventory of the lost, damaged or destroyed property, including:


a. Quantities and costs;


b. Actual cash values or replacement cost (whichever is appropriate);


c. Amounts of loss claimed;


d. Any written plans and specifications for repair of the damaged property that you can reasonably make available to us; and


e. Evidence that prior flood damage has been repaired.


3. If we give you written notice within 30 days after we receive your signed, sworn proof of loss, we may:


a. Repair, rebuild, or replace any part of the lost, damaged, or destroyed property with material or property of like kind and quality or its functional equivalent; and


b. Take all or any part of the damaged property at the value that we agree upon or its appraised value.


I. No Benefit to Bailee

No person or organization, other than you, having custody of insured property will benefit from this insurance.


J. Loss Payment

1. We will adjust all losses with you. We will pay you unless some other person or entity is named in the policy or is legally entitled to receive payment. Loss will be payable 60 days after we receive your proof of loss (or within 90 days after the insurance adjuster files the adjuster’s report signed and sworn to by you in lieu of a proof of loss) and:


a. We reach an agreement with you;


b. There is an entry of a final judgment; or


c. There is a filing of an appraisal award with us, as provided in VII.M.


2. If we reject your proof of loss in whole or in part you may:


a. Accept our denial of your claim;


b. Exercise your rights under this policy; or


c. File an amended proof of loss as long as it is filed within 60 days of the date of the loss.


K. Abandonment

You may not abandon damaged or undamaged insured property to us.


L. Salvage

We may permit you to keep damaged insured property after a loss, and we will reduce the amount of the loss proceeds payable to you under the policy by the value of the salvage.


M. Appraisal

If you and we fail to agree on the actual cash value of the damaged property so as to determine the amount of loss, either may demand an appraisal of the loss. In this event, you and we will each choose a competent and impartial appraiser within 20 days after receiving a written request from the other. The two appraisers will choose an umpire. If they cannot agree upon an umpire within 15 days, you or we may request that the choice be made by a judge of a court of record in the state where the insured property is located. The appraisers will separately state the actual cash value and the amount of loss to each item. If the appraisers submit a written report of an agreement to us, the amount agreed upon will be the amount of loss. If they fail to agree, they will submit their differences to the umpire. A decision agreed to by any two will set the amount of actual cash value and loss.


Each party will:


1. Pay its own appraiser; and


2. Bear the other expenses of the appraisal and umpire equally.


N. Mortgage Clause

1. The word “mortgagee” includes trustee.


2. Any loss payable under Coverage A – Building Property will be paid to any mortgagee of whom we have actual notice, as well as any other mortgagee or loss payee determined to exist at the time of loss, and you, as interests appear. If more than one mortgagee is named, the order of payment will be the same as the order of precedence of the mortgages.


3. If we deny your claim, that denial will not apply to a valid claim of the mortgagee, if the mortgagee:


a. Notifies us of any change in the ownership or occupancy, or substantial change in risk of which the mortgagee is aware;


b. Pays any premium due under this policy on demand if you have neglected to pay the premium; and


c. Submits a signed, sworn proof of loss within 60 days after receiving notice from us of your failure to do so.


4. All terms of this policy apply to the mortgagee.


5. The mortgagee has the right to receive loss payment even if the mortgagee has started foreclosure or similar action on the building.


6. If we decide to cancel or not renew this policy, it will continue in effect for the benefit of the mortgagee only for 30 days after we notify the mortgagee of the cancellation or non-renewal.


7. If we pay the mortgagee for any loss and deny payment to you, we are subrogated to all the rights of the mortgagee granted under the mortgage on the property. Subrogation will not impair the right of the mortgagee to recover the full amount of the mortgagee’s claim.


O. Suit Against Us

You may not sue us to recover money under this policy unless you have complied with all the requirements of the policy. If you do sue, you must start the suit within one year of the date of the written denial of all or part of the claim, and you must file the suit in the United States District Court of the district in which the insured property was located at the time of loss. This requirement applies to any claim that you may have under this policy and to any dispute that you may have arising out of the handling of any claim under the policy.


P. Subrogation

Whenever we make a payment for a loss under this policy, we are subrogated to your right to recover for that loss from any other person. That means that your right to recover for a loss that was partly or totally caused by someone else is automatically transferred to us, to the extent that we have paid you for the loss. We may require you to acknowledge this transfer in writing. After the loss, you may not give up our right to recover this money or do anything that would prevent us from recovering it. If you make any claim against any person who caused your loss and recover any money, you must pay us back first before you may keep any of that money.


Q. Continuous Lake Flood

1. If an insured building has been flooded by rising lake waters continuously for 90 days or more and it appears reasonably certain that a continuation of this flooding will result in an insured loss to the insured building equal to or greater than the building policy limits plus the deductible or the maximum payable under the policy for any one building loss, we will pay you the lesser of these two amounts without waiting for the further damage to occur if you sign a release agreeing:


a. To make no further claim under this policy;


b. Not to seek renewal of this policy;


c. Not to apply for any flood insurance under the Act for property at the described location;


d. Not to seek a premium refund for current or prior terms.


If the policy term ends before the insured building has been flooded continuously for 90 days, the provisions of this paragraph Q.1 will apply when the insured building suffers a covered loss before the policy term ends.


2. If your insured building is subject to continuous lake flooding from a closed basin lake, you may elect to file a claim under either paragraph Q.1 above or Q.2 (A “closed basin lake” is a natural lake from which water leaves primarily through evaporation and whose surface area now exceeds or has exceeded one square mile at any time in the recorded past. Most of the nation’s closed basin lakes are in the western half of the United States where annual evaporation exceeds annual precipitation and where lake levels and surface areas are subject to considerable fluctuation due to wide variations in the climate. These lakes may overtop their basins on rare occasions.) Under this paragraph Q.2, we will pay your claim as if the building is a total loss even though it has not been continuously inundated for 90 days, subject to the following conditions:


a. Lake floodwaters must damage or imminently threaten to damage your building.


b. Before approval of your claim, you must:


(1) Agree to a claim payment that reflects your buying back the salvage on a negotiated basis; and


(2) Grant the conservation easement described in FEMA’s “Policy Guidance for Closed Basin Lakes” to be recorded in the office of the local recorder of deeds. FEMA, in consultation with the community in which the property is located, will identify on a map an area or areas of special consideration (ASC) in which there is a potential for flood damage from continuous lake flooding. FEMA will give the community the agreed-upon map showing the ASC. This easement will only apply to that portion of the property in the ASC. It will allow certain agricultural and recreational uses of the land. The only structures it will allow on any portion of the property within the ASC are certain simple agricultural and recreational structures. If any of these allowable structures are insurable buildings under the NFIP and are insured under the NFIP, they will not be eligible for the benefits of this paragraph Q.2. If a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers certified flood control project or otherwise certified flood control project later protects the property, FEMA will, upon request, amend the ASC to remove areas protected by those projects. The restrictions of the easement will then no longer apply to any portion of the property removed from the ASC; and


(3) Comply with paragraphs Q.1.a through Q.1.d above.


c. Within 90 days of approval of your claim, you must move your building to a new location outside the ASC. FEMA will give you an additional 30 days to move if you show there is sufficient reason to extend the time.


d. Before the final payment of your claim, you must acquire an elevation certificate and a floodplain development permit from the local floodplain administrator for the new location of your building.


e. Before the approval of your claim, the community having jurisdiction over your building must:


(1) Adopt a permanent land use ordinance, or a temporary moratorium for a period not to exceed 6 months to be followed immediately by a permanent land use ordinance that is consistent with the provisions specified in the easement required in paragraph Q.2.b above;


(2) Agree to declare and report any violations of this ordinance to FEMA so that under Section 1316 of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, flood insurance to the building can be denied; and


(3) Agree to maintain as deed-restricted, for purposes compatible with open space or agricultural or recreational use only, any affected property the community acquires an interest in. These deed restrictions must be consistent with the provisions of paragraph Q.2.b above, except that, even if a certified project protects the property, the land use restrictions continue to apply if the property was acquired under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program or the Flood Mitigation Assistance Program. If a non-profit land trust organization receives the property as a donation, that organization must maintain the property as deed-restricted, consistent with the provisions of paragraph Q2.b. above.


f. Before the approval of your claim, the affected State must take all action set forth in FEMA’s “Policy Guidance for Closed Basin Lakes.”


g. You must have NFIP flood insurance coverage continuously in effect from a date established by FEMA until you file a claim under paragraph Q.2. If a subsequent owner buys NFIP insurance that goes into effect within 60 days of the date of transfer of title, any gap in coverage during that 60-day period will not be a violation of this continuous coverage requirement. For the purpose of honoring a claim under this paragraph Q.2, we will not consider to be in effect any increased coverage that became effective after the date established by FEMA. The exception to this is any increased coverage in the amount suggested by your insurer as an inflation adjustment.


h. This paragraph Q.2 will be in effect for a community when the FEMA Regional Administrator for the affected region provides to the community, in writing, the following:


(1) Confirmation that the community and the State are in compliance with the conditions in paragraphs Q.2.e and Q.2.f above; and


(2) The date by which you must have flood insurance in effect.


R. Loss Settlement

We will pay the least of the following amounts after application of the deductible:


1. The applicable amount of insurance under this policy;


2. The actual cash value; or


3. The amount it would cost to repair or replace the property with material of like kind and quality within a reasonable time after the loss.


VIII. Policy Nullification, Cancellation, and Non-Renewal

A. Policy Nullification for Fraud, Misrepresentation, or Making False Statements

1. With respect to all insureds under this policy, this policy is void and has no legal force and effect if at any time, before or after a loss, you or any other insured or your agent have, with respect to this policy or any other NFIP insurance:


a. Concealed or misrepresented any material fact or circumstance;


b. Engaged in fraudulent conduct; or


c. Made false statements.


2. Policies voided under A.1 cannot be renewed or replaced by a new NFIP policy.


3. Policies are void as of the date the acts described in A.1 above were committed.


4. Fines, civil penalties, and imprisonment under applicable Federal laws may also apply to the acts of fraud or concealment described above.


B. Policy Nullification for Reasons Other Than Fraud

1. This policy is void from its inception, and has no legal force or effect, if:


a. The property listed on the application is located in a community that was not participating in the NFIP on this policy’s inception date and did not join or reenter the program during the policy term and before the loss occurred;


b. The property listed on the application is otherwise not eligible for coverage under the NFIP at the time of the initial application;


c. You never had an insurable interest in the property listed on the application;


d. You provided an agent with an application and payment, but the payment did not clear; or


e. We receive notice from you, prior to the policy effective date, that you have determined not to take the policy and you are not subject to a requirement to obtain and maintain flood insurance pursuant to any statute, regulation, or contract.


2. In such cases, you will be entitled to a full refund of all premium, fees, and surcharges received. However, if a claim was paid for a policy that is void, the claim payment must be returned to FEMA or offset from the premiums to be refunded before the refund will be processed.


C. Cancellation of the Policy by You

1. You may cancel this policy in accordance with the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


2. If you cancel this policy, you may be entitled to a full or partial refund of premium, surcharges, or fees under the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


D. Cancellation of the Policy by Us

1. Cancellation for Underpayment of Amounts Owed on Policy. This policy will be cancelled, pursuant to VII.D.2, if it is determined that the premium amount you paid is not sufficient to buy any amount of coverage, and you do not pay the additional amount of premium owed to increase the coverage to the originally requested amount within the required time period.


2. Cancellation Due to Lack of an Insurable Interest.


a. If you no longer have an insurable interest in the insured property, we will cancel this policy. You will cease to have an insurable interest if:


(1) For building coverage, the building was sold, destroyed, or removed.


(2) For contents coverage, the contents were sold or transferred ownership, or the contents were completely removed from the described location.


b. If your policy is cancelled for this reason, you may be entitled to a partial refund of premium under the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


3. Cancellation of Duplicate Policies.


a. Your property may not be insured by more than one NFIP policy, and payment for damages to your property will only be made under one policy.


b. If the property is insured by more than one NFIP policy, we will cancel all but one of the policies. The policy, or policies, will be selected for cancellation in accordance with 44 CFR 62.5 and the applicable rules and guidance of the NFIP.


c. If this policy is cancelled pursuant to VIII.D.3.b, you may be entitled to a full or partial refund of premium, surcharges, or fees under the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


4. Cancellation Due to Physical Alteration of Property


a. If the insured building has been physically altered in such a manner that it is no longer eligible for flood insurance coverage, we will cancel this policy.


b. If your policy is cancelled for this reason, you may be entitled to a partial refund of premium under the terms and conditions of this policy and the applicable rules and regulations of the NFIP.


E. Non-Renewal of the Policy by Us

Your policy will not be renewed if:


1. The community where your insured property is located is suspended or stops participating in the NFIP;


2. Your building is otherwise ineligible for flood insurance under the Act;


3. You have failed to provide the information we requested for the purpose of rating the policy within the required deadline.


IX. Liberalization Clause

If we make a change that broadens your coverage under this edition of our policy, but does not require any additional premium, then that change will automatically apply to your insurance as of the date we implement the change, provided that this implementation date falls within 60 days before or during the policy term stated on the Declarations Page.


X. What Law Governs

This policy and all disputes arising from the insurer’s policy issuance, policy administration, or the handling of any claim under the policy are governed exclusively by the flood insurance regulations issued by FEMA, the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4001, et seq.), and Federal common law.


In Witness Whereof, we have signed this policy below and hereby enter into this Insurance Agreement.


Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration

[85 FR 43968, July 20, 2020; 86 FR 10029, Feb. 18, 2021; 86 FR 31178, June 11, 2021; 86 FR 47395, Aug. 25, 2021; 86 FR 48511, Aug. 31, 2021]


Appendix A(3) to Part 61

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration

Standard Flood Insurance Policy

Residential Condominium Building Association Policy

Please read the policy carefully. The flood insurance provided is subject to limitations, restrictions, and exclusions.


I. Agreement

A. This policy insures only a residential condominium building in a regular program community. If the community reverts to emergency program status during the policy term and remains as an emergency program community at time of renewal, this policy cannot be renewed.


B. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides flood insurance under the terms of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and its amendments, and Title 44 of the Code of Federal Regulations.


C. We will pay you for direct physical loss by or from flood to your insured property if you:


1. Have paid the full amount due (including applicable premiums, surcharges, and fees);


2. Comply with all terms and conditions of this policy; and


3. Have furnished accurate information and statements.


D. We have the right to review the information you give us at any time and revise your policy based on our review.


E. This policy insures only one building. If you own more than one building, coverage will apply to the single building specifically described in the Flood Insurance Application.


F. Subject to the exception in Section I.G below, multiple policies with building coverage cannot be issued to insure a single building to one insured or to different insureds, even if issued through different NFIP insurers. Payment for damages may only be made under a single policy for building damages under Coverage A – Building Property.


G. A Dwelling Form policy with building coverage may be issued to a unit owner in a condominium building that is also insured under a Residential Condominium Building Association Policy (RCBAP). However, no more than $250,000 may be paid in combined benefits for a single unit under the Dwelling Form and the RCBAP. We will only pay for damage once. Items of damage paid for under a RCBAP cannot also be claimed under the Dwelling Form policy.


II. Definitions

A. In this policy, “you” and “your” refer to the named insured(s) shown on the Declarations Page of this policy. The named insured must also include the building owner if building coverage is purchased. Insured(s) includes: Any mortgagee and loss payee named in the Application and Declarations Page, as well as any other mortgagee or loss payee determined to have an existing interest at the time of loss, in the order of precedence. “We,” “us,” and “our” refer to the insurer.


Some definitions are complex because they are provided as they appear in the law or regulations, or result from court cases.


B. Flood, as used in this flood insurance policy, means:


1. A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties (one of which is your property) from:


a. Overflow of inland or tidal waters;


b. Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source;


c. Mudflow.


2. Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels which result in a flood as defined in B.1.a above.


C. The following are the other key definitions we use in this policy:


1. Act. The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 and any amendments to it.


2. Actual Cash Value. The cost to replace an insured item of property at the time of loss, less the value of its physical depreciation.


3. Application. The statement made and signed by you or your agent in applying for this policy. The application gives information we use to determine the eligibility of the risk, the kind of policy to be issued, and the correct premium payment. The application is part of this flood insurance policy.


4. Base Flood. A flood having a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.


5. Basement. Any area of a building, including any sunken room or sunken portion of a room, having its floor below ground level on all sides.


6. Building


a. A structure with two or more outside rigid walls and a fully secured roof that is affixed to a permanent site;


b. A manufactured home, also known as a mobile home, is a structure built on a permanent chassis, transported to its site in one or more sections, and affixed to a permanent foundation; or


c. A travel trailer without wheels, built on a chassis and affixed to a permanent foundation, that is regulated under the community’s floodplain management and building ordinances or laws.


Building does not mean a gas or liquid storage tank, shipping container, or a recreational vehicle, park trailer, or other similar vehicle, except as described in C.6.c above.


7. Cancellation. The ending of the insurance coverage provided by this policy before the expiration date.


8. Condominium. That form of ownership of one or more buildings in which each unit owner has an undivided interest in common elements.


9. Condominium Association. The entity made up of the unit owners responsible for the maintenance and operation of:


a. Common elements owned in undivided shares by unit owners; and


b. Other buildings in which the unit owners have use rights; where membership in the entity is a required condition of ownership.


10. Condominium Building. A type of building for which the form of ownership is one in which each unit owner has an undivided interest in common elements of the building.


11. Declarations Page. A computer-generated summary of information you provided in your application for insurance. The Declarations Page also describes the term of the policy, limits of coverage, and displays the premium and our name. The Declarations Page is a part of this flood insurance policy.


12. Deductible. The fixed amount of an insured loss that is your responsibility and that is incurred by you before any amounts are paid for the insured loss under this policy.


13. Described Location. The location where the insured building or personal property are found. The described location is shown on the Declarations Page.


14. Direct Physical Loss By or From Flood. Loss or damage to insured property, directly caused by a flood. There must be evidence of physical changes to the property.


15. Elevated Building. A building that has no basement and that has its lowest elevated floor raised above ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings, or columns.


16. Emergency Program. The initial phase of a community’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. During this phase, only limited amounts of insurance are available under the Act and the regulations prescribed pursuant to the Act.


17. Federal Policy Fee. A flat rate charge you must pay on each new or renewal policy to defray certain administrative expenses incurred in carrying out the National Flood Insurance Program.


18. Improvements. Fixtures, alterations, installations, or additions comprising a part of the residential condominium building, including improvements in the units.


19. Mudflow. A river of liquid and flowing mud on the surface of normally dry land areas, as when earth is carried by a current of water. Other earth movements, such as landslide, slope failure, or a saturated soil mass moving by liquidity down a slope, are not mudflows.


20. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The program of flood insurance coverage and floodplain management administered under the Act and applicable Federal regulations in Title 44 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Subchapter B.


21. Policy. The entire written contract between you and us. It includes:


a. This printed form;


b. The application and Declarations Page;


c. Any endorsement(s) that may be issued; and


d. Any renewal certificate indicating that coverage has been instituted for a new policy and new policy term. Only one building, which you specifically described in the application, may be insured under this policy.


22. Pollutants. Substances that include, but are not limited to, any solid, liquid, gaseous, or thermal irritant or contaminant, including smoke, vapor, soot, fumes, acids, alkalis, chemicals, and waste. “Waste” includes, but is not limited to, materials to be recycled, reconditioned, or reclaimed.


23. Post-FIRM Building. A building for which construction or substantial improvement occurred after December 31, 1974, or on or after the effective date of an initial Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), whichever is later.


24. Probation Surcharge. A flat charge you must pay on each new or renewal policy issued covering property in a community the NFIP has placed on probation under the provisions of 44 CFR 59.24.


25. Regular Program. The final phase of a community’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. In this phase, a Flood Insurance Rate Map is in effect and full limits of coverage are available under the Act and the regulations prescribed pursuant to the Act.


26. Residential Condominium Building. A building, condominium, containing one or more family units and in which at least 75 percent of the floor area is residential.


27. Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). An area having special flood or mudflow, and/or flood-related erosion hazards, and shown on a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or Flood Insurance Rate Map as Zone A, AO, A1-A30, AE, A99, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, VE, or V.


28. Unit. A single-family residential space in a residential condominium building.


29. Valued Policy. A policy in which the insured and the insurer agree on the value of the property insured, that value being payable in the event of a total loss. The Standard Flood Insurance Policy is not a valued policy.


III. Property Insured

A. Coverage A – Building Property

We insure against direct physical loss by or from flood to:


1. The residential condominium building described on the Declarations Page at the described location, including all units within the building and the improvements within the units.


2. We also insure such building property for a period of 45 days at another location, as set forth in III.C.2.b, Property Removed to Safety.


3. Additions and extensions attached to and in contact with the building by means of a rigid exterior wall, a solid load-bearing interior wall, a stairway, an elevated walkway, or a roof. At your option, additions and extensions connected by any of these methods may be separately insured. Additions and extensions attached to and in contact with the building by means of a common interior wall that is not a solid load-bearing wall are always considered part of the building and cannot be separately insured.


4. The following fixtures, machinery and equipment, including its units, which are insured under Coverage A only:


a. Awnings and canopies;


b. Blinds;


c. Carpet permanently installed over unfinished flooring;


d. Central air conditioners;


e. Elevator equipment;


f. Fire extinguishing apparatus;


g. Fire sprinkler systems;


h. Walk-in freezers;


i. Furnaces;


j. Light fixtures;


k. Outdoor antennas and aerials fastened to buildings;


l. Permanently installed cupboards, bookcases, paneling, and wallpaper;


m. Pumps and machinery for operating pumps;


n. Ventilating equipment;


o. Wall mirrors, permanently installed; and


p. In the units within the building, installed:


(1) Built-in dishwashers;


(2) Built-in microwave ovens;


(3) Garbage disposal units;


(4) Hot water heaters, including solar water heaters;


(5) Kitchen cabinets;


(6) Plumbing fixtures;


(7) Radiators;


(8) Ranges;


(9) Refrigerators; and
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